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CHARLES   OARDALE  BABlJ^G-TO]N^ 


CAMBRIDGE 

PRINTED   BY   JONATHAN   PALMER 

ALEXANDRA   STREET 


MEMORIALS    JOURNAL 


AKD 


BOTANICAL  CORRESPONDENCE 


CHARLES  CAEDALE  jBABINGTON 

M.A.   F.R.S.   F.L.S.  F.S.A.  F.G.S. 

FELLOW    OF   ST.    JOHN's   COLLEGE    CAMBRIDGE   AND   PROFESSOR   OF  BOTANY 
IN    THE    UNIVERSITY 


..'•<-     \-:'Tl 


MACMILLAN  AND  BOWES 
1897 


(9K3I 
.6/4 

A3 


The  Father  of  modern  philosophy  observes,  "  Certain  it  is  that  truth  and  good- 
ness differ  but  as  the  seal  and  the  print ;  for  truth  prints  goodness."  This  is  the 
impression  which  we  would  have  continually  made  on  the  learner's  mind  by  all  his 
studies,  whether  they  relate  to  the  works  or  to  the  ways  of  God,  to  nature,  or  to 
history.  In  all  he  should  be  led  to  seek,  and  to  love,  wherever  it  is  found,  the 
True,  the  Beautiful,  and  the  Good.  Where  such  is  the  prevailing  spirit  of  the 
place,  the  School  becomes  holy  ground ;  a  temple  ever  ringing  with  the  exhorta- 
tion :  "  SuRSUM  Cord  A."  Upward,  Hearts — upward,  above  all  paltry,  sordid, 
grovelling  aims  and  desires ;  upward,  to  a  level  with  the  dignity  of  your  calling, 
the  privileges  and  duties  of  your  station,  the  importance  and  arduousness  of  your 
work ;  upward,  to  a  fellowship  with  the  wise  and  good  of  all  ages  and  all  nations ; 
upward,  to  the  Father  of  Lights,  the  Fountain  of  all  Goodness :  Lift  up  your 
Hearts.  And  from  the  inmost  depths  of  many  devoted  wills  there  rises  the  clear 
response:  Wb  lift  them  up  unto  the  Lord. 

CONNOP  THIRLWALL,  The  excellence  of  wisdom, 
a  Sermon  preached  at  Llandingad  Church,  Llan- 
dovery, on  the  occasion  of  laying  the  Foundation 
Stone  of  the  Welsh  Educational  Institute,  Dec. 
13th,  1849  (Remains,  London,  1878,  in.  352). 


Co  t^e  Heat  memors  of 

f)im 

tojose  precious  affection  tas  ieen  anti  w 

<ffi©©'9  ricfjfsl  gift  to  me 

tl&is  bolutnc 

is  tenlrerig  antr  rebcrentls  treiricateir. 


Thy  fruit  full  well  the  schoolboy  knows, 

Wild  bramble  of  the  brake! 
So  put  forth  thou  thy  small  white  rose, 

I  love  it  for  his  sake. 
Though  woodbines  flaunt  and  roses  glow 

O'er  all  the  fragrant  bowers, 
Thou  need' St  not  be  ashamed  to  shew 

Thy  satin-threaded  flowers; 
For  dull  the  eye,  the  heart  is  dull, 

That  cannot  feel  how  fair, 
Amid  all  beauty  beautiful 

Thy  tender  blossoms  are! 
How  delicate  thy  gauzy  frill ! 

How  rich  thy  branchy  stem! 
«  #  *  *  • 

The  primrose  to  the  grave  is  gone; 

The  hawthorn  flower  is  dead; 
The  violet  by  the  moss'd  grey  stone 

Hath  laid  her  weary  head; 
But  thou,  wild  bramble,  back  dost  bring, 

In  all  their  beauteous  power, 
The  fresh  green  days  of  life's  fair  spring, 

And  boyhood's  blossomy  hour. 
Scorn' d  bramble  of  the  brake !  once  more 

Thou  bid'st  me  be  a  boy. 
To  gad  with  thee  the  woodlands  o'er. 

In  freedom  and  in  joy. 


BBENEZER  ELLIOTT,   To  the  Bramble  Flower. 


PREFACE. 

This  volume  is  issued  in  response  to  the  earnestly 
expressed  wish  of  many  friends.  It  would  be  difficult 
for  any  one  pen  to  pourtray  a  life  so  many-sided,  so  varied 
in  its  interests.  This  difficulty  has  been  met,  it  is  hoped, 
by  combining  within  the  compass  of  one  volume  the 
following  threefold  arrangement — Memorials  and  Eemi- 
niscences;  Journal;  and  Botanical  Correspondence.  It 
is  thus  hoped  that  every  class  of  reader  may  have  brought 
together  each  side  of  this  beautiful  life,  even  though  all 
may  not  be  able  equally  to  enter  into  each  portion  of  it. 

I.   Memorials  and    Keminiscences.      It  has  been 
distinctly  felt  that  little  if  anything  could  be  added 
to  the  rich  and  graceful  tribute  from  the  pen  of  the 
Eev.  Professor  J.  E.  B.  Mayor,  written  for  the  Ea^le 
(St.  John's  College  magazine)  in  the  Michaelmas  term, 
1895,   which,   expanded  by   himself,   forms   the   open- 
ing portion  of  this  volume.      Another  article  by  the 
same  hand  is  reprinted  from  the  Cambridge  Chronicle  of 
Aug.  30th,  1895,  and,  with  the  remaining  articles  from 
various  able  and  admiring  contributors,  completes  this 
•^    portion  of  the  book.    It  is  difficult,  indeed  impossible,  to 
^     convey  to  the  readers  of  these  pages  how  deep  is  the 
^    debt  due  to  Professor  Mayor,  for  all  the  valuable  time  so 
O    freely  given,  the  labour  and  minute  care  so  unweariediy 
I    bestowed,  whilst  aiding  in  the  compilation  of  a  work, 
^    which   from   the   very  first  has   received  his  warmest 
^    encouragement   and   sympathetic   support.      His   heart 
^  has  found  delight  in  the  progress  of  every  page  of  the 
^   book,  and  thus  has  he  set  his  seal  to  the  faithful,  sted- 
co    fast  friendship  which  has  extended  over  very  many  years. 


viii  PREFACE. 

It  is  felt  that  his  best  reward  will  be  the  consciousness 
that  in  thus  generously  contributing  of  his  learning  and 
time,  he  has  largely  enabled  a  wide  circle  (to  whom  this 
life  may  be  at  present  perhaps  too  little  known)  to  realise 
what  a  possession  has  been  entrusted  to  Cambridge  for 
well-nigh  sixty-nine  years,  in  having  had  enrolled 
amongst  her  members  the  pure  and  noble  name  of  him 
herein  pourtrayed.  Thus  will  he  have  contributed  to 
hand  down  to  future  generations  of  students  the  priceless 
inheritance  of  so  inspiring  a  record.  Special  thanks  are 
due  to  the  writers  of  each  of  the  other  "  Eeminiscences  " 
for  permission  to  reproduce  them  here,  as  well  as  to  other 
friends  who  have  written  for  this  volume. 

II.  Journal.  From  this  record,  which  extends  over 
well-nigh  a  whole  life,  extracts  have  been  carefully 
made,  as  far  as  was  possible  to  unfold  the  daily  life  in 
special  connexion  with  its  botanical,  archaeological,  and 
philanthropic  interests.  The  record  in  its  simplicity, 
and  truth-loving  utterances,  furnishes  its  own  portrait 
of  the  mind  therein  revealed.  This  portion  of  the  book 
closes  with  ''  I^otes "  by  Professor  Mayor  which  help 
to  elucidate  various  points  contained  in  the  articles. 

III.  Botanical  Correspondence.  It  is  earnestly 
hoped  that  botanical  readers  will  feel  that  a  right 
selection  has  been  made  from  the  very  large  supply  of 
letters  kindly  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  Editor. 
Nearly  eight  hundred  of  these  were  received  and  copied. 
This  selection  owes  much  to  the  able  assistance  of  I.  H. 
Burkill,  Esq.,  Gronville  and  Caius  College,  late  Assistant 
Curator  at  the  University  Herbarium. 

It  has  been  a  source  of  much  regret  that  many  letters 
were  unattainable,  whose  insertion  here  would  have  been 
heartily  welcomed  by  botanists,  e.g.  a  large  number 
written  to  the  revered  and  valued  friend  of  many  years, 


PREFACE.  ix 

the  late  Eev.  W.  W.  Newbould ;  also  those  written  to 
the  brilliant  young  naturalist  of  Shetland,  T.  Edmondston, 
Esq.,  whose  early  death  cut  short  a  career  of  much 
promise.  In  both  the  above  instances  the  letters  have 
been  destroyed.  It  was  hoped  that  some  written  to 
Herr  Baron 'sir  Ferdinand  von  Miiller,  K.C.M.G.  (Mel- 
bourne, Australia)  would  have  been  included;  he  had 
kindly  promised  to  send  them,  but  his  sudden  death  on 
Oct.  9th,  1896,  has  rendered  it  impossible  to  hope  for 
what  he  had  himself  said  would  be  difficult  to  find. 
There  are  other  names  amongst  our  botanists  to  whom 
letters  extending  over  many  years  were  written,  but 
of  which  no  trace  can  be  found.  The  Editor  is  most 
grateful  to  all  who  have  aided  in  this  search.  Should  it 
happen  that  the  publication  of  the  letters  included  in 
this  volume  may  lead  to  the  discovery  of  others  of 
equal  interest  to  botanists,  the  Editor  will  only  too  gladly 
take  measures  to  render  them  as  accessible  as  possible  to 
the  class  of  readers  who  would  welcome  their  appearance. 

No  letters  to  foreign  botanists  are  included  (with 
the  exception  of  three  inserted  in  an  Appendix),  for  in 
addition  to  the  extreme  difficulty  of  obtaining  them, 
owing  in  many  cases  to  the  impossibility  of  tracing  the 
representatives  of  these  correspondents,  it  was  felt  that 
their  insertion — had  they  been  attainable — might  cause 
the  volume  to  exceed  the  limit  in  size  which  was  deemed 
desirable.  The  following  are  the  names  of  some  of  the 
leading  foreign  botanists  who  may  be  considered  corres- 
pondents :  Elias  Fries  (Upsala),  J.  Lange  (Copenhagen), 
W.  0.  Focke,  M.  F.  Crepin  (Brussels),  H.  Reichenbach, 
0.  Gelert,  Jacques  Etienne  Gay,  C.  H.  Schultz,  F.  Schultz, 
J.  Lloyd  (Nantes),  L.  Eabenhorst,  R.  Lenormand,  Renter^ 
A.  Jordan  (Lyons),  A.  Huet  de  Pavilion,  Ch.  Grenier, 
C.  Billot,  L'Abbe  Questier,  Philipp  Wirtgen  (Coblenz), 


X  PREFACE. 

C.  J.  Lindeberg,  E.  B.  Yan  den  Bosch,  Henri  von  Heurck, 
E.  C.  Du  Mortier,  and  Asa  Gray. 

Special  thanks  are  due  to  E.  F.  Scott,  Esq.,  Bursar 
of  St.  John's  College,  for  his  great  kindness  in  bestowing 
so  much  time  in  the  careful  preparation  of  the  beautifully 
executed  abstract  of  a  pedigree,  which  is  inserted  in  the 
volume  at  the  request  of  friends.  Also  to  E.  Magnusson, 
Esq.,  Assistant  Librarian  to  the  University,  for  his  kind- 
ness in  verifying  Icelandic  words. 

Grateful  reference  must  again  be  made  to  the  kind 
assistance  of  I.  H.  Burkill,  Esq.,  who  has  made  Index  I., 
as  well  as  for  all  his  unfailing  readiness  to  help  in  a  work 
which  has  had  his  heartfelt  interest,  and  whose  true 
affection  for  and  admiration  of  his  revered  Chief  have 
found  expression  in  his  words  to  Mr.  Britten  (see  article 
by  James  Britten,  Esq.,  Journal  of  Botany^  Sept.  1895). 

To  the  publishers  and  printer  the  Editor  desires  to 
convey  her  special  gratitude  for  the  ability  and  sympa- 
thetic interest  bestowed  on  every  detail  of  the  work. 

As  the  one  aim  in  this  book  has  been  to  let  the 
life  therein  unfolded  be  its  own  witness,  it  is  hoped  all 
shortcomings  and  imperfections  on  the  part  of  the  Editor 
may  be  forgiven.  Should  the  perusal  of  these  pages 
inspire  other  lives  to  desire  to  walk  as  he  walked,  the 
path  of  stedfast  integrity,  reverent  humility,  and  un- 
swerving faith  and  love,  this  record  will  indeed  fulfil  its 
mission. 

Great  deeds  cannot  die : 

They  with  the  sun  and  moon  renew  their  light 

For  ever,  blessing  those  that  look  on  them. 

A.  M.  B. 

5,  Brookside,  Cambridge, 
Augmi  26,  1897. 


CONTENTS 


PAGK 

Title  .........         Hi 

CoNNOP  Thirlwall,  '  The  School  a  Temple '  ...         It 

Dedication     ........  v 


Ebenezee  Elliott,  '  The  Bramble  Flower ' 
PREFACE  .... 

Contents         .  .  •  . 

MEMORIALS 


VI 

vii — X 

xi — xiv 

XV — xciv 


William  Woedswoeth,  'Hallowed  Ground'  .  .  .       xvi 

Memoie  by  Professor  Mayor  .....        xvii — xxix 

Cambridge  in  1826,  xvii. — Founder  and  active  member  of  scientific 
societies,  xvii.  —Loyalty  to  College  and  University,  xviii. — Travels,  xviii. 
— Services  to  Botany  and  Natural  Science,  Camb.  Philos.  Soc,  Ray  Soc, 
Marlborough  College,  xix. — Member  of  British  and  Foreign  Societies, 
British  Association,  xx. — Babingtonia  pestifera,  Field  Botany,  xxi. — 
Printed  works,  xxi-xxiii. — Camb.  Ant.  Soc,  xxiii,  xxiv. — Helper  to 
unknown  merit,  R.  C.  Ready,  T.  H.  Corry,  Jani  Alii,  xxiv. — Interest  in 
Missions,  Home  and  Foreign,  xxv,  xxvi. — Inner  life,  xxvi-xxviii. — 
Pedigree  and  cardinal  dates,  xxviii,  xxix. 

Notes  on  Memoie     ......     xxix — xxxiv 

Inscriptions  on  tomb  at  Cherry  Hinton  and  on  brass  in  St.  John's  chapel, 
XXX. — Ray  Club,  xxxi,  xxxii. — Oxford  Meeting  of  Brit.  Assoc.  1860,  ibid. — 
Elodea  Canadensis,  xxxii. — S.  S.  Lewis,  R.  C.  Ready,  T.  H.  Corry,  xxxiii. 

Reminiscences      ......      xxxv — xxxviii 

1.  By  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Babington  : 

His  humility  and  faith,  xxxv,  xxxvi. — Sincerity  and  reticence,  xxxvi. 
— Interest  in  Missions,  xxxvi,  xxxvii. — Love  of  reading ;  of  College 
and  University,  xxxvii,  xxxviii. — Industry,  xxxviii. 

2.  By  H.  R.  Francis,  Esq. : 

Sense  of  stewardship ;  the  two  great  commandments,  xxxviii. 

Field  Peeaching      ......        xxxix — xli 

1.  By  Professor  Cowell : 

Enthusiasm  and  power  of  teaching,  xxxix. 

2.  By  Mrs.  R.  B.  Batty : 

Heaths  in  Connemara,  xl.— Irish  Church  Mission  at  Eoundstone,  xli. 


Xll  CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Lettees  to  Mbs.  Babington  ....  xlii — li 

From  the  Bishops  of  Durham  and  Gloucester,  xlii. — From  the  Master  of 
Trinity,  ibid. — (St.  Barnabas'  Memorial  Institute,  xliii). — Masters  of  Clare 
and  St.  Cath.  xliv. — Bishop  Selwyn,  the  Kev.  A.  M.  W.  Christopher,  Baron 
Ferd.  v.  Miiller,  xlv,  xlvi.  — Nath.  Bridges,  Esq.,  xlvi,  xlvii. — Miss  Marsh, 
the  Kev.  Dr.  James  Macgregor,  xlvii. — Professor  Liveing,  Alfred  Fryer, 
Esq.,  xlviii. — The  Ray  Club,  xlviii,  xlix. — Camb.  Philos.  Soc.,  Camb.  Ant. 
Soc,  xlix. — Report  of  Museums  Syndicate,  1895,  1. — E.  S.  Cobbold, 
Esq.,  1. — Extract  from  Sermon  by  Master  of  St.  John's,  li. 

In  Memoeiam,  by  Professor  Mayor     ....  li — Ivii 

St.  John's  hall,  1853-66,  li. — His  reticence,  lii. — Library  and  favorite 
studies,  lii,  liv. — Love  of  Missions,  liii. — Publications,  liii. — Address  to 
the  Ray  Club,  1887,  liii,  liv. — Interest  in  Reform  movements  in  Italy  and 
Spain,  liv. — The  Girls'  Orphan  Home,  Iv. — Sunday  Rest  in  the  Botanic 
Garden,  Iv. — Postal  and  Telegraph  Christian  Association,  Ivi. — The  two 
Bibles,  Ivii. 

In  Memoeiam,  by  Professor  Liveing  ....  Ivii — Ix 

Centre  of  activity  (1846)  to  students  of  Natural  History,  Iviii. — A  study 
then  neglected,  Iviii. — Encouraged  students,  lix. — Liked  to  study  the 
living  plant  or  animal,  lis. — The  British  Association,  lix,  Ix. — No  one- 
sided man,  Ix. 

In  Memoeiam,  by  Dr.  H.  C.  G.  Moule  .  .  .  Ix — Ixii 

At  Glas  Meol  in  1888,  Ixi. — His  love  of  history  and  recollections  of  old 
Cambridge,  Ixi. — His  interest  in  Christian  work,  Ixii. — Mottos,  Ixii. 

Feom  "The  Cheistian  "       .....         Ixiii— Ixiv 
God  in  Nature  and  Grace,  Ixiii. — Love  of  Missions,  Ixiii,  Ixiv. 

On  Ieish  Disteess.    Letter  to  Camb.  Chron.  Jan.  20,  1840, 

by  C.  C.  B.  .  .  .  .  .  .         Ixv— Ixvii 

Obituaet,  by  James  Britten,  F.L.S.  (from  Journal  of  Botany, 

Sept.  1895)  ......     Ixvii — Ixxvii 

Parentage  and  schools,  Ixvii. — Henslow's  lectures ;  Flora  of  Bath,  and  of 
the  Channel  Islands,  Ixviii. — Manual,  Ixviii-lxxii. — Work  at  Cambridge, 
Ray  Club,  Ixxii. — Ray  Society ;  papers  on  plants  and  insects,  Ixxiii. — 
Rubi,  Ixxiv. — Professor  of  Botany;  his  assistants,  Ixxiv,  Ixxv. — As  a 
correspondent,  Ixxv. — Religious  lii'e,  Ixxv,  Ixxvi. — And  the  new  Botany, 
Ixxvi,  Ixxvii. — Closing  years,  Ixxvii. 

Bbitish  Eubi,  by  James  E.  Bagnall,  A.L.S.  .  .  .     Ixxvii— Ixxx 

Pbofessob  Babington  on  Etjbus  in  1891  (from  Journal  of 

Botany,  July,  1896,  sent  by  the  Eev.  W.  Moyle  Rogers)     Ixxx — Ixxxvii 

Obituaet  Notice,  by  J.  G.  Baker,  F.R.S.  (from  Obituary 

Notices,  Proceedings  of  R.  S.  Vol.  59)     .  .  .  Ixxxvii-lxxxix 


CONTENTS.  xiii 

PAGE 

Peofessok  Babington  and  the  Cambrian  Aechaeologi- 
CAL  Association,  by  Archdeacon  D.  R.  Thomas,  F.S.A., 
Chairman  of  the  Association  ....        Ixxxix — xc 

Peofessoe  Babington  on  the  Sunday  Opening  of  the 

Botanical  Gaeden,  1881 — 82  ....  xci — xciii 

A  DiBGE,  by  T.  H.  Corry,  M.A.  ....  xciv 

JOURNAL      .  .  .  .  .  .  ,  xcv— 261 

CoNNOP  Thielwall,  '  The  Christian  Naturalist '  xcvi 

1808-26,  Birth  and  childhood,  schools,  study  of  botany,  1-3. — 1826-30, 
Enters  at  St.  John's,  father's  death,  Henslow's  lectures,  B.A.  Degree, 
3,  4.— 1830,  Welsh  tour,  F.L.S.;  1832,  Welsh  tour,  Shropshire,  4-16.-^ 
1833,  M.A.,  Brit.  Assoc,  Entom.  Soc,  mother's  death,  16-19. — 1834,  Flora 
liathoniensis,  Norfolk,  Bath,  North  of  England,  Scotland,  Thirlwall's  dis- 
missal, 19-34. — 183-5,  University  interference  in  Town  Elections,  Bath, 
Wales,  Ireland,  34-48.— 1836,  F.G.S.,  Ireland,  Bristol,  Bath,  Southamp- 
ton, 48-59.— 1837,  Ray  Club,  Suffolk,  Cambs.,  Leicestershire,  Channel 
Islands,  Liverpool,  Fitzwilliam  Museum,  59-69. — 1838,  Channel  Islands, 
Scotland,  69-78. — 1839,  Primitiae  Florae  Sarnicae,  Bristol,  Cornwall, 
Devon,  Wales,  Henslow  leaves  Cambridge,  78-85. — 1840,  Bath,  Norfolk, 
Suffolk,  Wales,  Ireland,  Scotland,  85-97.— 1841,  Bath,  Cambridge,  Ireland, 
Hebrides,  Scotland,  97-110. — 1842,  'RAitor  oi  Ann.  Nat.  Eist.,  Manchester, 
North  of  England,  Scotland,  110-117.— 1843,  Manual,  the  Lakes,  Ireland,' 
1 17-123.— 1844,  New  Botanic  Garden,  Scotland,  123-127.— 1845,  Scotland, 
128-131.-1846,  Iceland,  Scotland,  131-138.— 1847,  Oxford,  Prince  Albert 
Chancellor,  Wales,  138-143.-1848,  Wales,  143-147.-1849,  Somerset, 
North  Devon,  Sussex,  Herefordshire,  Camb.  Nat.  Club,  147-152. — 1850, 
Bath,  Cambs.,  Suffolk,  Oxford,  Somerset,  North  Devon,  Scotland,  152-157. 
—1851,  Ipswich,  Somerset,  Wales,  157-162.— 1852,  Cambs.,  Ireland,  flood 
at  Cambridge,  162-166.— 1853,  Norfolk.  Cambs.,  Sussex,  Bath,  Hull, 
Herefordshire,  Bath,  166-172.— 1864,  Cambs.,  Wales,  Liverpool,  Bir- 
mingham, E.A.  Freeman,  172-176.— 1855,  Cambs.,  Herts.,  Wales,  176-179. 
— 1856,  E.  A.  Freeman,  Wales,  Cambs.,  West  of  England,  Herefordshire, 
Wales,  180-185.-1857,  Cambs.,  Wales,  Dublin,  North  Wales,  flood  in 
Cambridge,  185-188. — 1858,  Botanic  Garden,  Cambs.,  Bath,E.  A.  Freeman, 
Wales,  Ireland,  Leeds,  188-192.-1859,  Cambs.,  Aberdeen,  192-194.— 
1860,  Hurricane  at  Cambridge,  Oxford,  Wales,  frost  at  Cambridge,  194- 
196.— 1861,  Elected  Prof.  Bot.,  Wilts.,  Peterborough,  Wales,  Yorks., 
196-199.-1862,  Lectures,  Wales,  Brit.  Assoc,  at  Cambridge,  199-200.— 
1863,  "Labyrinth"  taken  down,  Wales,  200-202.— 1864,  Member  of 
Council  of  Senate,  Wales,  Bath,  202-203.-1865,  New  Botanical  Museum, 
Isle  of  Man,  Ireland,  Wales,  New  Hall  of  St.  John's,  203-205.-1866, 
Marriage,  Wales,  205-206.-1867,  Devon  and  Cornwall,  206-208.-1868, 
St.  Barnabas  Church,  Yorkshire,  Wales,  whirlwind  at  Shelford,  208-209. 
—1869,  Wales,  Ludlow,  209-211.-1870,  Iceland  Flora,  Wales,  North  of 
England,  211-213.— 1871,  Cambridge  Orphan  Home,  Scotland,  213-215. 
—1872,  Wales,  216-216.— 1873,  Wales,  Ireland,  Irish  Church  Missions, 
217-219.-1874-75,  Wales,  219-222.-1876-77,  Wales,  Jani  Alii,  222-224. 
— 1878-79,  Wales,  Yorkshire,  thunderstorm  at  Cambridge,  Derbyshire, 
Wales,  Yorkshire,  224-229.-1880-81,  Wales,  Shropshire,  Yorkshire,  229- 
234.— 1882,  Wales,  Yorkshire,  234-237.— 1883,  Bucks.,  Wales,  Cornwall, 
237-240.-1884,  Devon,  North  England,  240-244.— 1885,  "The  Cambridge 
Seven,"  Oxfordshire,  Scotland,  244-247.— 1886,  North  England,  Scotland, 
Bishop  Parker,  247-250.-1887-88,  Sussex,  Braemar,  250-254.— 1889-90, 
Death  of  Churchill  Babington,  Braemar,  254-257.-1891,  Braemar,  257-258. 
L'Envoi.— 1891-95,  Closing  years,  258-261. 


XIV  CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

Notes  on  Jouenal    ......        262 — 270 

Pupils  of  the  Rev.  W.  Hutchins,  262,  263.— J.  B.  Hollingworth,  John 
Edward  and  Charles  Henry  Bromby,  James  Bowstead,  264. — Connop 
Thirlwall  and  Tests ;  John  Lawes,  M.  J.  Berkeley,  265. — Charles  Simeon, 
the  influenza  (1837),  J.  S.  Henslow,  W.  H.  Stokes,  J.  A.  and  Joseph 
Power,  John  Ball,  W.  P.  Bailv,  266.— W.  L.  P.  Garnons,  J.  J.  Smith, 
W.  Borrer,  J.  S.  Howson,  G.  E,  Paget,  W.  Christy,  L.  Jenyns,  267.— 
George  Bullock,  H.  Comyn,  H.  Penneck,  C.  J.  Bird,  W.  S.  Hore,  Hendeka 
Club,  268.— Wilse  Brown,  A.  W.  Franks,  W.  C.  Mathison,  Fred.  Town- 
send,  C.  E.  Broome,  J.  B.  Wilson,  G.  F.  Reyner,  Thomas  Overton, 
W.  H.  Coleman,  269.— "W.  P.  Wilson,  Simeon  Hiley,  G.  0.  Fenwick, 
W.  K.  Clay,  270. 

BOTANICAL  CORRESPONDENCE  .  .  .        271—445 

C.  C.  B.  1833, '  Through  Nature  up  to  Nature's  God  *  .  272 

T.  Gisborne,  W.  A.  Leighton,  273.— Mr.  MacCalla,  of  Roundstone,  274. — 
Channel  Islands,  276-280. — Arthur  Biggs,  curator  of  Cambridge  Garden, 
278,  369.— T.  Edmondston,  282.— Professor  Balfour,  283.— Death  of  C.  E. 
Sowerby,  287.— Mubi,  293,  296. — Graham's  herbarium,  294-5.— Iceland, 
297-300,  302,  356.— Oken's  book,  '602.— Anacharis  Alsinasirum,  305,  444. 
— British  Association  at  Edinburgh  (1850),  308-9. — Stratton,  curator  of 
Cambridge  Garden,  319,  329,  330.— A.  G.  More,  326,351.— W.  W.  New- 
bould,  332,  337,  344,  3i5.— Flora  of  Cambs.,  335,  336,  342,  351.— Local 
floras,  344. — Henslow's  death,  352. — Professor  of  Botany,  352. — Barley 
and  wheat  raised  from  oats!  357. — Charles  Darwin,  359,  361. — University 
herbarium,  361. — Botany  at  Harrow,  365. — Botany  at  Marlborough,  365-6. 
—Irish  Church  Missions,  371. — Death  of  G.  R.  Crotch,  372.— Dr.  George 
Johnston,  of  Berwick,  373.— Death  of  Sir  Chr.  R.  Lighten,  377.— Assist- 
ant curator  of  Cambridge  Herbarium,  382. — How  to  find  Chara  at  Water- 
bech,  388. — Genevier's  herbarium,  392. — Mr.  Lynch,  new  and  most 
valuable  curator,  393,  396.— F.  Townsend's  Hants.  Flora,  397.— T.  H. 
Corry,  399. — New  London  Catalogue,  408. — James  Backhouse,  409. — 
Evolution,  414,  438. — Too  old  to  attempt  the  tops  of  mountains,  420,  421, 
424,  434. — Varieties  of  peat,  426. — Scottish  Naturalist,  435. — Cone  of 
Finns  Mughus  under  six  feet  of  solid  bog,  co.  Mayo,  441. — New  Botanic 
Garden,  443. — Death  of  J.  E.  Gay,  445. — (For  names  of  plants  see  Index  I.; 
for  names  of  correspondents  see  Index  ll.). 

Notes  on  Coebespondence — Lives  of  botanists;  L.  Oken  .  446 

BiBLioGEAPHY  .....  447 — 454,  475 

Index  I.  (Journal  and  Correspondence)  .  .  .         455 — 467 

Index  II.  (Memorials)  .....         467—475 


Early  Portrait  to  face  page  1. 
Late  Portrait  to  face  Title. 
Babington  Pedigree  {in  pocket). 


MEMOEIALS 


I  could  not  print 
Ground  where  the  grass  had  yielded  to  the  steps 
Of  generations  of  illustrious  men, 
Unmoved.     I  could  not  always  lightly  pass 
Through  the  same  gateways,  sleep  where  they  had  slept, 
Wake  where  they  waked,  range  that  enclosure  old, 
That  garden  of  great  intellects,  undisturbed. 
Place  also  by  the  side  of  this  dark  sense 
Of  noble  feeling,  that  those  spiritual  men, 
Even  the  great  Newton's  own  ethereal  self. 
Seemed  humbled  in  these  precincts,  thence  to  be 
The  more  endeared.     Their  several  memories  here 
(Even  like  their  persons  in  their  portraits  clothed 
With  the  accustomed  garb  of  daily  life) 
Put  on  a  lowly  and  a  touching  grace 
Of  more  distinct  humanity,  that  left 
All  genuine  admiration  unimpaired. 

WILLIAM   WORDSWOETH,  The  Prelude,  iii.  258—274. 


MEMOIR. 

A  courage  to  endure  and  to  obey, 

A  hate  of  gossip  parlance,  and  of  sway. 

Tennyson. 

But  you  have  made  the  wiser  choice, 

A  life  that  moves  to  gracious  ends 

Thro'  troops  of  unrecording  friends, 
A  deedful  life,  a  silent  voice. 

Tennyson. 

The  University  has  lost  the  Father,  not  of  the  professoriate 
alone,  but  of  the  entire  resident  body.  The  tale  is  rapidly 
shrinking,  even  of  those  who  came  to  Cambridge  before  the 
Eastern  Counties  Railway;  nay,  before  the  Market-place  was 
opened  out ;  but  Cardale  Babington  ^  remembered  King's  Parade 
a  narrow  street,  while  Kingsmen  still  kept  in  the  court  now 
annexed  by  the  University  Library  and  Geological  Museum. 
St.  John's  had  not  enlarged  its  borders  for  one  hundred  and  sixty 
years;  it  boasted  only  three  courts  when  he  was  an  undergraduate; 
as  a  B.A.  he  found  quarters  in  the  New  Court  in  January  1831. 
For  nearly  ten  years  he  ever  and  anon  heard  Charles  Simeon 
preach.  He  had  dined  with  William  Wilberforce  (f  1833),  who 
gave  him  his  "Practical  View."^  He  subscribed  in  1835  £20 
towards  Cockerell's  Building.^  None  but  Masters  of  Arts,  in 
his  recollection,  might  enter  the  Public  Library.  He  never  set 
foot  in  the  Library  of  his  own  College  until  it  was  thrown  open 
to  all  degrees. 

In  every  effort  to  widen  University  studies  he  bore  a  part ; 
also  in  the  birth  of  not  a  few  scientific  or  antiquarian  brother- 
hoods: he  belonged  to  many  and  was  a  sleeping  partner  in 
none.  Others  of  us  might  adorn  councils  by  our  names,  while 
conspicuous  by  our  absence ;  he  by  his  presence ;  he  was  always 
'  of  the  Quorum ' ;  of  him  it  might  be  said,  as  of  Socrates,  idem, 
semper  vultus,  eademque  frons ;  were  the  audience  overflowing 
or  scanty,  he  was  always  alert,  patient,  untiring  as  that  Nature 
which  he  loved.  Benjamin  Franklin  betrayed  to  sluggard  Paris 
a  priceless  secret:  the  Sun  keeps  his  word;  he  never,  by 
forslowing  dayspring,  '  gives  almanacs  the  lie ' ;  even  so  some- 

r 


xviil  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

thing  must  indeed  be  wrong  if  Cardale  Babington  were  missing 
at  any  board.  No  private  summons,  however  alluring,  might 
cancel  a  public  '  duty.' 

The  Babington  family,  with  its  allies,  Gisbomes,  Cardales,  etc., 
had  long  been  staunch  Johnians,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  printed 
pedigree  given  by  Cardale,  this  very  year  (1895),  to  the  library. 
From  this  I  pluck  below  enough  to  link  together  the  two 
cousins,  with  so  many  tastes  in  common,  though  the  enthusiasm 
of  the  one  was  subdued,  of  the  other  more  mettlesome  and 
catching.  In  unquenchable  thirst  for  knowledge,  single-eyed 
service,  loyalty  to  the  College  and  to  Cambridge,  there  was 
nothing  to  choose  between  them.  Perhaps  no  copy  of  the 
Eagle^  was  more  wistfully  scanned  or  wears  a  daintier  dress 
than  that  in  No.  5,  Brookside,  though  whether  sporting  news 
found  there  a  wakeful  listener,  is  a  moot  point.  In  duhiis 
libertas.  Grateful  to  the  College  for  lending  him  a  home,  as  a 
simple  M.A.  not  on  the  foundation,  Cardale  shewed  his  thank- 
fulness by  giving  £100  for  the  new  Chapel. 

His  wider  patriotism  was  not  less  deep.     Not  without  cause 

did  be  choose  as  the  motto  of  the  Cambridge  Flora  those  words 

of  Linnaeus : 

Turpe  est  in  patria  vivere  et  patriam  ignorare.* 

Few  men  ever  rifled,  as  he  did,  throughout  their  length 
and  breadth,  England  and  Wales,  Scotland,  Ireland,®  and  their 
satellites,  Orkney,  Shetland,  Achill,  Arran,  the  Hebrides,  etc. 
As  a  boy  he  explored  the  country  around  Bath.  In  manhood, 
and  even  to  old  age,  he  spent  vacations  in  tours,  several  time& 
taking  Glasgow  students  with  him,  while  Professor  Balfour  led 
a  troop  from  Edinburgh.  His  journals  resemble  Ray's  in  the 
even  justice  meted  out  to  Natural  History  and  Antiquities. 
Were  a  doubt  started  about  any  statement  in  his  books,  he 
seized  the  earliest  opportunity  to  probe  the  matter  to  the  bottom 
on  the  spot.  Once  he  went  to  Iceland,  twice  to  the  Channel 
Islands.  When  urged  to  visit  Switzerland,  he  pleaded  :  "  If  I 
go,  I  must  botanize ;  I  cannot  help  it.  If  I  fall  into  a  mistake 
there,  I  may  never  be  able  to  go  over  the  ground  again." 

One  main  stumbling-block,  so  I  am  told,  of  which  he  rid 
Botany/  was  this.     During  the  long  war,  botanists  here  and 


MEMOIR.  xix 

beyond  seas,  had  lost  touch ;  their  terms  being  different,  they 
were  '  barbarians '  one  to  another.  Babington  discovered  com- 
mon ground,  first  with  Germans,  then  with  Frenchmen.  Before 
his  wedding,  he  must  have  been  hard  put  to  it  to  cope  with 
foreigners ;  for  he  had  no  turn  for  the  tongues.  Scandinavians 
he  always  addressed  in  Latin. 

As  regards  his  influence  here,  a  chum  of  forty  years  and 
more  bears  witness :  he  was  "then  the  central  figure  among  those 
in  Cambridge  who  took  delight  in  Natural  History.  And  his 
simple  character  and  keen  interest  in  Nature  were  very  attractive 
to  younger  men  who  had  similar  likings.  He  certainly  did 
more,  in  my  time,  than  any  one  else  to  promote  the  study  of 
Natural  Science  in  the  University." 

The  Cambridge  Philosophical  Society  was  indeed  born  while 
he  was  in  jackets  (under  Henslow  and  Sedgwick  in  1819),  but 
he  was  a  member  very  early  in  his  course,  and  long  a  Secretary. 
Of  the  founders  of  the  Ray  Club^  Sir  George  Paget's  death  left 
him  the  only  home  survivor.  Many  younger  members  dropt 
off,  but  the  ripe  fruit  hung  on  the  bough  to  the  last.  In  this 
year  (1895),  when  rheumatism  tied  him  to  his  chair,  the  Club 
still  met  in  his  drawing  room.  He  also  helped  to  create  the 
Entomological  Society,  being  at  one  time  known  as  '  Beetles 
Babington ' ;  several  years  ago  he  made  over  to  the  University 
his  store,  some  4000  insects.  He  was  among  the  friends  who 
sorted  Charles  Darwin's  booty.^ 

Marlborough  College,  when  I  knew  it  (1849 — .53),  paid  no 
heed  to  Natural  Science.  It  has  since  stood  high  in  that 
pursuit,  thanks  to  a  pupil  of  Babington's.  In  his  journal  we 
read,  under  18  June  1861 : 

Went  through  London  direct  to  Marlborough  College,  to  help  Mr.  T.  A, 
Preston^"  in  the  determination  of  a  botanical  prize. 

What  a  spur  he  gave  to  young  students  may,  it  is  said,  be 
learnt  from  essays  of  undergraduates  in  botanical  magazines. 

For  a  sample  of  his  correspondence  see  seven  letters  to  him 
by  Dr  Johnston.^^ 

When  the  customary  notice  of  his  death  was  sent  to  freemen 
of  the  mystery,  one  hundred  and  twenty-three  copies  were  needed. 


XX  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

To  the  British  islands  and  colonies  they  sped  forth,  to  the  United 
States,  to  Germany  and  Austria,  Holland  and  Belgium,  Denmark, 
Norway  and  Sweden,  France,  Switzerland,  Italy,  Venezuela — 
even  to  Japan.  In  1894  the  "  Acad^mie  Internationale  de 
Geographic  Botanique"  awarded  him  its  gold  medal.  More  than 
the  homage  to  his  mind  was  the  posy  on  the  reverse :  Laus  et 
gloria  Scientiarum  Domino. 

Among  his  titles — which,  by  the  rule  noblesse  oblige,  were  to 
him  new  burdens — I  may  name  F.R.S.,  F.L.S.,  F.G.S.,  F.S.A,, 
Hon.  Member  of  the  Botanical  Society  of  the  Province  of 
Brandenburg,  Foreign  Member  of  the  Royal  Botanical  Society 
of  Belgium,  Corresponding  Member  of  the  Botanical  Society  of 
Holland,  Member  of  the  British  Archaeological  Association,  of 
the  Royal  Archaeological  Institute,  of  the  Irish  Archaeological 
Society.  The  Botanical  Society  of  Edinburgh  ^^  elected  him  a 
member  at  their  second  meeting.  Till  about  18S9  he  was 
Chairman  of  Committee  of  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Asso- 
ciation. More  than  once  or  twice  he  was  called  on  at  a  pinch, 
in  default  of  the  advertised  speaker,  to  describe  a  church  which 
he  had  never  seen.  He  would  crave  a  respite  of  some  twenty 
minutes ;  even  that  hasty  survey  furnished  stuff  for  a  pregnant 
discourse :  the  truant  lecturer,  bustling  up  at  the  close,  has 
been  known  to  wish  the  company  joy  on  their  choice  of  a 
makeshift,  and  himself  on  masking  his  ignorance. 

Babington  belonged  to  the  inner  circle  of  the  British  Asso- 
ciation ;i=^  first  the  'Red  Lion  Club,'i*  then  the  'Thorough.'  I 
well  remember  his  glee  over  Samuel  Wilberforce's  discomfiture 
by  young  Huxley.^^  In  creed,  doubtless,  he  held  rather  by  the 
Bishop  than  by  his  rival,  but  he  distrusted  and  hated  clap-trap 
in  the  room  of  argument  and  fact.  In  later  life  he  lamented 
the  freak  of  fashion,  banning  Huxley's  Physiology  as  outworn. 

To  cite  all  records  of  his  friendly  aid  to  fellow-labourers 
would  drive  me  to  rambles  far  and  wide  in  a  terra  incognita. 
Take  a  sample.  In  the  preface  (p.  vii)  to  Memorials  of  John 
Ray  (Ray  Society  1846)  Dr  Edwin  Lankester  writes : 

For  the  identification  of  Ray's  plants  in  the  *  Itineraries,'  for  the  botanical 
notes,  and  the  Catalogue  of  Ray's  Works,  I  am  indebted  to  Mr  Babington  of 
Cambridge. 


MEMOIR.  XXI 

That  Cardale,  not  Churchill,  is  here  in  question,  appears 
from  the  initials  'C.C.B.'  (pp.  126,7,  186). 

His  name,  in  Cambridge,  stood  (like  Bacchus,  Ceres,  Pallas 
of  old)  by  metonymy  for  Botany  in  general.  Thus  when  a 
weed^^  began  to  choke  the  Cam,  as  also  Trent  and  Severn,  it 
was  christened  Bahingtonia  'pestifera.  The  term  was  handy 
as  easily  remembered ;  a  spice  of  malice  added  flavour  to  the 
dish ;  that  Babington  was  guiltless  of  the  rover's  growth  did 
not  concern  the  wags ;  nor  indeed  him :  they  had  their  jest, 
and  Jiept  their  friend. 

For  his  part  he  pitied  the  botanist  who,  never  seeking  living 
plants  in  their  homes,  armed  with  microscope  ransacks  their 
cell  and  fibre,  spurning  meanwhile  the  name  of  'florist.'^^  A 
student  of  the  first  class  in  the  Natural  Sciences  Tripos,  espying 
stems  of  (what  I  will  call)  X  in  his  drawing-room,  on  learning 
the  name  cried,  "  So  that  is  really  X  ?  I  know  all  about  that ; 
I  guessed  it  would  be  set,  and  it  was."  Science  which  cannot 
see  the  wood  for  the  trees,  growing  herb  or  animal  for  cell  laid 
bare  by  scalpel,  had  for  him  no  charm.  His  joy  in  Nature  was 
the  joy  of  a  child.  "  My  heart  leaps  up  when  I  behold." 
"  Solomon  was  not  arrayed  like  one  of  these."  From  the  soul 
he  could  echo  Seneca's  moan :  Non  vitae  seel  scholae  discimus. 

This  freshness  kept  his  old  age  green.  Doctors,  as  he  rallied 
from  seemingly  deadly  fits  of  disease,  would  bear  witness :  "  You 
were  born  to  an  iron  constitution,  nor  have  you  trifled  with  the 
trust.  Had  you  not  been  a  plain  liver,  had  you  been  even  a 
smoker,  you  would  not  be  alive  at  this  hour."  Verily  old 
Dollinger  is  right :    L'homme  ne  Tueurt  pas,  il  se  tue. 

Field  Botany  certainly  has  length  of  days  in  her  right  hand. 
One  hundred  and  sixty-two  years  (1733 — 1895)  saw  only  four 
Professors  of  Botany:  the  two  Martyns,  John  and  Thomas, 
spanning  92  years  between  them. 

Arm-chair  scholars  (Stuhengelehrte),  wheedled  into  a  walk 
with  the  Professor,  have  not  only  found  their  eye  quickened, 
and  a  keener  zest  given  to  communion  with  Nature,  but  have 
with  new  habits  taken  a  new  lease  of  life. 

His  chief  works  are : — Flora  Bathoniensis ;  a  catalogue  of 
the  'plants  indigenous  to  the  vicinity  of  Bath.     E.  Collings, 


xxil  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

Bath ;  G.  Tremlett  and  W.  Strong,  Bristol ;  and  Longman  & 
Co.,  London,  1834.  12mo.  Preface  dated  Bath,  November 
1833.  A  supplement  was  issued  in  1839  (preface  dated 
February  1839).  The  whole  in  pp.  vi,  110  (not  in  British 
Museum  Catalogue).^^  He  had  the  use  of  the  MS.  Flora  of 
Heneage  Gibbes,  M.B.  of  Downing  College,  for  whom  see 
Alumni  OxoniensesP 

PriTtiitiae  Florae  Sarnicae ;  or,  an  outline  of  the  Flora 
of  the  Channel  Islands  of  Jersey,  Guernsey,  Alderney,  and 
Sark     London,  1839,  12°. 

Manual  of  British  Botany,  containing  the  Flowering 
Plants  and  Ferns  arranged  according  to  the  Natural  Orders. 
London,  1843.  12mo.  Second  edition,  1847;  third,  with 
many  additions  and  corrections,  1851 ;  fourth,  1856 ;  fifth, 
1862;  sixth,  1867;  seventh,  corrected  throughout,  1874; 
eighth,2o  1881,  pp.  xlviii,  485. 

A  synopsis  of  the  British  Rubi}^     London,  1846.     Svo. 

Tlie  British  Ruhi ;  an  attempt  to  discriminate  the  species 
of  Rubus  known  to  the  British  Islands.     London,  1869.     8vo. 

Many  critics  lamented  that  all  the  species  were  not  figured 
in  this  book.  The  riddle  may  now  be  read.  The  artist  em- 
ployed, J.  W.  Salter,^^  was  indeed  master  of  his  craft,  but  fitful 
and  wayward  of  mood.  The  press  halted  for  the  completion  of 
the  plates,  till  at  last  it  seemed  better  not  to  mar  the  effect  by 
employing  a  meaner  pencil  to  finish  Salter's  work.  A  new 
edition  has  long  been  in  hand;  it  is  hoped  that  the  Rev,  W. 
Moyle  Rogers,  who  has  examined  all  additions,  may  carry  it  to 
a  close.  The  study  of  brambles  brought  Babington  into  daily 
fellowship  with  F.  J.  A.  Hort.  The  Cambridge  Syndics  bore 
the  cost  of  paper  and  print  of  this  book. 

In  1848  appeared  Index  to  the  Baker  Manuscripts  by  four 
member's  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society.  Cambridge. 
Svo.  (The  preface,  dated  7  January,  bears  the  initials  of  J.  J. 
Smith,  C.  C.  Babington,  C.  W.  Goodwin,  and  Joseph  Power). 
As  one  who  has  been  called  to  use  these  manuscripts  more 
than  anyone  else  ever  did  or  is  likely  to  do,  I  venture  to  express 
the  gratitude  of  Cambridge  antiquaries  for  this  precious  boon. 


MEMOIR.  XXlll 

To  return  to  his  works : — 

Flora  of  Cambridgeshire.     London,  1860,  12°. 

Ancient  Gamhridgeshire :  or,  an  attempt  to  trace  Roman 
and  other  ancient  roads  that  passed  through  the  county  of 
Cambridge;  with  a  record  of  the  places  where  Roman  coins 
and  other  remains  have  been  found.  Cambr.  xVnt.  Soc.  Publica- 
tions, octavo  series.  No.  3, 1851.  Sec.  ed.  much  enlarged,  1883, 
pp.  viii,  116,  8vo. 

History  of  the  Infirmary  and  Chapel  of  the  Hospital  and 
College  of  St  John  the  Evangelist  at  Cambridge.  Carabr.  Ant. 
Soc.  1874,  8vo.  He  was  not  yet  a  Fellow,  and  it  may  be 
doubted  whether  any  resident  Fellow  could  have  enriched  us 
with  such  a  record  of  the  thirteenth  century  buildings.  He  like- 
wise had  a  hand  in  the  "  Architectural  History  of  Cambridge," 
by  Professor  Willis  and  J.  W.  Clark. 

Not  without  a  weary  chase  could  one  overtake  all  his  fugitive 
articles;  see  meanwhile  the  Catalogue  of  Scientific  Papers 
(1800 — 1863).  Compiled  and  published  by  the  Royal  Society 
of  London.  London,  1867,  4to.  Vol.  i  pp.  136—139,  one 
hundred  and  six  numbers.^^  Vol  vil  1877  (1864—1873),  p.  62, 
twenty-two.24     Vol  IX  1891  (1874—1883),  p.  91,  four. 

In  the  Catalogue  of  MSS.  in  the  Cambridge  University 
Library,  edited  first  by  C.  Hardwick,  then  by  H.  R.  Luard, 
Cardale  Babington  undertook  the  heraldic  and  monastic  cartu- 
laries ;  biit  lack  of  mediaeval  scholarship  made  this  the  least 
successful  of  his  works.  After  the  third  volume  he  made  way 
for  George  Williams  and  Thomas  Bendyshe. 

Two  only  now  (1895)  remain  (Sir  H.  E,  L.  Dryden  and 
James  Heywood)  of  the  builders  of  the  Cambr.  Ant.  Soc.  (March 
1840).  In  March  1843,  Babington  was  chosen  Treasurer,  and 
long  held  the  Society  together.  Many  and  many  a  meeting  I 
have  attended,  from  1853  onwards,  in  which  Geo.  E.  Corrie, 
George  Williams,  C.  H.  Cooper,  H.  R.  Luard,  Churchill  and 
Cardale  Babington,  F.  J.  A.  Hort,  Henry  Bradshaw,  W.  G. 
Searle,  Thomas  Brocklebank,  John  Rigg,  T.  G.  Bonney,  E.  Ven- 
tris,  or  some  of  them,  stood  for  the  whole  body.  Papers  of 
sterling  worth  were  read  at  these  small  musters,  and  treasure 


XXIV  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

trove  discussed.  But  for  Babington,  I  make  bold  to  assert,  tbe 
Society  would  never  have  formed  a  Museum,  and  must,  in  all 
likelihood,  have  crumbled  to  pieces.  Now  that  through  the  zeal 
of  S.  S.  Lewis 2^  our  numbers  are  large,  we  should  recover  and 
carry  out  the  platform  of  a  "  Cambridge  Historical  Society," 
which  proposed  all  that  the  Oxford  Historical  Society  is  doing, 
but  fell  stillborn,  blasted  by  chilling  frowns,  somewhere  in 
the  fifties. 

In  the  Report  presented  to  the  Society  at  its  fifty-fifth 
Annual  Meeting,  May  29,  1895,  we  read  (he  also — I  am  glad 
to  add — was  able  to  read  before  his  last  seizure)  — 

The  long  services  of  Charles  Cardale  Babington,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A., 
Professor  of  Botany,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Society,  and  for  many  years 
its  most  active  supporter,  appear  to  the  Council  to  demand  some  special 
recognition.  In  accordance  with  the  Laws,  Professor  Babington's  term  of 
office  as  Vice-President  terminates  to-day.  The  Council  propose  therefore 
that  he  be  asked  to  accept  the  permanent  post  of  Honorary  Vice-President  of 
the  Society. 

He  had  the  rare  gift,  ripened  by  use,  of  bringing  to  light 
buried  talents,  and  would  spare  no  pains  in  clearing  for  them  a 
fair  field.  In  the  year  1854  he  beckoned  Mr.  Robert  Cooper 
Ready j^*'  thee  struggling  for  a  living  at  Lowestoft,  to  Cambridge. 
I  took  him  to  our  treasury,  when  in  quest  of  college  seals. 
Ready  has  since,  at  the  British  Museum,  with  the  aid  of  his 
sons,  outstript  the  boldest  forecast,  charming  into  shapes  of 
bygone  life  beaten  bronze — the  Balawat  gate  ornaments — from 
Babylon,  to  lay  eyes  warped  past  hope  in  the  devouring  fire. 

Babington's  assistant,  Thomas  Hughes  Corry'-^^  (1st  cl.  Nat. 
Sc.  1882,  drowned  9  Aug.  1883),  revered  in  him  a  father.  So 
too  Jani  Alii,  the  Mohammedan  missionary  to  the  Crescent 
(C.C.,  B.A.  1877,  M.A.  1883),  looked  to  Brookside  as  his  home. 
After  Alli's  death  (15  Oct.  1894)^8  his  Bible,  Prayer-book,  and 
gold  watch  were  sent  back  to  those  who  would  cherish  them 
more  than  any  one  on  earth.  Wherever  Babington  went,  he 
fell  in  with  homebred  votaries  of  Nature  who  could  give  and 
take.     So  in  Connemara  with  "  Mac  Calla." 

His  name  for  active  kindness  threw  countless  chances  in  his 
way.  This  year  (1895)  a  voice  of  gratitude  reached  him  from 
a  freeholder  in  Manitoba.     A  boy,  beaten  and  starved  by  a 


MEMOIR.  XXV 

drunken  father,  had  been  brought  to  Brookside,  sent  for  four 
or  five  years  to  the  Industrial  School,  on  Boning's  death  placed 
for  a  year  with  Dr.  Barnardo,  and  then  on  a  Canadian  farm. 
The  made  man  fosters  a  sense  of  pious  duty  to  the  maker  of 
his  fortunes. 

To  many  charities  Babington's  drawing-room  supplied  the 
fulcrum  to  move  the  world's  pity.  The  London  City  Mission, 
Dr.  Barnardo's  Homes,  Irish  Church  Missions,  Church  of 
England  Zenana  Mission,  Bishop  Cabrera,  Count  Campello 
(Bishop-elect  of  the  Italian  Reform),  the  China  Mission,  can 
all  tell  of  the  breadth  and  warmth  of  his  sympathy.  When, 
some  ten  years  back,  the  Cambridge  Seven  went  out  to  China, 
they  turned  a  deaf  ear  to  all  denial ;  he  and  no  other  must  take 
the  chair.  The  large  room  in  the  Guildhall  was  crowded  to 
the  doors,  and  600  undergraduates  sat  on  the  platform.  What 
he  has  done  for  Cambridge  will  never  be  known.  As  a  friend 
of  Sir  Arthur  Blackwood's  he  turned  his  thoughts  to  our  neg- 
lected benefactors  the  postmen  and  telegraph  boys.  At  a  hint 
from  him  they  formed  a  Missionary  Society  among  themselves, 
and  so  learnt  the  blessing  and  dignity  of  giving.  More  than 
twenty -five  years  ago  he  settled  here  a  Cottage  Orphan  Home, 
and  feasted  our  choristers  after  the  foundation-stone  had  been 
laid  by  Mrs.  Harold  Browne.  St.  Barnabas',  St.  Philip's,  and 
other  Cambridge  churches  owe  much  to  his  coy  bounty. 

To  brave  hearts  called  to  die  in  the  mission  field  he  was  a 
Gains,  nor  did  he,  as  the  blind  "  common-sense  "  of  clubs  and 
smoking-rooms  is  now  doing,  grudge  them  the  supreme  crown 
of  martyrdom ;  even  women,  he  held,  could  not  spend  their 
lives  to  better  purpose.^^  Henry  Perrott  Parker  (B.A.  of  Trinity 
1875,  M.A.  1878),  lighting  upon  Jani  AUi  in  Babington's  house, 
caught  there  the  hallowed  fire,  laboured  for  some  years  in 
India,  with  a  heavy  heart  consented  to  succeed  Bishop  Han- 
nington,  and  died  in  Africa  26  March  1888.  He  had  been 
Superintendent  of  the  St.  Barnabas'  Sunday  School. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stewart,  Miss  Stewart,  Miss  Hessie  Newcombe 
— martyrs  whom  the  world  of  fashion  mocks  or  condemns — and 
the  enlightened  convert   Mrs,  Ahok,  were   all   familiar  faces 


XXVI  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

round  Babington's  fireside.  Many  a  bud  of  spiritual  life,  nipt 
by  frosts  of  cynic  scorn  without,  burst  into  full  bloom  in  that 
sunny  atmosphere. 

"Cardale  Babington  is  common  sense  in  flesh  and  blood;  a 
Nathanael  without  guile."  Such  is  the  likeness  caught  to  the 
life  by  one  long  near  to  him,  John  Couch  Adams;  and  the 
painter  himself  might  have  sat  for  the  portrait 

Sir  Thomas  Wade,  hearing  that  Babington  bemoaned  his 
enforced  absence  from  a  lecture,  delivered  in  the  Lent  term 
(1895)  in  King's  Hall,  and  had  read  the  report  with  great 
relish,  came  to  sit  an  hour  with  him,  repeating  the  pith  of 
what  he  had  said.  As  the  two  veterans  were  so  soon  to  be 
united  in  death,^°  this  last  meeting  will  long  haunt  the 
mourners'  memory. 

Two  or  three  shreds  from  a  favorite  poet  will  divulge  to  by- 
standers something  of  the  image  of  his  character  and  principles 
left  upon  those  who  knew  him  from  the  inside,  intus  et  in  cute. 

But  here  was  ne'er  a  Complement,  not  one 
Spruce,  supple  cringe,  or  studj'd  looke  put  on. 
All  was  plaine,  modest  truth. 

Heney  Vaughan's  Sacred  Poems  (1847)  p.  19. 

Walk  with  thy  fellow-creatures;   note  the  hush 
And  whispers  amongst  them.     There 's  not  a  Spring, 

Or  Leafe  but  hath  his  Morning-hymn.     Each  Bush 
And  Oak  doth  know  I  AM.     Cau'st  thou  not  sing? 

O  leave  thy  cares,  and  follies !   go  this  way ; 

And  thou  art  sure  to  prosper  all  the  day. — ibid.  p.  56. 

Teach  both  mine  eyes  and  feet  to  move 
Within  those  bounds  set  by  Thy  love; 
Grant  I  may  soft  and  lowly  be, 
And  minde  those  things  I  cannot  see. 

*  #  #  #  # 

Above  all,  make  me  love  the  poor, 
Those  burthens  to  the  rich  man's  door; 
Let  me  admire  those,  and  be  kinde 
To  low  estates  and  a  low  minde. 
If  the  world  offers  to  me  aught* 
That  by  Thy  book  must  not  be  sought. 
Or,  though  it  should  be  lawful,  may 
Prove  not  expedient  for  Thy  way, 
To  shun  that  peril  let  Thy  grace 
Prevail  with  me  to  shun  the  place. 
Let  me  be  wise  to  please  Thee  still, 
And  let  men  call  me  what  they  will. — ibid.  pp.  168,  169. 

*  So  read  for  nought,  as  it  stands  in  the  book. 


MEMOIR.  xxvil 

Surely,  no  man  of  books — and  such  he  was — ever  less 
'favoured'  a  bookworm.  'I  am  a  man,  and  count  nothing 
human  strange  to  me'  would  win  applause  from  him,  as  the 
words  in  Terence  did  from  the  gallery  of  Augustine's  day. 
Whether  or  no  he  had  read  the  noble  Anti-gnosticus  of  R.  C. 
Trench,  I  cannot  say,  but  it  spoke  his  inmost  thoughts : — 

For  I  was  thankful  now,  and  not  alone 

That  I  had  been  brought  under  the  blue  sky, 

With  winds  of  heaven  to  blow  upon  my  cheeks. 

And  flowers  of  earth  to  smile  about  my  feet, 

And  birds  of  air  to  sing  within  my  ears — 

Though  that  were  something,  something  to  exchange 

Continuous  study  in  a  lonely  room 

For  the  sweet  face  of  nature,  sights  and  sounds 

Of  earth  and  air,  restoring  influences 

Of  power  to  cheer;   yet  not  for  this  alone. 

Nor  for  this  chiefly;    but  that  thus  I  was 

Compelled,  as  by  a  gentle  violence. 

Not  in  the  pages  of  dead  books  alone. 

Nor  merely  in  the  fair  page  nature  shews. 

But  in  the  living  page  of  human  life. 

To  look  and  learn — not  merely  left  to  spin 

Fine  webs  and  woofs  around  me  like  the  worm, 

Till  in  my  own  coil  I  had  hid  myself, 

And  quite  shut  out  the  light  of  common  day, 

And  common  air  by  which  men  breathe  and  live. 

Like  Samuel  Johnson  and  Legh  Richmond,  he  regarded 
lona  with  peculiar  reverence.  In  its  ruins  he  hailed  a  rampart 
against  Vatican  pride,  a  keepsake  from  the  days  when  Ireland 
(the  last  Western  church, — if  I  may  steal  a  shaft  from  Lord 
Plunket's  quiver, — to  bow  the  neck  to  Rome)  was  indeed  the 
Mother  of  Saints.  Nor  did  he  despair  of  the  return  of  the 
Green  Isle  to  that  high  estate. 

One  who  knew  him  well,  Dr.  H.  C.  G.  Moule,  has  darted 
(Record,  9  Aug.  1895)  some  glances  into  his  friend's  inner  life. 
Of  the  three  mottos  there  printed  Bishop  Racket's  '  Serve  God, 
and  be  cheerful'  (Johnson's  'Serviendum  et  laetandum'),  inspired 
by  the  Jubilate  and  by  Ps.  ii  11,  bespeaks  the  spirit  which 
bound  Babington's  days,  from  infancy  to  hoary  hairs, '  each  to 
«ach  in  natural  piety.'  Even  when  consciousness  had  well-nigh 
fled,  he  breathed  a  faint '  yes,'  when  in  the  hymn  '  I  heard  the 
voice  of  Jesus  say,'  (one  of  those  sung  in  chapel  at  his  funeral), 
he  caught  the  words  '  And  He  has  made  me  glad.' 


xxviii  CH4ilI.ES  CARDALE  BABINGTON, 

His  herbarium  and  the  bulk  of  his  technical  library  (some 
1600  volumes),  kept  in  the  Museum  during  his  life,  are  be- 
queathed to  the  University.  Overtures  for  purchase  of  the 
books  had  come  from  Germany. 

He  had  already  given  much  and  widely,  e.g.  to  St.  John's, 
copies  of  his  own  books  in  1885,  and  the  entire  series  of  Notes 
and  Queries;  to  other  public  librariej?,  the  transactions  of  various 
societies  to  which  he  belonged.  His  loss  in  these  respects,  as 
in  others,  will  long  be  felt. 

Pedigree  and  Cardinal  Dates. 

Thomas  Babington,  of  Rothley  Temple,  born  26  May  1715, 
died  20  June  1776,  married  9  January  1758,  at  Wanlip,  Lydia, 
daughter  of  Joseph  Cardale  (Vicar  of  Hinkley,  died  20  June 
1752,  aet.  73,  of  Magd.  Coll.,  Oxford,  B.A.  24  March  1706—7, 
M.A.  Queens'  Coll.,  Cambr.  1725),  and  sister  of  Joseph  Cardale 
(Fellow  of  St.  John's,  B.A.  1734—5,  M.A.  1738.  B.D.  1746, 
Rector  of  Houghton  Conquest  1766,  died  2  June  1786).  She 
died  4  May  1791.     He  was  Sheriff  of  Leicestershire  in  1750. 

They  had  issue,  among  other  children,  four  Johnians. 
Thomas  (born  18  December  1758,  died  21  November  1837),. 
Sherifif  of  Leicestershire  and  M.P.,  B.A.  1779.  Matthew  (born 
24  June  1761,  died  at  Lisbon,  6  May  1796),  B.A.  1782,  M.A. 
1785,  Fellow  of  the  College,  Vicar  of  Rothley  1787.  William 
(born  11  March  1763),  B.A.  1786,  Rector  of  Cossington  1787. 
Joseph  (born  2  January  1768,  died  16  December  1826),  B.A. 
1791,  M.A.  1794,  M.B.  Oxon.  1795.  He  married  Catherine, 
daughter  of  John  Whitter,  of  Bradninch,  Devon,  who  died 
18  November  1832. 

Matthew's  eldest  son,  Matthew  Drake  (born  11  July  1788,, 
died  at  Messina  in  July  1851)  was  at  Trinity,  B.A.  1812,  M.A. 
1816,  Incumbent  of  Shepeshed,  Leicestershire.  He  married,, 
7  June  1820,  Hannah,  daughter  of  Benjamin  Fleetwood 
Churchill,  of  Northampton,  who  died  5  December  1873,  and 
was  buried  at  Cockfield.  Their  only  child  was  Churchill,  the 
late  Disney  Professor  (born  11  March  1821,  died  12  January 
1889,   B.A.    1843,   M.A.    1846,   B.D.    1853,   D.D.   1879),   who 


MEMOIR.  XXix 

married  28  January  1869,  Maud  (daughter  of  Col.  John 
Alexander  Wilson,  KA,),  who  is  still  living,  and  married  again, 
17  Sept.  1896,  Col.  W.  H.  Wright,  RA.  Churchill  was  buried 
at  Cockfield,  and  is  commemorated  by  a  brass  in  the  College 
Chapel. 

Churchill's  great  uncle,  Joseph,  had  two  sons,  Charles 
Cardale  (born  at  Ludlow,  23  November  1808,  died  at  5, 
Brookside,  Cambridge,  22  July  1895,  at  4.45  a.m.,  buried 
26  July  in  Cherry  Hinton  churchyard),  and  Frederick  John 
(born  at  Ludlow  20  February  1810,  died  same  year).  Cardale 
(as  he  was  always  called,  to  distinguish  him  from  his  cousin) 
took  his  B.A.  1830,  M.A.  1833.  He  was  elected,  without 
opposition.  Professor  of  Botany  in  succession  to  J.  S.  Henslow, 
on  12  June  1861.^^  On  the  3  April  1866,  he  married  at  Walcot 
Church,  Bath,  Anna  Maria,  eldest  daughter  of  the  late  John 
Walker,  Esq.,  of  the  Civil  Service,  Madras.  He  was  admitted 
Fellow  of  St.  John's,  under  the  new  statutes,  1  November  1882. 


While  they  here  sojourned,  their  presence  drew  us 
By  the  sweetness  of"  their  human  love; 
Day  by  day  good  thoughts  of  them  renew  us. 
Like  fresh  tidings  from  the  world  above; 

Coming,  like  the  stars  at  gloamin'  glinting 
Through  the  western  clouds,  when  loud  winds  cease, 
Silently  of  that  calm  country  hinting, 
Where  they  with  the  angels  are  at  peace. 

#  #  *  # 

Yea,  Amen !    0  changeless  One,  Thou  only 
Art  life's  guide  and  spiritual  goal. 
Thou  the  Light  across  the  dark  vale  lonely. 
Thou  the  eternal  haven  of  the  soul ! 

J.  C.  Shaiep,  "Memories." 

John  E.  B.  Mayor. 


NOTES  ON  MEMOIR. 

Ferstat  in  incepto. — Ovid. 

My  love  for  Nature  is  as  old  as  I. — Tennyson. 

Chi  va  piano,  va  sano ;   e  chi  va  sano,  va  lontano. — Prov. 

1  From  the  Eagle,  Michaelmas  Term,  1895.  A  still  career,  all  of  one  piece,  has 
few  landmarks.  Cardinal  dates  however  may  be  of  service.  Bom  at  Ludlow, 
23rd  November  1808;  came  to  the  University,  October  1826;  B.A.  1830;  M.A.  1833; 


XXX  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

ProfcBSor  of  Botany,  12th  June  1861;  married  at  Bath,  3rd  April  1866;  Fellow 
of  St.  John's,  Ist  November  1882;  died  at  5,  Brookside,  22nd  July  1896;  funeral 
service  in  the  College  Chapel  and  at  Cherry  Hinton,  26th  July.  Cherry  Hinton, 
which  he  often  searched  with  foreign  botanists,  is  a  fit  resting-place  for  his  remains. 
The  grave,  to  the  north  east  of  the  Church,  lies  under  the  shade  of  three  noble  elms. 
As  he  loved  the  ancient  crosses  of  Ireland,  relics  of  a  day  when  her  Church  was 
still  free  and  a  far-seen  beacon  of  the  Faith,  a  stately  Irish  cross,  of  grey  Kemnay 
(Aberdeen)  granite,  arrests  the  visitor's  eye.     The  inscription  is 

SACRED 

TO   THE   DEAR   MEMORY    OF 

CHARLES    CARDALE    BABINOTON,    M.A. 

FELLOW    OF    ST.    JOHN's    COLLEGE 

AND   PROFESSOR    OF    BOTANY    IN    THE   UNIVERSITY    OF   CAMBRIDGE. 

BORN    NOVEMBER    23    1808;     FELL   ASLEEP    JULY    22    1895. 

"Thou  hast  made  him  most  blessed  for  ever." — Ps.  xxi  6. 

In  the  College  Chapel,  on  the  right  side  of  the  screen  as  you  enter,  is  a  brass  bear- 
ing the  inscription 

IN    LOVING   MEMORY    OF 

CHARLES   CARDALB   BABINGTON 

B.A.    1830,    M.A.    1833. 

PROFESSOR  OF  BOTANY,  12  JUNE  1861. 

FELLOW  OF  ST.  JOHN's  COLLEGE,  1  NOV.  1882. 

BORN  AT  LUDLOW,  23  NOV.  1808. 

DIED  AT  CAMBRIDGE,  22  JULY  1895. 

"  Mark  the  perfect  man,  and  behold  the  upright :  for  the  end  of  that  man  is  peace." 

Ps.  xxxvii  37. 
The  brass  to  his  cousin  Churchill  is  on  the  left  side,  just  opposite.     In  the  College 
Hall  hangs  a  portrait,  an  excellent  likeness,  by  Mr.  William  Vizard  of  Brighton, 
the  gift  of  Mrs.  Babington. 

2  This  Mentor,  handsomely  bound  in  calf  and  religiously  guarded,  is  of  the  16th 
ed.,  Lond.  1824.  See  Journal  p.  3,  27  May  1826.  Harford,  Reminiscences  of 
Wilberforce,  47,  103 — 110  (long  in  vogue,  in  several  versions.  Madame  de  Stael, 
after  drawing  a  copy  from  the  author  by  a  broad  hint,  dubbed  it  Vaurore  de 
I'immortalite). 

^  The  subscription  list  is  given  in  the  Cambr.  Calendar  for  1836 ;  see  also 
Sedgwick's  Life  i  440,  1. 

*  Cardale  communicated  to  the  Eagle  memoirs  of  H.  Cory  Cory  {prius  H.  C. 
Eadie,  d.  9  Jan.  1887)  and  of  his  cousin  Churchill. 

5  Leonard  Blomefield  (formerly  Jenyns)  Chapters  in  my  Life  (Bath,  1889)  31, 

32 :  "I  have  never  been  abroad, many  of  those  who  are  in  the  habit  of 

going  abroad  simply  following  the  fashion,  and  remaining  through  life  more  or  less 
ignorant  of  their  own  country." 

^  In  his  first  visit  to  Ireland  in  1835  [Mag.  Nat.  Hist,  ix  119 — 130)  he  was 
accompanied  by  Robert  Maulkin  Lingwood  (B.A.  1836,  M.A.  1840)  and  John  Ball, 
both  of  Christ's  (Mr.  Britten). 

■^  See  preface  to  Manual,  first  edition. 


NOTES   ON  MEMOIR.  xxxi 

'  Three  papers  by  Babington  on  the  Ray  Club,  dated  11  March  1857,  14  Dec. 
1868,  and  29  November  1887,  contain  earnest  addresses  to  his  mates;  the  first 
and  third  give  a  list  of  members  and  associates,  with  an  outline  of  their  lot  in  life ; 
the  second  and  third,  lamenting  the  decay  of  zeal,  fan  amain  the  lukewarm  embers, 
if  it  might  be,  into  a  blaze.  Sedgwick's  Life,  ii  447,  19  May  1869:  "In  the 
evening  the  Ray  Club  will  assemble  in  my  rooms.  It  is  a  melancholy  thought  that 
this  will  be  my  last  Club  meeting,  for  the  infirmities  of  old  age  compel  me  to  resign 
my  place." 

Life  of  J.  Clerk  Maxwell  (1884),  p.  155  (1855) :  '*  Went  with  Hort  and  Elphin- 
stone  to  the  Ray  Club,  which  met  in  Kingsley  of  Sidney's  rooms.  Kingsley  is  great 
in  photography  and  microscopes,  and  shewed  photographs  of  infusoria,  very  beauti- 
ful, also  live  plants  and  animals,  with  oxy-hydrogen  microscope." 

Ibid.  p.  168,  14  February  1856:  "Yesterday  the  Ray  Club  met  at  Hort's.  I 
took  my  great  top  there,  and  spun  it  with  coloured  discs  attached  to  it." 

Ibid.  p.  294:  "Bui  if  there  is  sufficient  liveliness  and  leisure  among  persons 
interested  in  experiments  to  maintain  a  series  of  stated  meetings,  to  shew  experi- 
ments, and  talk  about  them  as  some  of  the  Ray  Club  do  here,  then  I  wish  them  all 

joy-" 

'  Dytiscidae  Darwinianae,  in  "Trans.  Entom.  Soc,"  iii  1841.  His  first 
entomological  papers  (relating  to  Cambridgeshire)  were  published  in  1829,  before 
he  took  his  degree,  in  "  Magazine  of  Natural  History,"  i  ii.  None  occur  after  1844. 
Lists  in  Hagen,  "Bibliotheca  Entomologica,"  i  (1862),  22,  23. — (Information  from 
Dr.  David  Sharp). 

•0  Thomas  Arthur  P.,  of  Em.  B.A.  1856,  M.A.  1859.  In  holy  orders.  Author 
of  "  The  flowering  plants  of  Wilts,  with  sketches  of  the  physical  geography  and 
climate  of  the  county.     1888."     8vo. 

^^  Selections  from  the  Correspondence  of  Dr.  George  Johnston,  Author  of  "A 

Flora  of  Berwick-on-Tweed."  ....  Edited  by  James  Hardy  LL.D Edinb. 

1892.     8vo. 

12  Founded  by  Prof.  John  Button  Balfour,  17  March  1836;  he  died  11  Febr. 
1884  (memoir  in  Hist,  of  the  Berwicksh.  Naturalists'  Club,  xi  218 — 226). 

'■''  In  his  library  is  a  book  now  rare :   "  The  Natural  History  of  Dee  Side  and 

Braemar.      By  the  late   William   Macgillivray  LL.D Edited  by  Edwin 

Lankester,  M.D.  F.R.S.  London:  Printed  for  private  circulation,  1855."  The 
manuscript  was  bought  by  the  Queen.  When  Prince  Albert  was  President  of  the 
Association,  the  Presidents  of  sections  (Babington  among  them)  were  invited  to 
Balmoral,  and  received  copies  :  "  This  work,  printed  by  command  of  the  Queen,  is 
presented  to  Mr.  C.  C.  Babington  by  H.R.H.  Prince  Albert."  Editor's  Preface, 
p.  v:  "  The  list  of  plants  have  .  .  .  been  submitted  to  .  .  .  Mr  C.  C.  Babington, 
of  Cambridge." 

"  Richard  Owen's  Life  i  288. 

'*  Leslie  Stephen,  Life  of  Henry  Fawcett,  99:  "He  had  been  present  at  the 
smart  passage  of  arms  (in  1860)  between  Professor  Huxley  and  Bishop  Wilberforce 
at  the  British  Association  meeting  in  Oxford."  Lord  Monboddo's  ape  had  startled 
the  Bishop,  a  beast  then  strange  and  skittish,  but  now,  thanks  to  Huxley  and  his 
brother-showman  Ernst  Hackel,   tame  (save  with  the  hardened  recusant  Rudolf 


xxxu         CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

Virchow)  and  domestic.  Disraeli's  quip  '  I  am  on  the  side  of  the  angels,'  speedily 
cleared  the  air.  For  'wit  of  one'  was  faithful  mouthpiece  to  'wisdom  of  many.' 
A  motley  throng,  three  parts  idlers,  one  part  specialists,  might  question  till  dooms- 
day of  life  and  death,  final  causes  and  free  will,  and  find  itself  '  in  wandering  mazes 
lost.'  Solventur  risu  tabulae.  All  breathed  more  freely  when  discharged  from  a 
panel  beyond  their  scope.  The  most  enduring  trophy  of  the  fray  is  Dr.  Kennedy's 
sprightly  epigram  on  the  Ennian  text :  simia  uvam  similis  tvkpissima  bestia  nobis. 

^^  Now  known  as  Elodea  Canadensis,  described  in  his  "  Manual,"  8th  ed.,  p.  339, 
as  Anacharis  Alsinastrunt.  Belongs  to  the  family  of  Hydrocharidaceae  Hydrilleae. 
Indigenous  in  North  America,  from  Canada  to  the  Southern  States;  observed 
3  Aug.  1842  by  Dr.  George  Johnston,  in  the  Lake  of  Dunse  Castle,  Berwickshire; 
in  North  Germany  it  wrought  mischief  to  navigation  and  water-mills  and  nett- 
ing in  the  Spree,  and  other  rivers.  It  has  proved  perhaps  less  baneful  than  was  feared 
by  those  who  called  it  a  'Vegetable  Hydra,'  'waterpest';  having  disappeared  from 
many  waters  which  it  once  infested.  Where  plentiful,  it  serves  as  manure,  as 
food  for  waterfowl,  harbours  the  spawn  of  fish,  and  disinfects  the  streams  (Pierer's 
Conversations-Lexikon,  6th  ed.  1876,  s.  v.  Elodea.  Meyer's  Conversations- Lexihon, 
3rd  ed.  1874,  s.  v.  Anacharis  Alsinastrum).  Babington  himself  wrote  a  paper  on 
Anacharis  Alsinastrtmi  [Edinb.  Bot.  Trans,  iii,  1850,  27 — 34 ;  Ann.  Nat.  Hist,  i, 
1848,  81—88;  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  xi,  Bot.,  1849,  66—82).  See  especially  Sowerby's 
English  Botany,  ix^  (1869)  81 — 85.  Compare  the  giant  growth  of  water-cress  in 
New  Zealand.  Zoology  tells  like  tales  of  acclimatisation  and  its  perils :  sparrows 
in  the  United  States,  rabbits  in  Australia. 

1'  Babington's lay  sermon  to  the  Ray  Club,  29  Nov.  1887,  p.  4:  "But  there  is 
another  point  in  which  we  necessarily  differ  greatly  from  our  state  in  former  times. 
Then  the  Natural  History  part  of  Natural  Science  was  pursued  with  great  earnest- 
ness and  activity  by  some  of  our  Members  and  many  of  the  young  men  in  the 
University :  now  it  is  rare  to  find  an  Undergraduate  or  B.A.  who  knows,  or  cares 
to  know,  one  plant  from  another,  or  distinguish  insects  scientifically.  I  am  one  of 
those  who  consider  this  to  be  a  sad  state  of  things.  I  know  that  much  of  what  is 
called  Botany  is  admirably  taught  among  us ;  but  it  is  not  what  is  usually  known 
as  Botany  outside  the  Universities,  and  does  not  lead  to  a  practical  knowledge  of 
even  the  most  common  plants.  It  is  really  Vegetable  Physiology,  and  ought  to  be 
so  called.  It  is  a  very  important  subject,  but  does  not  convey  a  knowledge  of 
plants.  A  similar  distinction  should  be  made  in  Botany  as  is  done  in  Zoology." 
See  also  the  preface  to  his  Manual,  ed.  5. 

18  See  Leon.  Blomefield  (Jenyns)  "Sketch  of  the  Flora  of  Bath,  1864,"  in 
"Wright's  Historical  Guide  Book  to  Bath,"  pp.  401—415.  "The  Bath  Flora. 
Lecture  delivered  to  the  Members  of  the  Bath  Field  Club,  Dec.  5  1866."    8vo,  pp.  39. 

'9  Died  18  March  1887,  Seaton  Avenue,  Mutley,  Plymouth,  aet.  85.  Mark  the 
age,  a  twelvemonth  short  of  Berkeley's  and  Babington's  span. 

20  See  Linn.  Soc.  Proc.  1885—6,  p.  146  :  "  Babington's  Manual  is  now  (1886)  in 
the  eighth  edition,  and  the  influence  of  the  successive  editions  on  field-botany  can 
hardly  be  measured."  Mr.  James  Britten,  Journ.  Bot.,  Sept.  1895 :  "  Of  this  work 
it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  it  revolutionized  the  study  of  British  plants  and  gave 
an  impetus  to  thought  and  work  among  British  botanists  to  a  degree  unequalled  by 
any  publication  of  the  century." 


NOTES  ON  MEMOIR.  xxxiii 

--  Extracted  from  the  Annals  and  Magazine  of  Natural  History,  Vol.  xviii,  and 
transactions  of  the  Edinburgh  Botanical  Society,  Vol.  ii. 

■•**  See  the  Index  to  Prof.  Sedgwick's  Life,  by  J.  W.  Clark.  There  is  a  life  of 
Salter  by  Huxley  {Quarterly  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  xxvi,  pp.  xxxvi — xxxix).  Sedgwick 
also  coveted  Salter  as  artist  for  his  British  Palaeozoic  Rocks  and  Fossils,  but  the 
scheme  fell  through  {Life,  ii  304);  "his  work  was  irregular  and  interrupted  by 
long  absences  "  {ibid.  467). 

*^  No.  20,  A  notice,  with  the  results,  of  a  botanical  expedition  to  Guernsey  and 
Jersey,  in  July  and  August  1837.  No.  58,  List  of  plants  gathered  during  a  short 
visit  to  Iceland  in  1846. 

2*  No.  19,  A  revision  of  the  Flora  of  Iceland  [1870].  Linn.  Soc.  Journ.  Bat., 
XI,  1871,  pp.  282—348. 

25  See  his  Life  (Cambr.  1892)  ch.  8,  pp.  117—122.  After  his  death,  Babington 
said  (p.  121) :  "  He  had  himself  personally  known  the  Society  from  its  foundation ; 
had  seen  its  early  prosperity ;  then  its  decline  when  its  founders  and  early  friends 
left  Cambridge ;  then  the  long  period  of  its  obscurity  when  it  was  difficult  to  keep 
it  in  existence ;  and  then  the  happy  return  of  prosperity,  resulting  in  a  great  degree 
from  Mr.  Lewis's  acceptance  of  the  office  of  Secretary."  W.  M.  Fawcett  added 
(p.  122) :  "When  he  began,  he  (Mr.  Fawcett)  did  not  think  there  were  more  than 
thirty  members,  and,  chiefly  through  Mr.  Lewis's  exertions,  the  number  was  now 
raised  to  about  300."  The  real  increase  was  greater  (p.  117),  from  eighteen  members 
in  1873  to  320  in  1890. 

^^  His  father  had  a  nursery  garden  at  Cambridge,  near  to  the  present  station. 
His  uncle,  the  late  Thomas  Ready,  was  gardener  of  Christ's.  R.  C.  Ready 
has  been  attached  to  the  British  Museum  since  1860,  and  still  (1895)  goes  down  to 
it,  though  he  completed  his  eighty-fourth  year  in  June  1895.  In  the  same  season 
that  he  worked  in  my  tower  in  the  second  court,  striking  moulds  of  seals  from 
charters  which  we  carried  down,  drawer  by  drawer,  from  the  'treasury'  (the 
barred  room  over  our  entrance  gateway),  he  also  knocked  at  the  doors  of  all  college 
charter  rooms.  In  return  for  my  help,  he  gave  me  a  card  framed  and  glazed,  dis- 
playing the  seals  most  to  my  liking,  either  as  works  of  art,  or  as  bearing  on  college 
history.  This  hangs  now  in  the  College  Library.  "  He  knew  the  late  Professor 
C.  C.  Babington  very  well  indeed,  and  for  a  very  long  time."  His  son,  William 
Talbot  Ready,  is  now  (1895)  a  dealer  in  antiquities,  ancient  coins,  English  medals, 
gems,  etc.,  55,  Rathbone  Place,  W. 

2'  In  Babington's  library  hangs  a  speaking  likeness  of  Mr.  Corry,  coloured  from 
an  enlarged  photograph.  This,  a  birthday  present,  and  two  volumes  of  poems,  rich 
in  promise,  formed  highly-prized  mementos  of  his  best-loved  pupil.  See  A  Flora 
of  the  North- East  of  Ireland,  including  the  Phanerogamia,  the  Gryptogamia,  Vascu- 
laria,  and  the  Musciniae.  By  Samuel  Alexander  Stewart  .  .  .  and  the  late  Thomas 
Hughes  Corry,  M.A.,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S.,  M.R.I.A.,  F.B.S.  Edin.,  Lecturer  on  Botany  in 
the  University  Medical  Science  Schools,  Cambridge;  Assistant  Curator  of  the 
University  Herbarium,  etc.,  etc.  Published  by  the  Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club. 
Cambridge:  Macmillan  &  Bowes  1888,  cr.  8vo,  pp.  xxxvi,  331.  In  the  preface  is 
some  notice  of  Corry.    P.  viii:  "Professor  Babington,  F.R.S.,  has  from  time  to  time 

C 


xxxiv  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

examined  the  Subi,  and  given  his  opinion  on  the  specimens  submitted."     See 
Babington  in  Journ.  Bot.  1883,  313.     Unknown  to  B.N.B. 

^^  See  iJecorrf  newspaper,  26  Oct.  and  16  Nov.  1894  (pp.  1055,  1136a).  Church 
Missionary  Intelligencer,  Jan.  1895,  article  by  Phil.  Ireland  Jones.  Portrait  and 
memoir  in  Church  Missionary  Oleaner,  March  1895,  p.  44. 

29  Mrs.  Saunders,  of  Melbourne,  "  spoke  of  the  honour  the  Lord  had  put  upon 
her  in  permitting  her  to  see  two  of  her  children  crowned  with  the  martyr's  crown. 
....  She  wants  to  go  to  China  as  soon  as  she  can,  and  see  a  martyrs'  memorial 
at  Ku-Cheng  built  of  precious  living  stones,  some  of  them  the  murderers  and  their 
children"  {Church  Missionary  Gleaner,  Oct.  1895,  p.  146a).  She  has  since  gone. 
Miss  Codrington,  who  alone  escaped  death  of  the  devoted  band,  has,  after  recovering 
from  her  wounds,  rejoined  the  Mission;  and  the  old  saying,  "The  blood  of  Christians 
is  a  seed,"  is  once  more  proved  true,  for  converts  are  more  numerous  than  ever. 

30  Sir  T.  F.  "Wade,  of  King's  College,  Professor  of  Chinese,  died  31  July  1895, 
and  was  buried  (like  Cardale  Babington)  at  Cherry  Hinton  5  Aug. 

3'  His  application,  a  model  of  modesty,  dated  24  May,  is  preserved  in  his  journal. 
Two  Johnians,  his  cousin  Churchill  and  Leonard  Jenyns  (afterwards  Blomefield), 
would  have  done  honour  to  the  chair.  His  friend,  M.  J.  Berkeley,  was  certainly 
named  at  the  time.  But  the  man  who  had  watched  each  plant  and  tree  from  the 
first,  Henslow's  squire  in  thirty  campaigns  and  upwards,  was  allowed  to  walk  over 
the  course. 


Addendum,  insert  in  p.  xxx  1.  5  (after  elms).  '  Ev'n  from  the  tomb  the  voice  of 
Nature  cries.'  No  marble  slab,  flat  and  unwieldy,  encumbers  his  bones,  but  Earth, 
as  in  the  old-world  blessing,  sinks  light  upon  them,  turf  around  growing  green  at 
will,  flowers  gleaming  on  the  mould,  birds  warbling  overhead,  winds,  showers  and 
sunshine  in  full  play.  It  is  a  haunt  of  Peace,  emblem  of  a  gentle  life,  of  a  guide 
who,  like  Eastern  and  Grecian  sages,  set  up  his  school  by  babbling  brook  or  still 
tarn,  in  hidden  glen  or  on  open  mountain  side. 


REMINISCENCES. 


Yet  nature's  charms,  the  hills  and  woods, 
The  sweeping  vales  and  foaming  floods, 

Are  free  alike  to  all. 
In  days  when  daisies  deck  the  ground, 

And  blackbirds  whistle  clear. 
With  honest  joy  our  hearts  will  bound 
To  see  the  coming  year. 

Burns. 

I    By  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Babington.* 

The  following  lines  from  the  pen  of  a  relative  who  knew 
him  intimately  may  be  of  interest  to  some  readers. 

It  is  always  difficult  to  give  strangers  a  true  and  adequate 
picture  of  a  dear  relative  and  an  intimate  friend ;  but  to  draw  a 
picture  of  Charles  Cardale  Babington  is  a  task  of  peculiar  difficulty, 
for  no  one  could  have  been  more  retiring  and  self-repressed,  or 
more  reluctant  to  obtrude  his  thoughts  and  opinions  unsolicited. 
Indeed,  his  humility  was  perhaps  the  most  striking  feature  of  his 
beautiful  character.  You  might  have  discussed  Botany  with  him 
by  the  hour,  without  discovering  from  any  words  of  his  that  he  had 
gained  a  European  reputation  in  that  particular  branch  of  science. 
There  was  nothing  dogmatic  in  his  tone,  nothing  overbearing  in  his 
arguments,  no  shade  of  contempt  for  the  opinions  of  others  less 
gifted,  no  tinge  of  jealousy  lest  his  reputation  should  be  eclipsed 
by  the  fame  of  rivals.  It  was  probably  this  virtue  which  made 
him  so  patient  a  listener.  The  most  ignorant  and  importunate 
questioner  could  not  weary  or  annoy  him ;  he  was  as  ready  to 
bring  out  the  rich  stores  of  his  knowledge  for  the  humblest  be- 
ginner as  for  the  ablest  man  of  science,  to  explain  what  was 
obscure,  to  restate  truths  which  were  not  apprehended,  to  set 
facts  in  their  true  relation  to  theories.  If  it  be  asked  what  was 
the  source  of  this  humility,  I  should  unhesitatingly  reply,  his 
religious  faith.  His  life  was  a  perpetual  commentary  on  St.  Paul's 
words,  "  What  hast  thou  that  thou  didst  not  receive  ?  Now  if 
thou  didst  receive  it,  why  dost  thou  glory  as  if  thou  hadst  not 

•  The  Rev.  John  Albert  Babington,  third  son  of  Thomas  Gisborne  Babington 
(of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  B.A.  1811,  M.A.  1815),  Esq.,  of  Namur.  The  son 
was  of  New  College,  Oxford,  B.A.  and  M.A.  1872.  Born  13  Nov.  1843,  married 
29  June  1876  Emily  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  William  Gardner  (of  Qu.  Coll.  Cambr. 
B.A.  1848,  M.A.  1852),  Vicar  of  Orpington.  Mr.  Babington  was  Assistant  Master 
at  Marlborough  College  1867 — 75,  Head  Master  of  Lincoln  Grammar  School  1875 
— 80 ;  he  has  been  Assistant  Master  at  Tonbridge  School  since  1880. 


xxxvi  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

received  it  ? "  If,  as  he  firmly  believed,  the  student  of  science 
was  not  only  increasing  the  sum  of  human  knowledge,  but  was  also 
consecrating  his  powers  to  the  service  of  God,  what  possible  reason 
was  there  for  petty  self-glorification  or  for  idle  vanity  1  How  could 
the  sense  of  mental  powers  or  intellectual  achievements  dare  to 
fling  its  shadow  upon  the  awful  light  which  encompassed  the  God 
of  Nature  ?  Scarcely  less  remarkable  than  his  humility  was  his 
sincerity.  In  an  age  of  exaggerated  expressions  and  emotional 
writing,  it  was  a  real  lesson  to  listen  to  the  conversation  of  one 
who  set  a  watch  upon  his  lips  with  jealous  care  ;  who  never  said 
a  word  more  than  he  really  meant ;  who  was  never  betrayed  into 
the  use  of  superlatives  for  the  sake  of  effect,  and  who  eschewed  all 
epithets  of  high-flown  eulogy  or  extravagant  depreciation.  He  did 
not  need  to  retract  opinions  which  he  had  expressed,  to  qualify 
admissions  which  he  had  made,  to  modify  statements  which  he  had 
hastily  uttered.  He  did  not,  when  speaking,  think  of  the  impression 
which  he  was  making  on  his  hearers.  An  inmate  of  the  fabled  Palace 
of  Truth  could  not  have  been  less  self-conscious  or  more  perfectly 
natural.  This  sincerity  was  especially  conspicuous  in  his  religious 
faith.  Deep  and  intense  as  his  convictions  were,  he  bore  them  in 
his  heart,  not  on  his  lips ;  he  shewed  them  by  his  life,  not  by  his 
words.  Though  he  was  always  ready  to  obey  the  Apostle's  maxim 
by  giving  a  reason  for  the  hope  that  was  in  him,  he  did  not  think 
it  necessary  to  prove  the  sincerity  of  his  religion  by  his  vehemence 
or  his  persistency  in  asserting  it.  When  he  had  occasion  to  give 
his  opinion  on  sacred  subjects,  his  utterances  were  as  measured  and 
weighty,  as  unaffectedly  simple,  as  free  from  all  taint  of  insincerity, 
as  his  ordinary  conversation. 

It  may  be  well  to  point  out  how  influential  his  religious 
example  was.  In  the  life  of  a  University,  where  spiritual  aims  are 
only  too  often  overborne  by  intellectual  and  scientific  interests,  a 
religious  layman  in  many  ways  wields  a  greater  power  for  good 
than  a  clergyman.  If  he  is  really  earnest,  he  is  not  suspected,  even 
by  the  most  sceptical,  of  being  actuated  by  self-interested  motives  or 
professional  zeal.  The  reality  of  his  spiritual  life  appeals  even  to 
those  who  are  generally  indifferent  to  religion.  Such  was  the  force 
of  Charles  Babington's  example  during  sixty  years  in  the  University 
which  he  loved  and  served  so  well.  Those  who  scrutinized  him 
most  closely,  could  detect  no  inconsistency  in  his  spiritual  walk  and 
conversation.  It  was  evident  to  the  most  careless  observer  that  his 
life  was  built  upon  the  One  Foundation,  and  that  the  truths  which 
he  held  had  been  proved  by  him  to  be  the  power  of  God  unto 
salvation.  The  consciousness  of  this  practical  power  of  true  religion 
led  him  to  take  a  peculiar  interest  in  the  history  of  Christian  missions. 
In  his  opinion  they  pre-eminently  justified  the  application  to  the 
Christian  church  of  the  famous  motto,  'Esse  quam  videri,'  for  there 
could  be  no  unreality  about  a  faith  which  gave  men  strength  to 
renounce  their  whole  past,  to  break  the  strongest  ties  which  bind 


REMINISCENCES.  xxxvu 

men  to  the  life  of  this  present  world,  and  to  become  humble  and 
sincere  followers  of  the  crucified  Galilean.  The  same  feeling  made 
him  turn  instinctively,  not  so  much  to  religious  books  and  to 
commentaries  on  the  Bible,  as  to  the  constant  study  of  God's  Word, 
and  to  the  ceaseless  repetition  of  the  beautiful  hymns  which  during 
the  course  of  two  centuries  and  a  half  have  enriched  our  English 
hymnals,  and  which  were  dear  to  him  as  the  simplest  and  most 
complete  expression  of  the  Christian's  deepest  emotions. 

It  would  be  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  Charles  Babington's 
intellectual  tastes  were  exclusively  scientific.  The  fact  that  he 
devoted  himself  at  the  same  time  to  two  branches  of  study  differing 
so  widely  as  botany  and  archaeology,  would  be  sufficient  proof  to 
the  contrary.  Indeed,  his  study  of  archaeology  may  be  said  to 
have  widened  his  interests  until  they  extended  over  almost  the 
whole  field  of  human  thought  and  action.  He  was  a  great  reader, 
and  his  reading  covered  a  singularly  wide  range.  In  addition  to 
books  which  dealt  with  his  special  lines  of  study,  he  devoured  books 
of  travel,  biographies,  histories,  and  fiction.*  During  his  prolonged 
retii'ement  after  his  serious  illness,  all  Sir  Walter  Scott's  novels  were 
read  through  to  him,  and  he  delighted  in  their  racy  humour,  as  well 
as  in  their  inimitable  portraiture  of  every  type  of  human  character. 
But,  as  was  natural,  the  antiquarian  spirit  of  the  great  magician 
had  a  special  attraction  for  him ;  and  he  profoundly  admired  the 
genius  Avhich  clothed  the  dead  bones  of  the  past,  and  made  them 
start  to  life  in  the  crucible  of  a  glowing  imagination. 

There  are  two  more  traits  in  his  character,  upon  which  I  would 
fain  touch  in  a  few  words  before  I  close.  The  first  was  his  deep 
though  undemonstrative  devotion  to  his  University  and  College. 
No  one  could  have  lived  more  completely  in  the  spirit  of  the 
ancient  maxim,  "Spartam  nactus  es,  banc  exorna."  It  is  scarcely 
an  exaggeration  to  say,  that  every  stone  in  Cambridge  was  dear  to 
him.  I  well  remember  the  eagerness  with  which,  not  long  before 
his  death,  he  sent  me  to  inspect  the  recent  excavations  at  Jesus 
College.  A  talk  about  University  and  College  antiquities  had  a 
real  fascination  for  him. 

He  watched  with  eager  solicitude  the  wide  and  numerous 
changes  in  the  educational  course  at  the  University,  and  spoke 
with  deep  thankfulness  of  the  opportunities  which  had  been  given 
young  men  within  recent  years  of  studying  fresh  subjects  of  world- 
wide interest.  Such  subjects,  he  would  emphatically  add,  had  in 
his  undergraduate  days  been  almost  a  sealed  book.  The  affection 
which  the  University  as  a  whole  called  forth  in  him,  was  lavished 
with  a  peculiar  tenderness  upon  his  own  College.  Everything 
Johnian  had  a  marked  claim  upon  his  sympathy  and  interest; 
he  was  jealous  with  a  noble  jealousy,  for  the  honour,  the  efficiency, 
and  the  prosperity  of  St.  John's ;  and  it  may  confidently  be  asserted, 

*  This  latter  only  of  the  highest  kind. — Ed. 


xxxvm  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

that  if  he  had  succeeded  to  an  earldom  or  a  dukedom,  it  would 
have  given  him  far  less  pleasure  than  his  election  as  Fellow  of  the 
College,  with  which  his  life  for  more  than  half  a  century  had  been 
identified. 

The  second  trait  of  which  I  would  speak  was  his  unflagging 
industry.  Up  to  the  close  of  his  life  he  could  not  endure  an  hour 
of  idleness  :  waste  of  time,  whether  it  took  the  form  of  aimless 
frivolity,  or  of  dislike  of  work,  provoked  his  gentle  spirit  to  undis- 
guised impatience.  His  own  success  in  life,  and  his  distinguished 
reputation,  were  largely  due  to  his  never  wasting  a  single  day.  He 
could  heartily  endorse  BufFon's  famous  definition,  that  genius  is  a 
long  patience :  and  when  we  remember  the  spirit  of  consecration 
which  he  brought  to  all  his  work,  we  may  truly  say  that  he  was  a 
perpetual  witness  to  the  truth  of  the  motto,  '  Laborare  est  orare.' 

II    By  H.  R.  Francis,  Esq.* 

When  I  wish  to  arrange  and  put  into  shape  my  recollections 
of  Professor  Babington — and  the  wish  comes  to  me  very  frequently 
— though  my  shallow  smattering  of  popular  science  places  me  in 
one  sense  quite  beyond  all  hope  of  comprehending  the  range  of  his 
scientific  attainments,  I  find  myself  dealing  with  a  character  which 
was  deeply  interesting  in  a  moral  point  of  view.  I  can  see  that 
there  must  have  been  essentially  kindred  spirits  among  the  very 
foremost  of  our  scientific  men.  Faraday,  for  instance,  must  have 
had  the  same  divine  gift  of  feeling  all  his  intellectual  powers  as 
something  not  his  own,  but  given  him  in  trust,  as  talents  for  the 
profitable  employment  of  which  he  would  be  held  responsible  on 
the  Great  Day  of  Account.  But  Professor  Babington  was  the  only 
man  of  that  rare  and  exalted  stamp  with  whom  I  could  claim  a 
certain  intimacy.  And  I  always  felt  that  his  simple  sense  of 
stewardship  over  all  his  mental  stores  was  at  once  a  rare  and 
beautiful  thing.  He  seemed  to  have  no  need  for  bewildering  him- 
self with  nice  items  of  debt  and  credit,  with  "the  lore  of  nicely 
calculated  less  or  more."  All  that  he  knew,  all  that  he  was,  seemed 
to  be  held  by  him  in  trust,  not  so  much  from  a  strict  calculation  of 
duty,  as  from  a  loving  instinct  of  usefulness,  coupled  with  a  sense 
of  gratitude  for  being  permitted  to  be  an  instrument  of  good. 

So  again,  were  I  questioned  as  to  his  moral  and  religious  views, 
I  could  not  pretend  to  analyse  or  separate  them.  I  should  find 
myself  carried  back  to  the  comprehensive  simplicity  of  the  Saviour's 
teaching;  to  the  "first  and  great  commandment,"  which  was  the 
mainspring  of  my  friend's  blameless  life,  and  to  "the  second,  like 

*  Son  of  Philip  Francis,  of  St.  John's  (son  of  "Junius"),  B.A.  1790,  M.A. 
1794.  Henry  Ralph  Francis,  of  St.  John's,  B.A.  1834,  M.A.  1837.  Elected 
Foundation  Fellow  6  April,  admitted  7  April  1835.  On  the  19th  March  1839  Benj. 
Morgan  Cowie,  now  Dean  of  Exeter,  succeeded  to  his  fellowship.  He  became 
District  Court  Judge  of  Sydney,  N.S.W.,  28  Jan.  1848. 


REMINISCENCES.  xxxix 

unto  it,"  which  claimed  his  free  and  joyful  obedience.  More  than 
this  can  hardly  be  said,  yet  to  say  less  would  be  a  wrong  to  his 
memory. 

FIELD-PREACHING. 

The  meanest  floweret  of  the  vale, 
The  simplest  note  that  swells  the  gale, 
The  common  sun,  the  air,  the  skies, 
To  him  are  opening  Paradise. — T.  Gbat. 

I    By  Professor  E.  B.  Cowell. 

[Professor  Cowell  kindly  sends  reminiscences  of"  walks  with  Babingtou," 
a  frequent  entry  in  Hort's  journals,  from  an  early  date.  I  never  had 
the  luck  to  watch  the  Naturalist  in  his  element.  Often  as  we  were 
together,  it  was  always  under  cover,  till  towards  the  end,  when  I  sur- 
prised him  now  and  again  gazing  peacefully  on  his  lair,  the  Botanic 
Garden,  from  a  Bath-chair.  Otherwise  the  passion  for  hunting  plants, 
strong  in  my  boyhood,  must  have  cast  its  spell  upon  me  once  more, 
after  many  days. — J.E.B.M.] 

Professor  Babington  knew  every  corner  of  Cambridgeshire 
from  long  personal  examination ;  it  was  his  botanical  parish ;  and 
he  could  tell  always  beforehand  what  plants  to  look  for  in  any 
locality  at  any  given  season.  He  was  thus  the  very  person  to 
inspire  a  botanical  enthusiasm,  for  his  eye  at  once  detected  the 
objects  of  interest,  and  he  knew  all  that  they  had  to  tell.  Expe- 
ditions with  him  to  Thetford,  Chippenham,  the  old  Roman  Road, 
Wicken  Fen,  and  many  a  similar  locality,  remain  golden  retrospects 
in  one's  life;  they  opened  his  companion's  eyes  to  hitherto  un- 
noticed interests  in  field  and  lane.  He  had  learned  by  experience 
that  everybody,  unless  he  has  already  an  absorbing  pursuit  of  his 
own,  is  a  potential  botanist;  it  only  requires  an  enthusiastic 
teacher,  and  the  ready  audience  will  be  found  everywhere. 

He  knew  North  Wales  nearly  as  well  as  Cambridgeshire,  and 
I  shall  never  forget  our  many  rambles  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Snowdon, — one  especially  in  Cwm  glas  in  1878,  when  we  hunted 
out  all  the  rare  plants  which  hide  themselves  in  that  rocky  solitude. 
One  could  have  almost  fancied  that  they  were  glad  to  attract  his 
eye  as  he  passed.  His  great  interest  was  in  the  plants  themselves 
as  living  organisms,  and  in  tracing  their  relations  to  each  other  and 
their  surroundings ;  and  his  enthusiasm  could  hardly  fail  to  kindle 
an  answering  glow  in  the  listener.  I  have  often  seen  him  interest  a 
casual  audience  in  a  railway  carriage,  as  he  pointed  out  an  unknown 
part  or  function  in  some  apparently  well-known  flower;  a  furze 
blossom  or  an  umbellate  flower  would  thus  gain  a  new  significance ; 
and  these  accidental  hints  might  easily  wake  up  a  new  and  life-long 
interest  in  a  young  hearer.  I  have  often  since  adapted  his  lessons 
to  small  audiences  of  my  own,  proud  to  be  thus  the  medium  to 
hand  on  the  benefits  of  his  teaching. 

Auff.  15,  1895. 


xl  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 


II    By  Mrs.  R.  B.  Batty.* 

You  kindly  say  you  would  like  to  have  my  reminiscences  of 
your  husband,  my  own  husband's  valued  friend  of  Cambridge  days, 
my  reminiscences  especially  of  the  meeting  with  you  and  him  in 
lovely  Connemara.  I  remember  my  joy  at  finding  you  both  in  the 
primitive  inn  at  Clifden, — an  abode  which  proved  so  delightful  to 
me,  and  I  think  to  yourselves,  although  the  old  French  chevalier, 
our  fellow-guest,  would  have  had  "  plus  de  convenances,  et  beaucoup 
plus  de  complaisance  !  "  Professor  Babington's  kindly  nature  over- 
looked deficiencies,  accepted  unsophisticated  civilities,  heeded  not 
broken  panes,  nor  the  necessity  to  prop  the  windows  with  forks  or 
bottles ;  and  when  you  invited  a  party  of  friends,  including  myself, 
and  some  of  the  clergy  and  young  school  teachers  of  the  place,  to 
tea  in  your  private  room,  and  the  teapot,  weighted  with  tea-leaves 
of  many  days'  accumulation,  fell  from  your  hand  to  the  floor,  how 
ready  he  was,  after  assuring  himself  that  you  were  not  hurt,  to 
laugh  heartily  at  the  little  contretemps,  and  its  evident  cause.  How 
pleasant  and  enjoyable  was  the  meal,  seasoned  with  his  gentle 
courtesy,  and  always  instructive  conversation,  followed  at  his  sug- 
gestion by  the  reading  of  a  chapter,  and  singing  of  some  hymns 
before  we  separated.  Truly  he  was  a  man  of  science  loving  God, 
and  acknowledging  Him  in  all  His  works. 

How  charming  was  the  drive,  in  which  I  was  privileged  to 
join,  to  the  romantic  village  of  Roundstone,  in  that  ancient  full- 
bodied  coach,  of  the  comforts  or  discomforts  of  which  no  heed 
could  be  taken,  whilst  he  called  attention  to  the  wild  and  beautiful 
landscape,  or  the  little  sparking  lakes  with  which  the  district 
abounds,  explaining  how  those  to  the  right  were  salt  water,  being 
in  connexion  with  the  Connemara  Bay,  with  ebb  and  flow  from  the 
Atlantic  Ocean,  whilst  those  on  the  other  hand  are  fresh  Avater 
lakes,  fed  by  numberless  mountain  streamlets.  How  his  eye  was 
ever  on  the  alert  for  blossoms  amidst  the  wide  expanse  of  golden, 
fruit-scented  gorse,  and  heaths  of  every  tint  of  pink  or  white. 
Then  came  the  hush,  and  our  excitement,  as  we  neared  the  spot 
where  the  Professor  expected  to  find  one  rare  and  choice  variety. 
Presently  leaning  out  he  called  to  the  driver  to  stop,  left  the 
coach,  and  walking  a  few  steps  forward,  plunged  his  hand  into 
a  tuft  of  crimson  heather.  He  plucked  out  a  spray  of  heath, — 
I  see  him  now,  as  I  saw  him  then,  with  the  look  of  quiet  satisfaction 
on  his  earnest,  kindly  face :  "Yes,  I  have  it,"  said  the  Professor,  as 

*  "Widow  of  Robert  Braithwaite  Batty,  fellow  of  Emmanuel  (second  wrangler, 
B.A.  1853,  M.A.  1856).  He  was  elder  son  of  the  late  Lieut.-Col.  Batty,  Grenadier 
Guards,  of  Ridgmount  Place,  Amptbill.  On  24  July  1860,  he  married  at  St.  James's, 
Piccadilly,  Beatrice,  eldest  daughter  of  Hen.  Stebbing,  D.D.,  Rector  of  St.  Mary's, 
Upper  Thames  Street  {Cambr.  Indep.  Press,  28  July  1860).  He  died,  as  a  missionary 
of  the  C.M.S.,  at  the  mission  house,  Amritzar,  22  June  1861,  aei.  32  {Cambr.  Chron.y 
17  Aug.  1861  bis). 


REMINISCENCES.  xli 

he  stepped,  happy  and  content,  into  the  carriage.  How  eagerly  we 
all  regarded  the  treasure !  to  us  it  looked  much  like  the  other  heaths 
around,  but  he  assured  us  that  it  was  not  so. 

Often  have  I  told  this  story  since,  and  I  love  to  think  of  it 
now,  and  to  remember  that  I  was  a  privileged  witness  of  the 
interesting  incident.  How  delightful  was  the  further  drive  that 
day,  over  the  heathy  hills,  and  down  to  Roundstone  Bay,  your 
husband  telling  of  how  strange  plants  have  been  floated  across  in 
the  seed  from  the  Spanish  Main ;  and  discoursing  of  the  formation 
of  rocks  and  boulders — and  anon  speaking  of  the  foundation  of  the 
church  and  school  at  Moyrus,  that  far  outlying  district  of  the  Irish 
Church  Missions,  which  we  were  to  visit  from  Roundstone.  The 
nearest  access  from  the  mainland  being  nine  miles  across  a  rough 
bit  of  sea,  the  poor  inhabitants  had  been  left  in  a  state  of  heathen 
darkness  and  neglect,  till  the  Irish  Church  Missions  took  it  up. 
How  interested  your  husband  was,  in  the  reception  of  school- 
children, pastor,  and  people,  on  that  rugged  shore, — so  wild  and 
lonely  and  far-away,  that  everything  appeared,  as  he  said,  almost 
patriarchal ;  the  simple  hospitality  at  the  parsonage,  the  hymns  of 
welcome  on  the  beach,  the  little  children  coming  to  help  you  to 
pick  up  pink  cowries  and  beautiful  shells  upon  the  shore.  But 
why  do  I  write  this  1  All  this,  and  more,  you  may  so  much  better 
recount,  only  perhaps  it  may  serve  as  the  testimony  of  one  apart 
from  yourself,  to  the  largeness  of  heart  and  religious  earnestness  of 
character  which  so  enhanced  the  value  of  that  life,  which  although 
a  long  one  has  proved  all  too  short,  alas,  for  you,  and  for  those 
many  friends  by  whom  your  husband  was  beloved,  honoured,  and 
admired. 

Enthusiastic  botanist  as  he  was,  he  could  lay  aside  his  flowers, 
and  give  up  his  search  for  specimens,  to  listen  to  the  examination 
of  a  bevy  of  Irish  village  children  on  the  '  Hundred  Texts ; '  he 
could  as  sincerely  give  his  mind  to  the  subjects  brought  forward  at 
a  missionary  meeting,  as  to  the  matter  discussed  at  a  meeting  of  the 
Natural  History  Society;  and  some  of  my  most  delightful  memories 
of  him  attach  to  a  happy  visit  to  your  Cambridge  home,  when,  after 
a  breakfast  at  which  various  guests  had  assembled,  those  guests 
were  invited  by  the  Professor  to  join  in  family  prayers  before  they 
separated.     This  is  the  touch  which  gives  the  key  note  to  his  life. 

With  you  I  truly  mourn  his  loss, — how  many  must  do  tljp 
same !  A  valued  friend  less  in  the  world,  one  more  link  with 
Heaven.     God  bless  and  comfort  you  with  that  last  thought. 

P.S. — His  radiant,  boyish  delight  over  the  scenery  and  flora,  on 
that  delightful  drive  which  you  took  with  us  from  Braemar  to 
Glenshee,  on  one  of  the  brightest  of  bright  September  days  in 
1888,  I  cannot  forget, — nor  I  am  sure,  can  you. — B.  B. 


xlii  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

LETTERS   WRITTEN  TO  A.  M.  B. 
From  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Durham. 

Auckland  Castle,  Bishop  Auckland, 
Aug.  3,  1895. 

.  .  .  •  I  will  not  weary  you  with  many  words,  but  I  should  like 
to  assure  you  that  Mrs.  Westcott  and  I  most  truly  sympathise  with 
you  in  your  sorrow.  Cambridge  has  indeed  suffered  many  and 
heavy  losses  since  we  left  five  years  ago. 

Your  own  work  will  give  you  the  fullest  consolation,  and  keep 
fresh  the  happiest  memories.  I  have  often  thought  of  our  meeting 
at  the  top  of  Morrone  in  1888. 

From  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Gloucester  and  Bristol. 

The  Palace,  Glouchster, 

Sept.  29,  1895. 

...  I  return  you  my  best  thanks  for  having  sent  me  a  memorial 
of  your  very  distinguished  husband.  I  have  read  it  with  great 
interest,  and  though  I  well  knew  how  earnestly  your  dear  husband 
worked,  I  was  really  amazed  at  the  long  record  of  his  successful 
and  ceaseless  industry  and  talent.  The  sample  of  his  journal  is 
extremely  interesting.  It  must  be  a  great  consolation  to  you  to 
see  hoAv  heartily,  not  only  his  works,  but  his  simple  and  high 
character  are  appreciated.  .  .  . 

From  the  Very  Rev.  the  Master  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 

July  23,   1895. 

....  I  see  that  the  long  dreaded  blow  has  at  last  fallen.  Pray 
accept  the  true  Christian  sympathy  of  us  both.  Your  dear  husband 
has  long  enjoyed  the  profound  respect  of  Cambridge,  and  his  pure 
and  gracious  memory  will  long  live  among  us.  You  will  have  many 
hearts  near  you  in  these  lonely  hours,  and  your  own  faith  and  hope 
will  not  fail.  .  .  . 

Sept.  19,  1895 I  cannot  thank  you  enough  for  your 

letter,  and  for  sending  me  those  two  most  beautiful  tributes  to 
your  dear  husband's  memory.  The  example  he  has  set  during 
these  long  years  of  all  that  is  truth-loving,  tender,  and  Christ-like, 
cannot  be  without  its  fruit,  even  in  years  to  come.  To  yourself  the 
change  must  indeed  be  sad,  but  there  is  a  loneliness  not  always 
lonely,  into  which  it  is  your  privilege  to  enter  ;  a  loneliness  full  of 
a  Heavenly  Presence  in  which  what  we  seem  to  have  lost  lives  again, 
and  lives  even  more  fully. 

(To  Prof.  Mayor.)  Oct.  13,  1895.  Thank  you  much  for  so 
kindly  sending  me  your  translations  of  those  pithy  and  pious 
German  words.  Mrs.  Babington  sent  me  your  really  beautiful 
tribute  to  her  excellent  husband.     He  belonged  to  a  noble  type. 


REMINISCENCES.  xliii 

One  asks  oneself  whether  that  particular  mould  of  goodness  and 
intellectual  power  is  yet  broken.     I  hope  not.  .  .  . 

[Cardale  Babington  toward  the  end  of  his  life  endorsed  the  Vicar's 
appeal  for  a  Memorial  Institute  in  St.  Barnabas',  Cambridge,  a  parish 
of  near  7000  souls,  the  second  parish  in  Ely  diocese  in  point  of 
population.  "  From  the  intimate  connexion,"  he  said,  "  which  I 
have  had  with  the  parish  of  St.  Barnabas  from  its  very  foundation, 
I  am  able  most  cordially  to  support  this  appeal.  Such  a  building 
is  indeed  very  greatly  wanted,  and  I  hope  and  fully  believe  that 
the  sum  required  will  be  obtained.  I  also  heartily  concur  with  the 
Vicar  in  his  touching  desire  thus  to  commemorate  my  dear  and 
lamented  friends,  Bishop  Parker  and  Jani  AUi,  in  the  parish  where 
they  did  much  good  work  when  undergraduates  at  Cambridge." 
After  Babington's  death  his  name  was  added  to  those  of  his  friends. 
Some  .£1400  are  required  in  all.  The  site  for  the  Institute  was  given 
by  the  Master  and  Fellows  of  Gonville  and  Caius  College,  and  the 
ioundation-stone  was  laid  by  Dr.  Charles  Taylor,  Master  of  St.  John's 
College,  on  St.  John's  Day,  6  May  1897.  The  Master  of  Trinity, 
•as  reported  by  the  Cambridge  Chronicle,  7  May,  p.  7,  spoke  as 
iollows— J.E.B.M.J: 

So  far  they  might  have  been  assisting  at  almost  any  one  of  those 
remarkable  developments  of  Christian  zeal  for  the  purpose  of  Christian 
teaching  under  the  very  shadow  of  their  parish  church.  All  such  works 
were  the  sign  of  true  Christian  growth,  and  every  man  in  every  parish  ought 
to  be  thankful  to  be  able  to  take  part  in  it.  But  most  of  them,  he  was  sure, 
must  be  aware  that  that  particular  function  of  theirs  that  day  had  something 
special  and  peculiar,  and,  he  would  add,  pathetic,  connected  with  it,  which 
made  it  different  in  some  respects  from  other  functions  which  otherwise  were 
similar.  They  were  not  only  that  day  in  the  faith  of  Christ  erecting  a  solid 
work  which  they  believed  to  be  for  the  good  of  His  children,  but  they  were 
•also  erecting  a  memorial  to  a  good  man,  a  devout  Christian,  a  deeply  loved 
.and  revered  friend.  There  were  many  friends  present,  he  doubted  not,  who 
knew  even  better  than  himself  the  great  services  which  Professor  Babington 
rendered  both  to  the  College  and  the  Universitj'^  in  which  for  so  many  years 
he  held  so  commanding  a  position,  but  still  more  to  the  cause  of  Christ  and 
His  Church.  Happy  was  that  University  which  could  count  amongst  its 
public  servants  one  distinguished  man  after  another  who  was  not  only 
recognised  as  an  expert  and  an  authority  in  his  own  special  branch  of 
learning,  but  also  as  a  devout,  an  energetic,  and  deeply  earnest  Christian. 
It  was  a  remarkable  fact  that  the  last  two  Professors  of  Botany  held  their 
■distinguished  office  for  no  less  a  period  than  seventy  years  together — 
from  1825  to  1895,  and  both  were  members  of  the  illustrious  college,  the 
Master  of  which  had  that  day  laid  that  foundation-stone.  Each  of  them  was 
a  great  light  to  many  in  his  day.  They  knew  that  the  memory  of  Professor 
Babington  was  one  of  those  which  neither  the  University,  nor  the  Town  of 
'Cambridge,  nor  the  Church  of  Christ  in  Cambridge,  would  readily  allow  to 
■die.  They  knew  how  rapidly  the  names  even  of  the  most  beloved  slipped 
into  forgetfulness,  but  so  long  as  this  building,  which  was  about  to  be  reared, 
remained  to  do  its  beneficent  work  for  Christ  in  that  parish,  and  so  long  as 
that  stone  was  seen  by  passers-by  to  record  the  day  of  its  foundation,  so  long, 
he  ventured  to  say,  the  name  of  their  dear  friend  and  benefactor,  Professor 
Babington,  would  be  a  name  in  Cambridge  for  reverence  and  for  love. 


xliv  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

From  the  Rev.  the  Master  of  Clare  College,  Camhidge. 

Oct.  2,  1895. 

....  I  beg  you  to  accept  my  sincere  thanks  for  your  kindness, 
in  sending  me  a  copy  of  Professor  Mayor's  Memoir  of  Professor 
Babington.  I  have  read  it  with  great  interest  and  admiration  of  the 
character  and  many-sided  acquirements  of  our  late  Professor.  He 
was  indeed  a  great  power  for  good  in  Cambridge  throughout  an 
unusually  long  term  of  years,  and  retained  to  the  last  a  power  for 
influencing  younger  men  which  is  rare  in  persons  of  advanced  years. 
I  learn  a  great  deal  from  the  Memoir  which  I  did  not  know  of  his 
earlier  years  in  the  University,  and  he  is  quite  one  of  those  of  whom 
the  more  we  know,  the  more  we  regret  their  loss.  .  .  . 

From  the  Rev.  the  Master  of  St.  Catharine's  College, 
Cambridge. 

July  23,  1895. 

.  .  .  Your  dear  husband  has  gone  down  to  the  grave  "  as  a  shock 
of  corn  Cometh  in  his  season,"  beloved,  honoured,  and  esteemed  above 
all  who  have  left  us  in  Cambridge  in  recent  years.  If  one  point  in 
his  character  struck  me  more  than  another  it  was  his  spirit  of  bene- 
volence and  Christian  charity — the  charity  that  thinketh  no  evil ; 
that  hopeth  all  things — that  would  embrace  all  men.  It  must 
be  some  help  to  you  to  know  how  universally  he  was  beloved,  and 
now  how  deeply  he  is  regretted  by  all.  I  suppose  my  knowledge 
of  him  goes  back  further  than  most  residents',  for  I  used  to  meet 
him  at  our  college  table  as  Archdeacon  Hard  wick's  guest  in  and 
after  1853.  And  in  all  those  years  there  was  no  other  opinion  that 
I  heard  except  that  of  respect  and  affection. 

How  much  he  enjoyed  life  to  the  end  :  those  visits  with  you 
to  the  Yorkshire  dales,  will  be  treasured  recollections  of  unmixed 
enjoyment  and  bright  mental  activity.  .  .  .  And  now  you  will  feel 
that  with  enlarged  faculties  of  mind  and  heart — of  intelligence  and 
of  love — he  is  happy  for  ever  with  his  Saviour,  only  waiting  for  the 
meeting  which  knows  no  parting.  I  shall  never  forget  the  happy 
visits  I  have  paid  to  him,  and  regard  them  as  some  of  my  happiest 
memories.  .  .  . 

(To  Prof.  Mayor.)  Nov.  15,  1895.  ...  I  have  just  read  for  the 
second  time  your  genial  and  delightful  account  of  our  dear  old 
friend,  Charles  Cardale  Babington,  and  I  should  like  to  thank  you 
heartily  for  the  pleasure,  and  more,  I  hope,  and  for  the  justice^ 
which  it  has  done  to  the  memory  of  one  whom  most  of  us  will 
never  forget.  Of  course  it  goes  Avithout  saying  that  your  tract 
surprises  a  reader  with  its  wide  and  varied  information,  to  which 
Babington's  wide  range  of  interest  is  in  a  sense  a  parallel.  But  to 
us  its  great  value  is,  that  it  shews  the  world  how  wide  was  the  reach 
of  Babington's  knowledge,  and  how  far  juster  and  broader  were 


REMINISCENCES.  xlv 

opinions  which  were  drawn  from  an  extensive  view  of  his  science 
and  of  other  sciences,  than  those  which  are  now  drawn  from  the 
knowledge  which,  however  acute,  is  after  all  only  specialistic.  Such 
may  be  far  more  narrow,  cramped,  and  even  shallow  than  the  older 
science,  which  surveyed  an  ampler  field.  On  higher  points  you  have 
left  no  doubt, — his  breadth  of  sympathy  with  good  men  and  good 
works  and,  as  might  be  added,  his  charitable  estimate  of  all  men 
— I  never  heard  a  bitter  or  bigoted  word  from  his  lips — his  joyous 
religion,  and  his  life  and  death  in  Christ.  Every  friend  of  his  will 
thank  you  that  he  passes  from  our  sight  yet  not  from  our  recollec- 
tions, with  such  a  record  as  yours.  .  .  . 

From  the  Eight  Rev.  Bishop  Selwyn,  Master  of  Selwyn  College. 

....  How  sorry  I  am  that  I  cannot  attend  the  funeral  of  your 
dear  husband,  as  I  am  so  far  away  from  Cambridge.  I  should  like 
to  have  done  so,  both  for  my  own  sake,  and  because  I  think  you 
would  have  liked  to  have  had  one  of  my  name  doing  honour  to  your 
husband's  memory.  I  shall  be  holding  a  Confirmation  about  the 
time  the  service  begins,  and  hope  to  remember  you  in  my  prayers 
then.  .  .  . 

From  the  Eev.  A.  M.  W.  Christopher. 

St.  Aldate's  Rectory,  Oxford, 

Juli/  SOth,  1896. 

....  1  Peter  i  3 — 9  will  cheer  you  in  your  mourning.  How 
near  the  Lord's  coming  and  the  resurrection  may  be  !  Your  beloved 
one  was  spared  long  to  you,  but  is  now  present  with  the  Lord.  The 
tenderest  cord  which  has  tied  you  to  this  earth  has  been  snapped, 
but  it  is  still  round  your  heart,  and  the  broken  end  is  in  your 
Father's  hand,  drawing  your  heart  towards  Heaven.  Very  many 
friends  have  been,  and  are  still  praying  for  you.  May  the  love  of 
God  be  shed  abroad  in  your  heart  by  the  Holy  Ghost  with  very 
special  power  at  this  time.  .  .  .  May  you  know  more  and  more  by 
experience  of  the  "  unsearchable  riches  "  in  Christ.  Be  sure  of  the 
deep  sympathy  of  my  dear  wife  and  myself.  .  .  . 

From  Herr  Baron  Sir  Ferdinand  v.  Muller,  F.R.S.* 

Melbourne, 

August  nth,  1895. 

(To  R.  Irwin  Lynch,  Esq.)  It  is  with  deep  sadness  that  I  learn 
of  the  venerable  Professor  Charles  C.  Babington  passing  away  from 
us,  the  Nestor  of  the  Linnean  Society  for  many  years,  the  true  and 
acute  investigator  of  the  British  Flora,  from  whose  work  I  have  also 

*  Died  9  October  1896  {Times,  10  Oct.  p.  9  col.  5). 


xlvi  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

profited  for  my  key  to  the  system  of  Victorian  plants,  the  genial 
friend  to  so  many  Phytologists,  including  the  writer  of  these  lines. 
You  will   particularly  feel  his  loss,   as   you  so  long  particularly 

cooperated  with  this  distinguished  veteran Perhaps  he  saw 

still  the  aged  Todea-fern,  which  I  sent  to  your  garden,  and  it  may 
have  been  a  source  of  novel  joy  to  him  to  have  seen  unfolding  the 
numerous  fronds  of  this  ancient  specimen. 

(To  Mrs.  C.  C.  B.)  .  .  .  .  I  now  express  once  more  my  high 
sense  of  appreciation  of  the  services  which  he  has  rendered  to  the 
science  of  plants,  not  only  through  his  admirable  teachings,  but  also 
by  his  applying  it  to  special  research  both  in  the  study  rooms  and 
in  the  fields  of  free  nature,  and  this  unabatingly  through  so  long  a 
space  of  time,  as  to  render  him  through  the  autumn  of  his  life  the 
Nestor  of  the  Linnean  Society.  As  the  genus  Bahingtonia  of  our 
never-to-be-forgotten  friend.  Professor  Lindley,  has  been  transferred 
to  the  Linnean  genus  Baeckea,  it  is  my  intention  to  bestow  that 
name  on  the  first  new  genus  which  may  here  in  Australia  be  dis- 
covered among  plants,  and  which  would  be  worthy  of  dedication  to 
an  illustrious  savant,  .  .  .  Since  the  last  fifty  years  and  more,  is 
cultivated  in  Britain  as  a  summer  annual,  and  in  conservatories  at 
all  times,  what  may  be  considered  the  most  graceful  and  handsome 
of  all  everlastings,  the  Helipterum  Rhodanthe  Manglesii.  As  collater- 
ally I  am  identified  with  this  charming  flower,  perhaps  you  may  like 
to  place  a  wreath  of  it  occasionally  on  the  tomb  of  3'our  celebrated 
consort,  which  would  signify,  that  also  here  at  the  Antipodes  we 
fully  recognise  the  important  bearings  of  Professor  Babington's 
discoveries  and  work  towards  biomorphic  knowledge. 

From  Nathaniel  Bridges,  Esq. 

Blackheath,  S.E., 

July  23,  1895. 

...  I  cherish  a  very  warm  recollection  of  the  dear  Professor's 
sweet  Christian  character,  and  must  always  feel  thankful  to  have 
been  from  time  to  time  in  contact  with  it.  .  .  .  Many  will  miss  at 
Braemar  his  well-known  form,  and  his  impressive  and  courteous 
presence,  as  also  his  well-considered  words  on  interesting  subjects, 
always  so  modestly  expressed.  In  these  bustling,  hurrying  days, 
such  characters  can  ill  be  spared,  but  we  must  not  lament,  when  we 
may  well  dwell  on  the  peace  and  blessedness  which  is  now  his 
heritage.  May  you  receive,  dear  Mrs.  Babington,  every  consolation 
which  He  alone  can  bestow  who  gave  you  that  which  He  has  now 
taken  to  Himself. 

Sept.  29 The  papers  you  have  sent  have  interested  me 

deeply  ;  these  are  among  the  many  testimonies  to  the  power  of  the 
dear  Professor's  character,  upon  those  (of  all  kinds)  with  whom  he 
was  in  contact,  a  power  expressed  by  few,  rather  than  many  words, 
and  sometimes  even  by  those  silent  influences  which  are  incapable 


REMINISCENCES.  xlvii 

of  definition.  Underneath  the  surface  of  things,  his  mind  would 
appear  to  have  been  always  at  work,  and  the  pen  followed,  and 
now  one  can  realize  to  the  full  the  power  that  was  there,  reminding 
one  of  Keble's  lines  : 

Like  the  violets  one  by  one. 

Soon  as  their  fragrant  task  is  done, 

Are  wafted  high  in  death. 

If  this  were  true  of  his  character  as  a  natural  philosopher,  I  feel 
sure  it  was  true  of  his  character  as  a  Christian,  whose  influence, 
without  many  words,  was  always  felt  by  those  who  were  in  touch 
with  him.  I  know  it  was  felt  by  many  at  Braemar,  who  would  not 
have  sympathised  with  those  deep  and  distinct  principles  of  Divine 
Truth  on  which  his  mind  rested,  and  which  found  expression  in  the 
life.  It  cannot  but  be  useful,  in  this  sceptical  age,  that  men  should 
know,  by  an  example  such  as  this,  how  the  highest  attainments  in 
the  studies  of  Nature,  can  be  blended  with  and  sanctified  by  an  un- 
swerving belief  in  the  Divine  Kevelation. 


From  Miss  Marsh. 

July  24,  1895. 

.  .  .  God  Himself  comfort  you  in  this  deep  affliction.  It  is 
indeed  the  uprooting  of  your  tender  heart  from  earth — by  carrying 
away  him  who  was  its  joy  and  strength — to  Heaven.  But  oh  [ 
what  rest  for  him,  after  all  his  suff'erings,  to  be  where  "Health 
triumphs  in  immortal  bloom,"  and  resting  with  infinite  content  in 
the  presence  of  his  Saviour ;  and  amidst  angels  and  archangels,  and 
all  the  company  of  Heaven. 

Soon  .  .  .  soon  you  will  see  him  coming  with  that  glorious  Saviour, 
to  regain  the  garment  of  his  soul,  raised  in  incorruption,  in  glory, 
in  power,  and  we  shall  be  changed  in  a  moment,  in  the  twinkling  of 
an  eye,  and  be  caught  up  together  with  our  beloved  saints  to  meet 
the  Lord  in  the  air,  and  so  (together  with  them)  to  be  forever  with 
the  Lord.  And  meanwhile  the  promise  is  yours,  from  the  Prince 
of  Peace,  your  own  beloved  Lord  and  Saviour,  "I  will  not  leave 
you  comfortless,  I  will  come  unto  you." 

From  the  Kev.  James  Macgrkgor,  D.D. 

3,  Eton  Terkacb,  Edinburgh, 

Aug.  10,  1895. 

....  Let  me  express  my  deep  sympathy  with  you  under  the 
loss  of  your  noble  husband,  who  has  gone  before  you  to  the  Blessed 
Rest. . 

You  were  all  in  all  to  one  another,  and  you  were  never  dearer 
to  one  another  than  now.  His  memory  is  a  glorious  legacy :  but 
what  shall  we  say  of  the  Blessed  Hope  ?    God  bless  and  comfort  you. 


xlviii  CHARLES  CAEDALE  BABINGTON. 

Frrnn  Prof.  G.  D.  Liveing,  F.R.S. 

Pension  de  Bel  Oiseatt, 

FiNSHAUTS,  Switzerland, 

July  25,  1895. 

....  I  cannot  let  the  sad  announcement  which  I  have  seen 
to-day  in  Tuesday's  Times  pass  without  writing  a  line  to  assure  you 
of  my  sympathy.  Professor  Babington  had  well  passed  the  usual  term 
of  human  life,  but  however  well  we  mayh  ave  been  prepared  for  the 
event,  the  separation  after  all  comes  as  a  shock,  and  to  you  on  whom 
he  has  been  for  some  time  so  much  dependent,  his  departure  will 
leave  a  great  gap.  I  cannot  help  looking  back  to  the  time,  more  than 
forty  years  ago,  when  I  first  made  his  acquaintance.  He  was  then 
the  central  figure  amongst  those  in  Cambridge  who  took  delight  in 
Natural  History,  and  his  simple  character  and  keen  interest  in  Nature 
were  very  attractive  to  younger  men  who  had  similar  likings.  He 
certainly  did  more  in  my  time  than  anyone  else  to  promote  the 
study  of  Natural  Science  in  the  University,  and  I,  who  have  lived 
through  many  changes,  can  perhaps  appreciate  better  than  most 
how  much  the  cause  of  Natural  Science  owes  to  him.  Such  a  one 
cannot  pass  away  without  our  recalling  how  much  he  has  done  in 
his  time.  .  .  . 


Frrnn  Alfred  Fryer,  Esq. 

Chatteeis,  June  3,  1895. 

....  I  did  not  like  to  trouble  the  noble  Professor  with  my 
small  botanical  affairs  more  than  was  absolutely  necessary.  .  .  . 
The  greater  part  of  the  valuable  instruction  he  so  kindly  gave  me, 
was  on  the  rare  occasions  when  I  visited  the  Herbarium.  Then  I 
learned  to  love  and  esteem  the  goodness  and  greatness  of  the  man, 
even  more  than  I  valued  the  teaching  of  the  greatest  living  authority 
on  British  Botany.  This  feeling  of  personal  regard  was  common  to 
many  of  the  botanists  who  consulted  the  Professor  in  their  difficulties. 
I  find  traces  of  it  constantly  shewing  in  letters  from  several  corres- 
pondents. A  photograph  of  the  Professor  has  been  over  my  mantel- 
piece for  some  twenty  years. 

From  Prof.  Alfred  Newton,  F.R.S. 

Magdalene  College,  Cambridge, 
Oct.  30,  1895. 

....  At  the  desire  of  the  members  of  the  Ray  Club,  meeting 
to-night  for  the  first  time  this  term,  I  write  to  express  their  very 
deep  sense  of  the  loss  which  the  Club  has  sustained  by  the  death  of 
its  oldest  and  last  surviving  original  member.  They  feel  very 
strongly  the  indebtedness  of  the  Club  to  the  late  Professor  Babing- 
ton, who,  until  incapacitated  by  ill-health,  had  been  its  Secretary 


REMINISCENCES.  xlix 

from  its  foundation  in  1838,  and  during  the  fifty-five  years  that  he 
had  held  that  office,  he  had  not  only  maintained  the  efficiency  of  the 
Club,  but  the  harmony  which  has  always  been  its  characteristic.  I 
am  also  respectfully  to  offer  you  the  sincere  condolence  of  the  Club 
on  the  grievous  bereavement  you  have  suffered,  and  to  assure  you 
of  the  sincere  sympathy  of  its  members. 


Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society. 

St.  Maey's  Passage,  Cambridge, 
Oct  22,  1895, 

Dear  Mrs.  Babington, 

At  the  meeting  of  this  Society  held  yesterday 
the  following  Eesolution  was  proposed  by  the  President  and  carried, 
and  I  was  instructed  to  forward  to  you  a  copy.  Kesolved  :  "  That 
the  members  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society,  at  this  their 
first  meeting  held  since  the  death  of  Professor  Babington,  desire  to 
express  their  sympathy  with  Mrs.  Babington,  and  their  sense  of  the 
loss  which  they  have  sustained  in  the  person  of  one  who  was  an 
original  member  of  the  Society,  and  one  of  its  most  zealous  and 
most  distinguished  workers." 

Believe  me  to  be,  dear  Mrs.  Babington, 
Yours  faithfully, 

T.  D.  ATKINSON, 

Son.  Sec,   Camb.  Antiq.  Soe. 


Cambridge  Philosophical  Society. 

Oct.  27,  1895. 

Dear  Mrs.  Babington, 

We  desire  on  behalf  of  the  Philosophical  Society  to  forward 
the  following  Resolution  which  was  passed  at  our  meeting  to-day 
(the  first  meeting  of  the  Society  since  the  death  of  Professor 
Babington) :  "  That  this  meeting  desires  to  place  on  record  its  sense 
of  the  loss  the  Society  has  sustained  by  the  death  of  Professor 
Babington,  and  to  convey  to  Mrs.  Babington  the  expression  of 
their  sympathy  and  condolence  in  her  bereavement." 

The  resolution  was  proposed  by  Professor  Liveing,  seconded  by 
Professor  Hughes,  and  carried  unanimously. 

We  are,  with  deep  sympathy. 

Yours  very  sincerely, 

J.  J.  THOMSON,  President. 
H.  F.  NEWALL,  Secretary. 
d 


1  CHARLES   CARD  ALE  BABINGTON. 

Extract  from  the  Thirtieth  Annual  Report  of  the  Museums 
and  Lecture  Rooms  Syndicate  for  1895. 

The  Museums,  May  12,  1896. 

Since  the  last  Annual  Eeport  was  published,  the  University 
has  had  to  deplore  the  loss  of  the  venerable  Professor  Babington, 
who  had  occupied  the  Chair  of  Botany  for  thirty-four  years.  Though 
for  some  time  past  he  had  been  unable  to  take  any  active  part  in 
the  administration  of  the  Museums,  the  Syndicate  cannot  forget 
that  throughout  the  tedious  controversy  which  preceded  the  com- 
mencement of  the  New  Museums  in  1863,  he  steadily  maintained 
the  necessity  for  erecting  such  a  structure  without  further  delay, 
and  that  his  personal  influence  contributed  in  no  small  degree  to 
the  result.  Moreover,  during  his  long  tenure  of  the  Professorship, 
he  did  all  in  his  power  to  increase  the  collections  under  his  charge, 
and  to  promote  the  study  of  physiological  as  well  as  systematic 
Botany.  His  munificent  bequest  of  his  Herbarium  and  Library 
was  announced  to  the  Senate  at  the  beginning  of  the  last  Michaelmas 
Term  {Reporter,  p.  23),  and  gratefully  accepted  by  them  (Graces  24 
October,  5  December  1895,  Reporter,  pp.  171,  305).  The  value  of 
these  bequests  is  recorded  in  detail  in  the  Report  of  his  successor. 
The  Syndicate  have  further  the  pleasure  of  stating  that  Mrs. 
Babington  has  presented  to  the  University  a  photograph  (life  size) 
of  her  late  husband.     This  has  been  hung  in  the  Syndicate  Room. 

Report  of  Professor  Marshall  Ward. 

The  death  of  Professor  Babington  has  deprived  the  Herbarium 
of  a  Curator,  who  for  many  years  had  devoted  himself  unremittingly 
to  its  welfare.  The  Department  of  Botany  has  lost  in  him  a  friend, 
who  though  prevented  by  failing  health  during  recent  years  from 
taking  an  active  share  in  its  work,  retained  to  the  last  his  interest 
in  those  parts  of  the  science  which  he  had  made  his  own.  His 
munificent  bequest  to  the  University  has  enriched  the  Department 
by  a  most  valuable  collection  of  over  1600  volumes,  and  nearly 
50,000  sheets  of  mounted  specimens. 

From  Edgar  Stirling  Cobbold,  Esq. 

Caradoc  and  Severn  Valley  Field  Club, 
Shropshire. 

July  23,  1895. 

It  was  with  great  regret  that  I  received  the  news  of  yesterday. 
I  had  never  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  Professor  Babington,  but 
his  life  is  one  which  excites  my  admiration  and  regard,  and  I  feel 
that  we  and  all  like  clubs  have  lost  a  true  friend.  There  is  too 
much  dilletante-ism  in  our  clubs  now-a-days,  a  fact  which  he  saw 
and  deplored.  Let  me  assure  you  that  you  have  not  only  my 
sincere  sympathy  in  your  loss,  but  that  also  of  our  members,  and 


KEMINISCENCES.  li 

specially  of  those  that  knew  him.  For  him,  a  quiet  child-like 
learner  from  his  two  Books  of  Revelation,  I  cannot  help  feeling 
that  he  has  even  now  perhaps  opened  a  third,  and  a  far  wider  and 
deeper  volume  than  those  that  he  had  here.  .  .  . 

Extract  of  Sermon  preached  in  St.  John's  College  Chapel, 
Cambridge,  by  the  Rev.  C.  Taylor,  D.D.,  Master,  on 
Sunday,  Oct  13,  1895. 

Charles  Cardale  Babington,  Professorial  Fellow  of  the  College ; 
since  June  12,  1861,  Professor  of  Botany  in  the  University;  died 
full  of  years  on  the  22nd  of  July  last;  born  in  Nov.  1808.  At  the 
time  of  his  death  he  was  the  oldest  resident  member  of  the  Univer- 
sity. He  had  joined  heartily  in  wise  endeavours  to  widen  the 
studies  of  the  place,  and  make  Cambridge  what  it  is  to-day.  In 
his  prime  he  was  (as  it  has  been  said)  "the  central  figure  among 
those  in  Cambridge  who  took  delight  in  Natural  History." 

Rooted  and  grounded  in  faith  as  he  was  devoted  to  Science,  at 
the  end  of  many  years  of  patient  continuance  in  well-doing,  he 
passed  to  his  rest  at  length,  known  and  honoured  as  Botanist, 
Archaeologist,  Christian,  and  Philanthropist,  in  Europe,  America, 
India,  China,  and  Japan :  his  whole  life  one  bright  manifestation 
of  a  three-fold  ardent  love,  "the  love  of  Man,  of  Nature,  and  of 
God."  "Let  me  die  the  death  of  the  righteous,  and  let  my  last 
end  be  like  his." 

IN   MEMORIAM. 
By  Professor  Mayor. 

{From  the  '^Cambridge  Chronicle"  August  30th  1895,  revised.) 

His  careless  scorn  of  gold  his  deeds  bewray' d : 
And  this  he  crav'd, — no  longer  for  to  live 
Than  he  had  power  and  mind  and  will  to  give. 

Thomas  Greene. 
Still  unbroken 
Age  to  age  lasts  on  that  goodly  line. 
Whose  pure  lives  are,  more  than  all  words  spoken, 
Earth's  best  witness  to  the  life  divine. 

J.  C.  Shairp. 

One,  who  wore  'the  white  flower  of  a  blameless  life'  in  the 
face  of  Cambridge  for  three  score  years  and  nine,  must  not  pass 
from  sight  '  unwept,  unhonoured,'  even  if  Cam's  reeds  are  vocal  no 
more,  and  he  must  perforce  abide  '  unsung.' 

From  1853  to  1866  I  met  Babington  well-nigh  daily  during 
term.  In  Hall,  at  the  'Bursar's  (W.  H.  Bateson's)  table,'  sat, 
among  others  of  the  reforming  'Caucus,'  the  two  Babingtons, 
Overton,  Adams,  Todhunter,  Bashforth,  Liveing ;  many  have  gone, 
but  all  saw  plans,  there  first  broached,  take  shape  and  ripen  into 


lii  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

act.  We  also  formed,  the  two  cousins  and  I,  a  large  part  by  count 
of  the  Antiquarian  Society,  as  represented  in  session — often  the 
half,  seldom  less  than  a  third.  As  with  Todhunter  and  Charles 
Henry  Cooper,  so  with  Cardale  Babington ;  I  knew  him  well,  and 
yet,  save  for  the  weekly  '  wine '  of  the  Junior  Book  Club,  I  doubt 
whether  he  ever  ate  or  drank  in  my  rooms  or  I  in  his.  His  devotion 
to  Natural  History  and  Antiquities,  to  the  past,  present  and  future 
of  Education,  lay  on  the  surface ;  but  the  higher  life,  which,  as  I 
now  know,  he  had  embraced  from  a  child,  was  '  hidden.'  William 
Wilberforce,  Charles  Simeon,  and  their  peers,  had  indeed  moulded 
his  thoughts  and  will ;  but  his  messmates  never  pierced  the  secret. 
Talkative,  son  of  one  Say-well  of  Prating  Row,  must  have  felt  ill  at 
ease  in  the  Cambridge  of  those  days. 

Ransack  his  library ;  ask  his  aims  from  '  the  dead  alive  and 
busy '  there.  You  will  find  in  the  Museum — for  the  bulk  of  his 
botanical  books,  with  his  entire  Herbarium,*  both  now  bequeathed 
to  the  University,  have  long  dwelt  there  for  public  use,  he  claiming 
his  share  as  one  of  the  public — more  than  1600  volumes.  Some 
journals  of  associations  he  lodged  on  public  shelves,  number  by 
number,  as  they  came.  In  his  study  still  nestles  something  of 
Botany  and  Zoology,  far  more  of  Archaeology.  English,  Irish, 
Scotch,  Welsh  societies,  national  or  local, — he  seems  to  have  been 
parcel  of  all,  to  have  worked  for  all.  E.  A.  Freeman,  Basil  Jones, 
G.  T.  Clark,  Henry  Bradshaw,  Irish  Crosses  and  Round  Towers, 
Minsters  and  Roman  Roads,  Roman  Bath  for  auld  lang  syne,  pot- 
tery and  coins,  were  fish  welcome  to  his  net  as  Hooker,  Berkeley, 
De  Candolle,  mosses  and  brambles,  moths  and  beetles.  Humboldt's 
"Kosmos"  and  Gilbert  White's  "Selborne,"  Lives  of  Adam  Sedgwick, 
J.  S.  Henslow,  Edward  Forbes,  the  Voyage  of  the  Beagle,  tell  of 
labours  which  prompted  and  guided  his.  History  was  his  pastime ; 
whilst  feeling  safer  with  his  friend  Freeman,  he  still  would  not 
blush  to  be  caught  with  Froude's  "  Armada  "or  "  Erasmus."  The 
quarterly  of  his  choice  was  "The  English  Historical  Review."  At 
home  in  every  nook  of  the  British,  including  the  Channel,  Isles,  f — 
for  he  paced  them,  north  and  south,  east  and  west,  chasing  flowers 
and  insects,  Avorks  of  stone  age  or  of  bronze,  of  Celt  or  Roman, 
Saxon  or  Norman ;  he  was  scarcely  less  at  home,  by  others'  eyes 
all  the  world  over — eyes  of  Franklin  or  Cameron,  Nordenskjold, 
Curzon,  Hue,  Palgrave,  Tristram.  He  was  no  stranger  to  Milman's 
"History  of  the  Jews,"  Stanley's  "Sinai  and  Palestine." 

For  indeed  he  loved  to  link  Nature  with  Mind,  wherever  he 
strayed.  Scott's  poetry  or  novels,  Wordsworth's  verse,  were  his 
guides  through  scenes  which  they  paint ;  at  Dunblane  he  went  on 

*  The  University  can  now  shew  400,000  specimens.  The  collection  to  which 
he  succeeded  would  long  ago  have  perished,  had  he  not  '  poisoned '  the  sprigs. 

t  Once  only,  in  1846,  did  he  stray  where  the  Queen's  writ  does  not  run, — to 
Iceland.  Else  he  was  home-sick  as  Socrates,  though  citizen,  it  is  true,  of  a  larger 
state. 


REMINISCENCES.  liii 

pilgrimage  to  Archbishop  Leighton's  library.  Nor  did  man's  lower 
works  content  him.  '  Affection  dwells  in  black  and  white  the  same.' 
Not  Cowper  only,  but  Henry  Martyn,  Selwyn,  Patteson,  Mackenzie, 
Mackay  of  Uganda,  William  Ellis  of  Madagascar,  Dr.  Paton  of  New 
Hebrides,  drove  this  quickening  truth  home.  And  yet  nearer  ties 
drew  his  thoughts  to  the  mission  field.  Jani  Alii  of  Corpus,  the 
Moslem  missionary  to  Moslems,  lured  Henry  Parker  to  India,  who 
thence  followed  Hannington  to  Africa  and  to  the  tomb.  And  by 
Babington's  hearthstone  they  first  met.  He  was  spared  the  tidings 
of  the  late  martyrdoms  in  China.  His  sorrow  for  the  loss  would 
have  been  tempered  with  the  joy  of  triumph.  But  scribblers  who 
backbite  the  dead,  as  rash  and  vain — even  as  cowards — would 
have  aroused  unmixed  shame  and  wrath.  To  him  the  martyrs — 
then  in  will,  now  in  act — had  come,  in  order  to  win  a  God-speed 
from  Cambridge,  the  teeming  mother  of  missions,  from  John  Eliot 
to  Delhi  and  East  African  brothers. 

His  first  book  was  a  "Flora  of  Bath  (1843),"  the  place  of  his 
education,  and  afterwards  of  his  marriage.  Then  followed  the 
"Flora  of  the  Channel  Islands  and  of  Cambridge  ;"  a  "Manual  of 
British  Botany"  (eight  editions  between  1843  and  1881 ;  this  still 
holds  the  field) ;  works  on  brambles  and  countless  articles  on  Natural 
History  and  Antiquities.  Cambridge  owes  to  him  an  "  Index  of  the 
Baker  MSS."  (1848,  in  conjunction  with  three  friends);  "Ancient 
Cambridgeshire"  (2nd  ed.  1883);  "History  of  the  Infirmary  and 
Chapel  of  the  Hospital  and  College  of  St.  John  the  Evangelist, 
1874."     The  work  freely  done  for  others,  will  never  be  known. 

The  Kay  Club,  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society,  Entomological 
Society,  honour  him  as  a  founder.  Throughout  the  United  King- 
dom, whoever  laboured  to  promote  Science,  Natural  or  Archaeo- 
logical, turned  to  him  for  help,  not  in  vain.  On  the  29th  of 
November  1887,  he  addressed  to  the  Ray  Club  a  pastoral.  For 
many  years  the  Club  "  included  active  field  Naturalists  of  various 
ages,  who  brought  to  our  meetings  the  results  of  their  researches, 
and  submitted  them  to  the  members  and  their  friends.  This  was 
of  much  use  to  those  students  and  collectors ;  especially  to  such  as 
were  turning  their  attention  to  Botany  and  Zoology,  many  of  whom 
have  since  become  well  known  as  Naturalists.  .  .  . 

"  The  Club  is  not  performing  its  original  functions,  nor  is  it  even 
a  social  meeting  of  those  interested  in  Natural  Science.  The  present 
members  do  not  think  it  worth  while  to  act  as  the  early  members 
did  :  viz.  to  look  upon  the  meetings  of  the  Ray  Club  as  engagements, 
and  not  accept  invitations  to  parties  on  those  days.  If  it  is  likely 
that  this  is  to  continue,  and  I  fear  that  that  is  the  case,  it  seems  to 
me  that  the  Club  has  run  its  course.  The  older  members  can  look 
back  upon  the  time  when  important  discoveries  in  Science  were 
mentioned  at  its  meetings  before  they  had  been  known  to  the 
scientific  public  elsewhere,  or  even  here.  Now  nothing  of  the  kind 
takes  place  or  is  expected.  .  .  . 


liv  CHARLES  CARDALE   BABINGTON. 

"The  admission  of  associates  was  for  a  time  a  very  valuable 
addition  to  the  Club,  and  to  be  elected  as  such  was  an  object  of 
ambition  to  many  deserving  and  diligent  students ;  but  for  many 
years  the  meetings  have  not  proved  interesting  to  them,  and  there- 
fore very  few  of  them  attend.  .  .  . 

"I  have  now  .  .  .  been,  I  venture  to  say,  the  most  regular 
attendant  at  its  meetings  for  the  long  period  of  fifty  years ;  and 
hence  seen  its  great  usefulness  in  its  earlier  period,  and  its  more 
recent  decline.  .  .  .  But  whatever  befalls  our  Club,  let  us  beware 
lest  luxury  and  self-indulgence  take  the  place  of  the  learning, 
science,  and  abnegation  of  self,  which  were  so  remarkably  present 
in  the  great  men  of  the  recently  departed  generation  of  the  Univer- 
sity." 

These  lessons  are  enforced  by  lists,  with  biographical  notes,  of 
former  and  present  members  and  associates.  Let  us  cull  a  few 
names.  Among  original  members — C.  C.  Babington,  Sir  G.  E.  Paget, 
John  Ball ;  of  later  recruits — Adam  Sedgwick,  Sir  G.  G.  Stokes,  J.  C. 
Adams,  Alfred  Newton,  William  Clark,  James  Cumming,  W.  H. 
Miller,  F.  J.  A.  Hort,  G.  D.  Liveing,  Sir  G.  M.  Humphry, 
r.  M.  Balfour,  Churchill  Babington,  T.  M.  Hughes,  J.  C.  Maxwell, 
Sir  A.  W.  Franks,  R.  B.  Clifton,  G.  R.  Crotch.  Of  these,  next  to 
his  cousin,  Sedgwick  and  Adams  perhaps  were  most  akin  to  Cardale 
Babington  ;  their  engraved  portraits  adorning  his  dining  room,  with 
those  of  Bishops  Lightfoot  and  Westcott. 

The  functions  of  these  Cambridge  societies,  it  is  pleaded,  are 
now  swallowed  up  by  London.  Babington  would  retort :  Pleasure 
tracks  students  to  their  rooms ;  surely  our  duty  is  to  follow  the 
bane  with  the  antidote ;  to  dog  idleness  to  its  haunts,  and  fight  it 
there. 

His  love  of  letters  was  genuine,  his  taste  sound  and  manly.  Of 
poets  he  affected,  as  one  might  surmise,  Wordsworth  and  Cowper, 
spokesmen  of  Nature.  '  God  made  the  country,  and  man  made  the 
town.'  Crabbe  he  prized  for  plain  dealing.  Sober-suited  hymns — 
Thomas  Ken's  and  George  Herbert's — were  more  to  his  mind  than 
raptures.  Did  you  mention  Ken,  he  was  apt  to  ask,  '  Do  you  know 
his  Midnight  Hymn  ?     Most  folk  neglect  that.' 

If  ever  there  were  a  Bible  Christian,  it  was  he.  The  book  he 
judged,  as  he  judged  men,  by  its  fruits.  These  he  gathered,  not 
from  critics,  or  word-painters,  but  from  the  voice  of  Missions. 
•There,'  he  would  say,  'you  have  the  romance  of  real  life.'  In 
the  last  few  years  I  saw  him  often ;  for  I  bore  messages  from  the 
Spanish  and  Italian  Reforms,  from  Campello  and  Cabrera.  In  faith 
and  hope  he  greeted  for  Southern  Europe  the  dawning  of  a  brighter 
day.  Countrymen  of  Savonarola  and  Father  Paul,  of  Enzinas  and 
Cyprian  de  Valera,  must  at  last  awaken  from  millennial  slumber 
and  challenge  a  place  in  '  the  parliament  of  man.' 

Stedfast  he  was,  some  whispered  strait-laced,  in  the  resolve 
never  to  worship  God  and  the  world  together.    No  bribe,  no  threat, 


REMINISCENCES.  Iv 

could  bend  him  to  what  he  thought  evil,  that  good  might  come. 
He  would  break  first.  Did  a  charity,  a  church,  eke  out  its  funds 
by  raffles;  with  such  he  would  have  neither  art  nor  part.  He  found 
honesty  the  best  policy.  The  light  of  his  eyes,  the  Girls'  Orphan 
Home,  was  like  to  expire  for  lack  of  funds.  The  inmates  must  be 
warmed,  clothed,  fed ;  ways  and  means  nowhere  appeared.  His 
extremity  was,  in  his  old-fashioned  phrase,  God's  opportunity.  By 
what  we  call  chance,  after  no  appeal  on  his  part,  visitor  after  visitor 
turned  up, — like  the  '  god  from  the  machine '  (the  stage  heaven)  of 
Greek  theatre,  like  '  the  angel  entertained  unawares '  of  a  lore  deep- 
rooted  in  his  heart, — to  lift  his  cart  out  of  the  mire ;  that  he  put 
his  own  shoulder  to  the  wheel,  stands  to  reason ;  it  was  the  instinct 
of  his  life,  I  might  say,  watchword,  but  that  he  was  given  to  'do 
noble  things,  not  dream  them,  all  day  long.'  To  return  to  the 
visitors,  the  good  fairies.  One  brought  serge  for  frocks,  one  flannel 
petticoats,  one  gloves,  one  (in  guise  of  a  shoemaker)  boots — in  each 
case,  to  rig  out  the  whole  dozen.  £10  came  for  coals  'by  order'; 
a  legacy  of  £100  fell  in  at  the  very  nick  of  time;  need  highest,  help 
nighest.  Would  you  read  the  riddle  1  '  For  the  good  man  some 
will  even  dare  to  die.'  'Love  is  love's  loadstone.'  From  mouth  to 
mouth  the  news  had  flown ;  he  wanted  aid  :  who  so  niggardly  as  to 
withold  a  trifle  ?  The  very  orphans  went  out  (like  a  certain  widow) 
to  gather  sticks  for  fuel :  worked  list  slippers  on  the  sly,  to  save 
shoe-leather — '  after  dusk,'  you  understand ; — a  widow's  mite  out- 
weighing in  his  mind  the  greater  gifts  and  bringing  tears  to  his  eyes. 

He  dwelt  much  on  the  responsibility  of  graduates  to  tradesmen, 
servants,  students.  Jealously  he  guarded  Sunday  rest  for  his  staff. 
Not  that  he  was  a  pedantic  Sabbatarian.  Certain  plants  could  not 
safely  be  left  thirty-six  hours  without  tendance  :  they  must  have  it, 
it  is  their  right.  A  short  time  would  suffice  for  the  job,  and  all  be 
set  free  to  serve  God  in  His  courts  or  to  tighten  home  bonds,  according 
to  their  conscience.  To  open  a  pleasure-ground  to  saunterers  was 
quite  another  matter — no  'work  of  necessity,'  as  he  construed  the 
words  ;  the  demand  was  hollow,  and  must  be  withstood. 

Business  were  on  a  sounder  footing  in  Cambridge — in  the  world 
— if  we  one  and  all  would  take  pattern  by  him.  Where  he  gave 
his  custom  he  never  withdrew  it,  never  went  to  London  for  what 
he  could  buy  here,  never  left  a  bill  unpaid.  '  I  have  lost  the  best 
friend  I  ever  had :  my  own  for  fifty  years,  my  father's  before  me.' 
Such  tributes  fellow-townsmen  laid  on  his  grave.  When  he  lay 
tethered  to  his  chair,  a  cab-owner,  employed  by  him  from  the  first, 
went  out  four  miles  to  pick  flowers,  such  as  he  loved,  for  his  table. 
Better,  far  better  was  he  known  in  the  town — aye,  over  Europe, 
and  beyond — than  in  the  modorn  University  ;  and  wherever  known, 
honoured  and  loved.  Unwittingly  we  have  lost  our  Cambridge  Lord 
Shaftesbury  :  consult  the  clergy  of  St.  Barnabas'  and  St.  Philip's. 

Like  his  friend.  Professor  Miller,  he  was  a  cunning  craftsman 
with  tools,  so  keeping  on  a  better  foot  with  artisans  than  they  who 


Ivi  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

look  to  shops  for  their  every  need.  Such  teachers  breed  manlier 
pupils,  and  are  less  costly  to  society.  Self-help  was  the  rule  of 
Cambridge  seventy  years  ago. 

Having  already,  since  1877,  shewn  an  interest  in  the  postmen, 
in  the  Jubilee  Year  he  invited  all  ranks  in  the  Cambridge  Post 
Office  to  meet  Sir  Arthur  Blackwood,  their  official  chief,  at  tea, 
and  to  hear  addresses  from  him.  Meeting  on  meeting  was  held 
from  6  to  10  p.m.,  the  Professor  presiding  throughout,  and  147 
members  of  the  staff  being  present  in  batches  (three  only  were 
unavoidably  absent).  As  a  result  of  this  effort  arose  a  branch  of 
the  Postal  and  Telegraph  Christian  Association.  Of  this  branch 
Babington  was  President  at  his  death ;  it  numbers  eighty  from 
central  office  and  smaller  offices  in  town  and  neighbourhood.  In 
the  fifteen  months  ending  15th  August  1895,  the  branch  collected 
the  sum  of  j£15,  allotted  to  (a)  the  China  Inland  Mission,  (b)  Native 
Officials  in  India,  sent  through  Catechists  of  the  CM. S.,  (c)  distri- 
bution of  Christian  literature  among  the  4000  offices  of  Japan. 

"It  was  always  a  pleasure  to  note  the  interest  taken  by  the 
Professor  in  all  that  appertained  to  the  moral,  social,  or  spiritual 
welfare  of  the  staff;  115  packets  of  religious  literature,  each  con- 
taining three  publications,  are  received  at  the  head  office  monthly, 
for  distribution  amongst  those  who  wear  H.M.  uniform  in  the 
postal  and  telegraph  departments.  .  .  .  By  the  death  of  Professor 
Babington  the  Cambridge  Post  Office  has  lost  a  most  valued  friend 
and  helper.  Six  members  of  the  staff  were  present  at  the  funeral 
service  in  St.  John's  College  Chapel,  J.  Lambert,  Esq.,  the  Post- 
master, being  absent  through  an  official  engagement  which  could 
not  be  set  aside."* 

"When  he  became  a  fixture  he  wrote  to  the  Athenaeum  Club : 
"  I  have  been  a  member  forty-four  years ;  our  roll  is  stinted.  Pray, 
lest  I  play  dog-in-the-manger,  keeping  out  some  younger  man, 
strike  out  my  name."  One  who  knows  him  well,  hearing  this 
story,  asked  "  Why  then  did  he  not  resign  his  chair  ? "  For 
reasons  stated  to  the  Vice-Chancellor  of  the  day.  "  My  successor 
will  draw  .£600  a  year  from  the  chest ;  I  draw  £300.  Already  it 
is  hard  to  furnish  all  that  the  garden  craves ;  it  will  be  harder  then. 
I  pay  a  deputy,  and  the  work  is  well  done."  Deputies  must  receive 
one  third,  may  not  receive  more  than  two-thirds  of  the  stipend.  He 
split  the  difference  and  paid  one-half.  The  staff  will  say  whether  he 
was  idle  since  1891 ;  whether  no  glory  has  passed  away  from  their 
earth.  The  electors  have  to  find  a  candidate  worth  to  the  Univer- 
sity, to  science,  to  Cambridge  town,  double  of  Charles  Babington. 
They  may  search  long  and  far. 

His  tolerance  was  catholic  and  unfeigned,  cherishing  as  allies  and 
teachers  'Agnostics'  and  Komanists,  a  Huxley  and  a  Ball,  For 
why  ?    Frederick  Maurice  shall  tell :  charity  is  wide  where  faith  is 

*  Information  from  Mr.  Samuel  Ellis,  Assistant  Superintendent,  Post  Office, 
Cambridge. 


EEMINISCENCES.  Ivii 

sure.  ^  Apology  fw  the  Bible  ?  I  didn't  know  it  needed  an  apology/ 
So  cried  bluff  George  III ;  so  thought  my  friend.  Heartily  as  he 
revered  Truth's  champions  in  Thirlwall,  Julius  Hare,  Maurice,  from 
the  clash  of  debate  he  stood  aloof.  To  him  it  was  given,  not  ta 
thread  the  tangled  maze  of  doubt,  but  from  dawn  to  sunset  of  life's 
day  to  walk  right  onward  in  the  light  of  his  two  Bibles — so,  on  the 
6th  of  May,  1835,  Edward  Stanley  bade  him  call  them — God's  works 
and  Word.  Sir  Henry  Wotton,  stunned  with  the  din  of  strife,  left, 
with  his  parting  breath,*  a  warning  to  mankind  :  'Itch  of  disputing, 
scab  of  churches.'  By  this  itch  Babington's  withers  were  unwrung. 
One  very  dear  to  him,  Fenton  Hort,  plunging  into  the  sea  of  meta- 
physics, rose  from  the  bath  braced  for  action.  Did  he  therefore  scorn 
unclouded  child-like  belief  ?  Nay,  he  half  envied  it.  Rebuking 
credulity — on  the  side  of  'Nay,'  not  less  than  of  'Yea' — as  'a 
dangerous  disease  of  the  time,'  he  confesses : — 

The  vast  multitudes  of  simple  Christian  people  who  know  no  difficulties,, 
and  need  know  none  for  themselves,  are  of  course  not  in  question  here. 
Fundamental  enquiries  constitute  no  part  of  their  duty;  and  though  the 
exemption  disqualifies  them  for  some  among  the  higher  offices  of  service  to 
their  fellows,  it  leaves  them  perhaps  the  more  capable  of  others,  according  to 
the  Divine  allotment  of  various  responsibility. 

What  doughtier  master  of  tongue-fence  than  Schleiermacher  ? 
Yet  even  Dollinger  asks  :  'When  all  is  said,  where  is  the  harvest ?'^ 
Professor  John  Campbell  Shairp  gives  body  to  a  thought  after 
which  many  minds  were  groping,  Cardale  Babington's  earnestly  aa 
any:— 

I  have  a  life  in  Christ  to  live, 

I  have  a  death  in  Cheist  to  die; — 

And  must  I  wait  till  Science  give 

All  doubts  a  full  reply  ? 

Nay  rather,  while  the  sea  of  doubt 

Is  raging  wildly  round  about, 

Questioning  of  life,  and  death,  and  sin, 
Let  me  but  creep  within 

Thy  fold,  0  Cheist,  and  at  Thy  feet 
Take  but  the  lowest  seat. 

And  hear  Thine  awful  voice  repeat, 

In  gentlest  accents,  heavenly  sweet, 
Come  unto  Me,  and  rest; 
Believe  Me,  and  be  blest. 

J.  E.  B.  M. 

By  Professor  Liveing,  F.R.S. 

{Reprinted  from  the  "Cambridge  Review"  October  17th  1895.) 

Generations  come  and  go  so  quickly,  and  changes,  not  only  of 
men,  but  of  the  customs  and  whole  procedure  of  the  University, 
succeed  one  another  nowadays  with  such  rapidity,  that  the  past> 

*  His  epitaph  in  Latin :  '  Here  lies  the  first  author  of  the  sentence :  Itch,  etc. 
Seek  his  name  elsewhere.'     The  passage  cited  occurs  in  a  panegyric  on  Charles  I. 


Iviii  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

even  the  immediate  past,  and  the  men  who  figured  in  it,  are  soon 
forgotten.  A  cold  shade  too  often  falls  on  the  men  whose  work  has 
been  done  so  quietly,  and  at  the  same  time  so  well,  that  we  hardly 
perceive  that  it  is  not  part  of  the  ancient  structure  of  the  University. 
Hence  it  will  not  be  superfluous  if  one  who  had  the  privilege  of 
being  acquainted  with  the  late  Professor  Babington  for  nearly  half  a 
century,  and  of  working  with  him  for  a  large  part  of  that  time,  puts 
on  record  a  brief  sketch  of  his  remembrance  of  the  man  and  of  his 
doings,  in  so  far  as  the  two  were  occupied  with  the  same  or  kindred 
pursuits. 

I  did  not  come  into  residence  at  Cambridge  until  1846,  and  at 
that  time  Babington  was  well  on  to  middle  age.  He  lived  in  College 
in  the  simple  way  which  was  the  happy  custom  at  St.  John's,  then, 
as  now,  one  of  the  poorest,  in  proportion  to  the  number  on  its 
foundation,  of  the  Colleges  in  Cambridge.  But  he  was  then,  and 
for  some  time  after,  the  centre  of  activity  in  the  University  in  the 
cultivation  of  Natural  History.  In  his  rooms,  or  in  rambles  over 
the  country  to  explore,  under  his  guidance,  the  peculiarities  and 
products  of  diverse  soils  and  climates,  I  met  almost  everyone  living 
in  Cambridge,  or  in  the  country  round,  who  took  any  active  interest 
in  Natural  History.  In  this  way  the  lovers  of  Nature  became 
acquainted  with  each  other  through  him,  and  I  can  say  for  myself 
that  I  learnt  more  from  my  companions  in  study  than  from  lecturers 
or  private  tutors. 

The  condition  of  the  University  at  that  time  was  so  utterly 
unlike  what  it  is  now,  that  the  younger  men  amongst  us  will  per- 
haps find  a  difficulty  in  crediting  what  I  have  to  tell  of  it.  We 
were  living  under  the  Elizabethan  Statutes,  and  the  only  avenue 
to  honours  at  the  B.A.  commencement  was  the  Mathematical  Tripos. 
Although  the  Classical  Tripos  had  been  instituted  for  a  quarter  of  a 
century,  none  but  graduates  in  mathematical  honours  had  access  to 
it.  There  was  absolutely  no  opening  for  those  who  followed  after 
Natural  Science.  Not  only  were  there  no  prizes  or  honours  in  that 
line  of  study,  but  no  one  could  obtain  any  credit  at  all,  except 
incidentally  in  the  medical  course,  either  in  University  or  College 
examinations,  for  a  knowledge  of  it.  There  were  professors  of  some 
branches  of  Natural  Science  to  be  sure,  but  the  professorships  had 
hardly  any  endowment  and  were  mainly  honorary  appointments. 
Men  like  Sedgwick  and  Henslow  and  Miller  and  Clark  kept  the 
lamp  of  science  burning  and  kindled  many  lamps  besides  their  own  ; 
but  there  was  no  laboratory  of  any  kind  in  which  an  undergraduate 
could  work,  and  such  opportunities  as  existed  for  the  study  of 
Natural  Science  were  created  by  the  few  men  who  loved  it  at  their 
own  cost.  At  the  time  of  which  I  am  writing  Henslow  had  gone 
down  to  a  living  in  Suffolk,  and  it  was  Babington  more  than  anyone 
else  who  drew  around  him  the  young  men,  and  the  older  ones  too, 
who  took  pleasure  in  Natural  History.  This  he  did  because  his  love 
of  Nature  was  cosmopolitan,  and  he  had  a  ready  sympathy  with  all 


REMINISCENCES.  lix 

of  kindred  tastes.  The  shyest  lad  was  never  afraid  of  him  when 
once  the  ice  had  been  broken,  and  we  used  to  question  him  freely, 
without  any  reserve,  about  any  natural  objects  we  had  noted  or 
collected.  He  never  betrayed  the  least  impatience  with  any  young- 
ster who  came  to  him  for  information,  and  if  his  own  stores  of 
knowledge  did  not  supply  the  answer  to  the  question,  he  could 
generally  tell  where  it  might  be  found.  The  appearance  of  his 
rooms  testified  to  the  methodical  habit  of  mind  which  made  him  so 
useful  to  other  people.  He  was  always  willing  to  take  an  under- 
graduate as  a  companion  for  a  walk,  in  the  days  when  walking, 
riding,  or  boating  were  the  only  modes  of  exercise  in  vogue  during 
the  winter  half  of  the  year ;  and  a  walk  with  him  was  as  healthy 
and  pleasant  a  recreation  as  a  student  jaded  with  mathematics  or 
classics  could  well  have.  He  knew  all  the  haunts  of  plants  and 
insects  in  the  county,  and  it  was  a  pleasure  to  him  and  to  the  four 
or  five  who  sometimes  accompanied  him  on  a  long  day's  ramble,  to 
try  and  find  something  new  to  him  as  a  denizen  of  the  locality  we 
were  exploring ;  while  such  a  search  exercised  in  the  best  possible 
way  our  own  knowledge  and  powers  of  observation. 

Of  course  his  science  was  not  exactly  what  is  most  cultivated  at 
the  present  day.  We  now  delight  to  scan  the  minute  anatomy  of 
plant  or  animal,  and  to  trace  the  physical  or  chemical  actions  by 
which  it  grows  and  breathes,  lives  and  dies.  But  Babington,  while 
he  did  not  in  the  least  despise  such  researches,  loved  Nature  in  its 
completeness  ;  it  was  the  living  plant  or  animal  he  liked  to  study, 
its  likes  and  dislikes,  its  choice  of  domicile,  its  habits  and  inherited 
instincts.  In  fact,  its  manner  of  life  and  the  way  in  which  it 
adapted  itself  to  circumstances,  the  modes  in  which  it  approached 
to  being  an  intelligent  creature,  were  much  more  to  him  than  the 
machine,  however  beautiful.  His  was  just  that  love  of  living  Nature 
which  makes  Gilbert  White's  letters  so  charming,  and  which  Hens- 
low  and  Charles  Darwin  had  in  a  marked  degree,  and  like  true  love 
it  was  utterly  unostentatious.  No  one  who  does  anything  to 
advance  science  can  entirely  escape  controversy,  and  Babington  was 
no  exception  to  this  rule,  but  I  never  knew  him  use  unkind  words 
of  any  opponent,  though  I  have  heard  him,  with  good-humoured 
sarcasm,  express  his  contempt  for  mutual  admiration  societies,  and 
for  the  desire  to  make  capital  out  of  scientific  discoveries.  By  such 
a  life  Babington  did  more  than  the  University  at  large  are  now 
at  all  aware,  to  promote  the  study  of  biology  in  the  dark  days  that 
immediately  preceded  the  dawn  of  the  present  system.  I  have 
dwelt  on  matters  which  my  personal  acquaintance  with  Babington 
brought  under  my  notice,  but  there  were  more  public  ways  in  which 
he  shewed  his  readiness  to  work,  unpaid  if  need  be,  for  the  advance 
of  science.  At  the  first  meeting  of  the  British  Association  in 
Cambridge,  in  1833,  when  it  was  much  less  of  a  holiday  gathering 
than  it  has  since  become,  we  find  him  acting  as  secretary  of  Section 
D,  Zoology  and  Botany;  and  in  subsequent  years,  1853,  1858,  and 


Ix  CHARLES   CARDALE   BABINGTON. 

1861,  we  find  him  presiding  over  the  same  section.  For  the  1862 
meeting  at  Cambridge  he  was  one  of  the  local  secretaries.  For 
many  years  he  was  the  active  secretary  of  the  Cambridge  Philo- 
sophical Society ;  and  he  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Ray  Club 
for  weekly  meetings  of  field  Naturalists  in  Cambridge,  and  was 
always  the  most  regular  and  active  of  its  members.  Besides,  he 
took  part  in,  or  corresponded  with,  a  number  of  other  societies  with 
kindred  aims  in  various  parts  of  the  kingdom,  and  published  more 
than  one  local  flora,  and  many  articles  on  Natural  History,  as  well 
his  "Manual  of  British  Botany."  As  he  was  essentially  a  field 
Naturalist,  he  was  led  to  pay  particular  attention  to  systematic 
Botany  and  Entomology,  and  his  published  work  on  Natural  History 
relates  very  much  to  the  same,  and  he  has  left  his  mark  in  the 
University  by  the  care  and  labour  he  bestowed  on  the  Herbarium. 
Such  a  collection,  from  the  perishable  nature  of  its  material,  cannot 
last  for  ever,  but  Babington  did  all  that  labour  of  love  could  do  to 
render  it  perennial  and  hand  it  down  in  the  best  condition  for  the 
use  of  future  generations.  Perhaps  some  day  Systematic  and  Field 
Botany,  of  which  Henslow  made  such  an  admirable  educational 
instrument,  will  be  revived  amongst  us. 

Babington  was,  however,  no  one-sided  man ;  he  had  other 
pursuits  besides  those  which  I  have  mentioned,  and  the  same 
method  and  discrimination  which  he  shewed  in  one  pursuit  were 
conspicuous  in  the  others.  It  is  only  with  that  one  side  of  his  life 
and  character  which  bore  most  distinctly  on  his  official  position 
that  I  have  proposed  to  deal,  because  I  feel  that  his  influence  in  the 
promotion  of  Natural  Science  here  had  been  very  real  and  effective 
at  a  time  when  there  was  no  outward  encouragement  given  to  such 
pursuits,  and  because  that  influence  was  so  modestly  exercised  that 
it  escaped  general  observation,  and  runs  the  risk  of  being  entirely 
forgotten,  as  soon  as  the  generation  which  knew  pre-scientific  Cam- 
bridge shall  have  passed  away.  G.  D.  L. 


By  the  Rev.  H.  C.  G.  Moule,  D.D. 
{Reprinted  from  the  ^^ Recoi'd"  August  9th  1895.) 

The  Record  of  last  week  contained  a  brief  notice  of  Professor 
C.  C.  Babington's  life,  and  an  account  of  the  funeral  service.  It 
will  not  be  thought  superfluous,  however,  in  the  case  of  a  man  so 
eminent  for  ability  and  knowledge,  and  so  decided  as  a  Christian 
believer,  to  offer  a  few  additional  notices.  For  many  years,  up  to 
the  last  of  the  Professor's  honoured  life,  it  was  my  happiness  to 
know  him,  and  to  enjoy  the  great  privilege  from  time  to  time  of  his 
conversation.  Hours  which  cannot  be  forgotten  are  lived  again  as 
these  words  are  written.  "Their  very  memory  is  fair  and 
bright." 

It  must  be  left  to  others  to  speak  of  Professor  Babington's. 


REMINISCENCES.  M 

excellence  as  a  Naturalist.  It  will  be  enough  here  to  say  that  he 
was  the  worthy  successor  (1861)  of  Henslow,  and  that  he  combined, 
in  a  degree  not  always  attained  by  younger  botanists,  a  deep  insight 
into  botanical  law  with  a  personal  knowledge  of  plant-life  as  it  is, 
which  was  at  once  vast,  and  lovingly  intimate.  His  active  field-work 
was  continued  with  wonderful  energy  till  his  eighth  decade  was  over. 
I  remember  well  a  walk  with  him  at  Braemar,  up  the  long  green 
slopes  of  Glas  Meol,  in  1888,  when  two  little  girls,  the  eldest  not 
quite  six,  found  in  the  savant  of  eighty  the  kindest  companion, 
with  a  heart  as  young  as  theirs ;  and  ever  and  again,  quite  to  the 
hill-top,  he  would  hurry  aside  to  botanize  with  eyes  and  mind  as 
keen  as  ever. 

It  is  generally  known  that  his  antiquarian  knowledge  was  second 
only,  if  second,  to  his  botanical.  It  used  to  be  pleasantly  said  of 
him  and  of  his  cousin,  Churchill  Babington,  when  the  latter  was 
Disney  Professor  of  Archaeology,  that  either  might  well  occupy 
the  chair  of  the  other.  Charles  Babington's  F.S.A.  was  as  well 
won  as  his  F.L.S.  and  the  crowning  honour  of  F.R.S.  I  hold  in 
grateful  memory  walks  by  his  side  in  Scotland  and  long  sittings 
in  the  bright  drawing-room  at  Brookside,  Cambridge,  when  it 
was  my  easy  part  to  draw  him  on  to  give  out  some  of  his  great  and 
accurate  knowledge,  perhaps  about  the  ethnology  and  antiquities  of 
Ireland  (a  favorite  subject),  or  about  the  Icelanders,  whom  he 
visited  in  1846,  or  the  beginnings  of  Christianity  in  Scotland,  or 
about  the  Roman  occupation  of  Britain.  Something,  but  all  too  little, 
of  his  researches  has  been  preserved  in  print ;  but  even  his  writing 
cannot  fully  do  the  work  of  his  singularly  informing  manner  of 
conversation,  absolutely  devoid  of  the  show  of  superior  knowledge, 
but  stimulating  while  it  answered  enquiry  at  every  turn. 

His  long  Cambridge  life  made  him  extremely  interesting  as  the 
man  of  personal  recollections.  He  entered  St.  John's  in  1826,  took 
his  first  degree  in  1830,  and  was  continuously  an  academical  resident 
till  his  death  last  month.  I  have  heard  him  describe  the  look  of  the 
old  High  Street  which  preceded  King's  Parade,  and  the  west  side 
of  which  was  pulled  down  (to  give  room  for  the  screen  and  new 
buildings  of  King's)  in  his  first  year ;  and  how  he  had  an  under- 
graduate friend  whose  rooms  were  in  that  old  court  of  King's  where 
Simeon  was  first  lodged,  and  which  was  sold  to  the  University  in 
1828,  to  form  part  (as  it  now  does,  rebuilt)  of  the  Public  Library. 
If  I  am  right,  some  of  his  Cambridge  reminiscences  were  dictated 
within  the  last  few  years.  Should  they  ever  be  allowed  to  appear, 
they  will  be  a  contribution  to  our  local  history  of  rare  interest  and 
value. 

No  one  who  knew  Babington  needs  to  be  told  of  the  noble 
harmony  in  him  of  ample  and  penetrating  knowledge^  with  a  faith 
perfect  alike  in  simplicity  and  strength.  Like  Sedgwick,  his  elder 
friend,  and  Adams,  his  younger,  he  seemed  to  live  above  perplexity 
and  doubt,  in  a  bright,  pure  air  and  light,  in  which  the  imagined 


Ixii  CHARLES  dARDALE  BABINGTON. 

conflict  between  research  and  the  believer's  hope  was  nowhere  to  be 
seen.  To  him  the  Bible  was  the  Word  of  his  Lord,  reverenced  and 
believed  without  reserve ;  worship  was  his  delight ;  and  his  keen, 
practical  interest  in  Christian  work  ran  side  by  side  with  his 
enquiries  into  Nature  and  History.  The  calls  on  this  interest  were 
many.  Now  it  was  the  spread  of  Scriptural  Christianity  in  Ireland; 
now  it  was  the  admirable  work  done  by  Mrs.  Babington  among  the 
Cambridge  postmen  and  telegraph  boys ;  now  it  was  Jani  Alli's 
work  among  the  Mohammedans  of  Calcutta;  now  it  was  Henry 
Parker,  another  beloved  personal  friend,  going  out  to  live  or  die  in 
Eastern  Africa ;  now  it  was  a  gathering  of  undergraduates  in  his 
house,  invited  to  meet  some  well-known  Christian  visitor ;  it  might 
be  Sir  Arthur  Blackwood,  who  again  and  again  spoke  in  the 
drawing-room  to  hearts  which  had  cause  to  bless  the  hour.  And 
behind  all  these  activities  the  Christian  savant  was  living  the 
personal  life  of  faith  and  prayer.  When  after  his  great  illness 
at  Braemar  he  found  himself  at  Cambridge,  debarred  from  active 
life,  it  was  the  privilege  of  one  friend  or  another  to  be  asked  to 
help  him  almost  pastorally  (not  to  speak  now  of  the  valued 
ministries  of  the  Vicar  of  St.  Paul's) ;  and  the  helper's  own  soul 
was  always  greatly  helped  when  the  very  simplest  reading  and 
prayer  by  his  side  carried  evidently  his  whole  heart  with  it,  and 
was  answered  by  his  strong  Amen. 

Since  his  death  some  cards  have  been  found  amongst  his  papers 
each  containing  a  motto  written  in  his  own  hand.  One  is  inscribed 
with  Bishop  Hacket's  watchword,  "Serve  God  and  be  cheerful," 
another  with  the  verse,  "Because  Thou  hast  been  my  help,  there- 
fore in  the  shadow  of  Thy  wings  I  will  rejoice,"  a  third  with  the 
stanza  written  by  Dr.  Valpy,  of  Eeading,  in  his  closing  days  (see 
Memmr  of  the  Rev.  W.  Marsh,  D.D.,  p.  199)— 

In  peace  let  me  resign  my  breath 

And  Thy  salvation  see; 
My  sins  deserve  eternal  death, 

But  Jesus  died  for  me. 

This  meagre  obituary  notice  is  a  little  better  than  nothing,  but 
it  seems  sorrowfully  inadequate  as  I  review  this  noble  life,  with  its 
great  human  endowments,  its  strenuous  and  elevated  work,  its  pure 
domestic  happiness  (the  Lord  be  with  her  whose  devoted  companion- 
ship and  perfect  care  is  now  succeeded  by  such  a  solitude),  its  firm 
and  living  faith,  and  its  blessed  end.  His  saltern  accumulem  donis  et 
fungar  inani  munere.  But  the  briefest  account  of  such  a  man  is  not 
quite  "  empty  "  if  it  convey  a  witness  to  Christ's  truth  and  glory. 
For  myself,  the  recollection  of  Professor  Babington  is  full  of  that 
witness.  He  is  present  to  me  as  a  man  who  knew  much  in  the 
human  field,  and  was  always  learning  more,  but  whose  inmost  and 
ruling  characteristic  was,  that  he  knew  Christ  and  was  found  in  Him. 

H.  C.  G.  M. 


REMINISCENCES.  Ixiii 

Reprinted  from  " The  Christian"  October  3rc?,  1895, 

Professor  Charles  Cardale  Babington,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  was  the  son 
of  Dr.  Joseph  Babington.  From  earliest  childhood  he  was  sur- 
rounded by  healthful  stimulating  influences,  receiving  from  the  lips 
of  parents  and  relatives  that  sound  teaching,  both  in  doctrine  and 
practice,  which  can  only  come  by  careful  obedience  to  the  one  infal- 
lible guide — the  Word  of  God.  Through  the  long  life  which  lately 
closed,  that  faith  was  never  shadowed,  but,  with  the  simple  trust  of 
a  child,  the  great  student  of  Nature,  the  keen  observer,  the  profound 
admirer  of  every  detail  in  God's  wonderful  world,  "kept  the  faith." 
"  The  works  of  the  Lord  are  great,  sought  out  of  all  them  that  have 
pleasure  therein  " — this  was  a  verse  he  loved,  and  he  longed  that 
his  own  keen  delight  in  the  minutest  outcome  of  the  Creator's  power 
might  be  widely  enjoyed  by  others. 

Many  a  young  man  attending  his  lectures  as  Professor  of  Botany 
at  Cambridge,  must  recollect  how  carefully  he  ever  sought  to  remind 
his  class  that  in  no  study  could  the  mind  be  more  led  to  contemplate 
with  wonder  and  adoration  the  God  of  Power  and  Love.  And  in 
these  days  of  excitement  and  rush  for  pleasure,  would  it  not  be  well 
if  time  were  given,  even  during  a  busy  period  of  the  year,  and  far 
more  during  a  vacation,  for  the  quiet  pursuit  of  some  study  in 
Natural  Science,  which  not  only  furnishes  opportunities  for  the 
awakening  and  strengthening  of  the  observing  powers,  but  which 
aids  the  heart  in  looking  up  and  entering  more  fully  into  the  words 
of  the  Psalmist :  "Thou,  Lord,  hast  made  me  glad  through  thy  work"  ? 

Professor  Babington  was  a  man  of  many-sided  sympathies.  The 
Irish  Church  Missions  Society  commended  itself  to  him  through 
personal  knowledge  gained  when  visiting  Ireland  botanically  and 
archaeologically ;  and  his  deep  interest  led  him  to  visit  the  missions 
in  Dublin  and  Connemara,  and  also  that  in  the  Achill  Islands. 

The  C.M.S.  had  in  him  a  warm  and  true  friend,  and  few  of  its 
supporters  could  be  found  more  keenly  interested  in  the  perusal  of 
its  monthly  Intelligencer.  The  work  in  Uganda  had  a  large  share 
of  interest  for  him,  but  his  warmest  sympathies  with  the  C.M.S. 
were  in  connexion  with  the  beloved  and  honoured  Eev.  Jani  Alii 
and  the  work  he  carried  on  amongst  the  Mohammedans  in  Calcutta. 
This  name  recalls  the  large  numbers  of  University  men  who  gathered 
from  time  to  time  in  the  home  at  Brookside,  either  for  social  inter- 
course amongst  a  very  few  at  a  time,  or  in  crowded  audiences  to 
hear  some  chosen  speaker  on  missions,  or  for  a  Bible-reading.  For 
the  latter,  none  was  ever  more  warmly  welcomed  than  the  beloved 
Sir  Arthur  Blackwood,  whose  last  Bible-reading  in  that  Brookside 
home  was  given  on  Nov.  23,  1890,  the  eighty -second  birthday  of 
the  Professor.  Among  the  audience  was  a  member  of  the  Brahmo 
Somaj,  who  had  expressed  a  desire  to  attend,  and  who  afterwards 
said  he  would  carry  back  to  India  the  memory  of  the  words  he 
heard  on  that  day. 


Ixiv  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

Time  would  fail  to  tell  of  all  the  sacred  influences  exercised  by 
Professor  and  Mrs.  Babington  amongst  University  men.  It  was  in 
their  home  that  the  sainted  Bishop  Parker  first  met  the  Rev.  Jani  Alii, 
and  formed  the  friendship  which  gave  that  devoted  worker  to  India, 
and  afterwards  to  his  noble  life-sacrifice  on  far  Nyanza's  shore. 
When  the  "Cambridge  Seven"  were  dismissed  for  China,  their 
choice  of  a  chairman  fell  on  Professor  Babington,  because,  as  they 
said,  "  he  is  so  large-hearted,  he  loves  all  who  love  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ."  What  a  gathering  it  was  ;  and  on  every  subsequent  visit 
of  the  China  Inland  Mission,  the  secretary,  Mr.  Broomhall,  sought 
and  invariably  obtained  the  services  of  the  same  honoured  chairman, 
until  sickness  deprived  him  of  what  he  ever  considered  a  privilege. 

The  London  City  Mission  was  a  specially  favorite  Society  with 
him;  he  often  said  he  knew  not  what  London  would  have  been 
without  it.  Medical  missions  had  for  years  a  large  place  in  his 
heart,  and  he  delighted  in  the  thought  that  here  was  a  work  in 
which  all  denominations  could  join,  and  with  one  heart  unite  in 
fulfilling  our  Lord's  own  command  to  preach  the  Word  and  heal 
the  sick. 

Last  year,  when  the  venerable  Dr.  Paton,  of  New  Hebrides,  was 
in  Cambridge,  he  most  kindly  gave  half-an-hour  to  visiting  the 
Professor,  whom  he  found  well  up  in  all  the  details  of  his  grand 
and  heroic  labours.  Spain  and  Italy  found  in  him  a  warm  friend. 
He  largely  aided  the  work  in  the  former  country,  in  which  the 
Archbishop  of  Dublin  takes  so  warm  a  share.  Count  Campello's 
work  in  Italy  was  also  a  cause  of  deep  interest.  Dr.  Barnardo 
found  in  the  late  Professor  a  faithful  and  true  friend.  To  these 
may  be  added  liberal  support  of  local  work  in  Cambridge,  into 
which  time  and  space  forbid  us  to  enter. 

A  prolonged  illness  of  nearly  four  years  laid  him  aside  from 
active  work,  but  not  from  active  heart-interest  in  the  extension 
of  our  Saviour's  Kingdom ;  and  when  able,  as  he  was  for  much  of 
that  time,  he  followed  with  sympathetic  eagerness  the  work  at 
home  and  abroad.  This  is  not  the  place  in  which  to  speak  of  the 
sacred  memories  which  cluster  round  these  later  years.  They 
brought  him  much  of  suffering  and  weakness,  but  the  Hand  that 
had  led  him  all  through  his  lengthened  life,  sustained  him  still. 
His  peace,  his  patience,  his  praise,  were  lessons  for  all  who  came 
within  his  influence,  and  with  unfaltering  trust  and  unbroken  peace 
his  gentle  spirit  passed  into  the  presence  of  the  Lord  he  loved. 

Thus  will  it  be  seen  that  the  subject  of  this  brief  sketch  furnishes 
a  noble  evidence  of  union  in  science  and  faith.  Cambridge  has  lost 
one  of  her  most  distinguished  sons.  The  gates  of  glory  have  opened 
to  admit  into  the  King's  presence  this  cherished  saint,  who  lives  for 
ever  with  Him  who  is  our  Life. 


"HL^t  mtmoxs  of  lift  just  is  ilwsclJ. 


REMINISCENCES.  Ixv 

IRISH  DISTRESS,   JANUARY,    1840. 

From  the  "Cambridge  Chronicle,"  Jamiary  25,  1840. 

[The  following  letter  shews  the  interest  which  Professor  Babington  took  from 
•early  days  in  the  welfare  of  the  Irish  people.] 

A  Winter  without  Fuel  !    Destitution  of  the  Irish 
Peasantry. 

To  the  Editor  of  the  "  Cambridge  Chronicle." 

St.  John's  College, 

Jan.  20th,  1840. 

Sir, — I  feel  no  doubt  of  your  allowing  me  to  occupy  a  small 
portion  of  your  next  number  with  the  following  statement  of  the 
present  state  of  total  destitution  which  exists  in  Ireland,  in  order 
that  the  attention  of  the  members  of  the  University  and  inhabitants 
of  the  town  of  Cambridge  may  be  called  to  the  great  necessity  which 
exists  for  vigorous  measures  being  taken  for  the  relief  of  our  suffering 
fellow-countrymen,  who  are  totally  without  fuel  during  this  incle- 
ment season  of  the  year.  It  will  be  seen  from  the  following  short 
extracts  from  letters  addressed  to  the  Rev.  H.  Marriott,  Rector  of 
Claverton,  near  Bath,  that  the  poor  people  inhabiting  the  central 
•counties  of  Ireland  have  been,  owing  to  the  continued  wet  weather, 
unable  to  provide  their  usual  supply  of  fuel  during  the  last  summer ; 
and  that  they  are  at  the  present  time  in  want  of  a  supply  sufficient 
even  for  the  purpose  of  cooking  that  scanty  stock  of  potatoes  which 
the  late  rainy  season  has  permitted  them  to  raise ;  and  that  from 
their  distance  from  the  sea,  and  their  extreme  poverty,  it  is  not  in 
their  power  to  procure  coal  to  replace  the  turf,  upon  which  they 
have  been  accustomed  to  depend  for  winter  fuel.  I  know  from 
experience  that  the  roofs  of  their  wretched  cabins  are  at  all  times 
quite  insufficient  to  resist  even  the  usual  rain  of  that  wet  climate, 
and  am  now  informed  upon  good  authority,  that  in  many  cases  the 
wet  has  penetrated  through  the  mud  walls  with  which  they  are 
constructed,  so  as  not  to  leave  a  single  dry  spot  within  them ;  and 
that  from  that  cause  the  potatoes — of  which  the  crop  has  been  far 
less  productive  than  usual — cannot  be  prevented  from  decaying,  so 
that  the  population  of  a  large  part  of  Ireland  will  certainly  be  soon 
reduced  to  a  destitution  of  food  and  shelter, — if,  indeed,  they  are 
not  already  in  that  deplorable  condition.  The  resident  gentry  of 
that  country  have  been  doing  all  that  their  means  will  allow,  to 
remedy  the  evil ;  but  from  its  magnitude  it  is  quite  impossible  for 
them  to  do  more  than  will  slightly  alleviate  the  miseries  of  the 
people ;  and  it  is  only  by  the  liberal  assistance  of  the  English  that 
they  can  hope  to  prevent  the  most  appalling  results. 

The  Rev.  R.  Daly,  Rector  of  Powerscourt,  writes :  "  We  have 
reason  to  think  that  we  are  about  to  enter  upon  a  year  that  will  be 
marked  with  peculiar  sufferings.     Food  is  dear,  and,  what  is  worse 


Ixvi  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

— of  bad  quality ;  and  the  common  firing  of  the  country  is  in  most 
places  entirely  destroyed.  I  doubt  not,  but  to  a  great  extent,  the 
people  were  prevented  from  cutting  their  turf;  but  the  common 
evil  is,  that  there  has  been  an  impossibility  of  drying  and  saving 
that  which  was  cut.  In  travelling,  this  year,  through  much  of  the 
south  of  Ireland,  I  have  seen  the  low-lying  bogs  covered  with  water, 
and  the  stacks  of  turf  just  appearing  above  the  water.  There  is  no 
turf  fit  for  fuel  to  be  had.  How  must  they  suffer,  who  depend 
entirely  on  turf !  A  sister  of  mine  living  in  the  county  of  Cavan,. 
which  depends  on  turf  for  firing,  was  obliged  to  send  forty  miles 
for  coal !  The  poor  cannot  do  this.  I  do  not  know  what  can  be 
done ;  the  evil  is  of  such  universal  extent.  I  fear  one  result  will  be 
fever  in  the  spring  and  summer.     It  is,  indeed,  beginning  already." 

Lord  Powerscourt  says  :  "  I  assure  you  I  am  not  saying  anything 
beyond  the  most  bare  fact,  when  I  say  that  such  a  season  and  such 
a  consequent  prospect  has  not  occurred  in  the  memory  of  the  oldest 
inhabitant." 

The  Kev.  A.  Douglas,  Rector  of  Drumgoon,  county  of  Cavan, 
writes :  "I  can  bear  the  most  ample  testimony  to  the  truth  of  the 
destitution  and  misery  under  which  our  poor  now  labour  from  the 
total  want  of  fuel.  This  part  of  Ireland  (Cavan)  depends  altogether 
for  firing  on  a  species  of  turf,  called  mud-turf ;  the  mud  is  mixed 
up  like  mortar,  then  spread  and  divided  by  hand  into  the  size  for 
burning ;  it  requires  much  fine  weather  to  dry  it ;  it  is  also  a  most 
expensive  operation ;  and  should  a  wet  summer,  like  the  last,  come,^ 
the  poor  lose  their  labour  and  their  winter  provision  of  fuel.  I  am 
Protestant  Rector  of  a  large  parish,  which  contains  sixteen  thousand 
acres,  with  a  dense  population  of  thirteen  thousand  souls ;  the  poor 
have  no  means  to  procure  sea-coal,  being  more  than  thirty  miles 
from  any  port.  I  have  been  over  my  parish,  and  can  state,  with 
truth,  that  scarce  a  turf-stack  can  be  seen,  even  at  the  cottage-door 
of  the  most  respectable  farmers ;  the  fuel,  or  mud-turf,  all  out  in 
the  bogs ;  the  tops  of  the  small  stacks  just  above  the  water.  The 
evil  does  not  stop  here ;  the  frost  Avhich  has  come  the  last  few  days 
bursts  and  ravels  the  turf,  so  that  it  is  altogether  destroyed,  and 
the  whole  of  last  summer's  labour  of  the  poor  is  lost."  He  adds, 
that  the  people  must,  under  the  best  circumstances,  be  "without 
any  fuel  for  more  than  eight  months,"  as  no  new  turf  will  be  ready 
to  burn  till  August ;  and  that  he  has  been  a  constant  resident  rector 
for  more  than  thirty  years,  and  says,  "in  the  presence  of  God, 
I  declare  I  never  saw  or  felt  before,  such  a  scene  of  horrors  for  the 
poor,  as  that  which  now  presents  itself  to  my  contemplation." 

The  Earl  of  Cloncurry  writes  :  "  The  statement  as  to  the  nearly 
total  loss  of  the  year's  fuel  is  by  no  means  exaggerated ;  and  to 
those  who  inhabit  damp  cottages,  with  scanty  clothing,  and  more 
scanty  diet,  the  want  of  a  fire  is  a  dreadful  privation." 

I  could  give  further  extracts,  but  that  I  think  it  unnecessary ; 
and  now.  Sir,  let  us  who  sit  by  our  comfortable  fire-sides,  and  have 


REMINISCENCES.  Ixvii 

good  and  sufficient  food  upon  each  succeeding  day,  consider  these 
statements,  and  endeavour  to  alleviate,  as  far  as  lies  in  our  power, 
the  miseries  of  our  unfortunate  fellow-countrymen  ;  giving  at  the 
same  time,  thanks  to  Almighty  God,  that  we  and  those  around  us 
are  not  reduced  to  a  similar  state  of  destitution. 

In  the  city  of  Bath,  a  public  meeting  was  held,  and  subscriptions 
to  the  amount  of  <£211  were  collected  upon  the  day  of  the  meeting. 
I  would  propose  that  a  Committee  be  formed  in  this  town,  for  the 
purpose  of  collecting  subscriptions  from  the  University  and  Town, — 
entering  into  communication  with  the  E-ev.  H.  Marriott  (who  has 
taken  the  lead  in  this  charitable  object),  and  with  the  Committee 
which  is  now  forming  in  Dublin — and  taking  such  other  steps  as 
may  appear  to  be  advisable.  Apologizing  for  the  space  I  have 
occupied  in  your  columns. 

I  am,  Sir,  your  obedient  Servant. 

CHARLES  C.  BABINGTON. 


By  James  Britten,  F.L.S. 

{Reprinted  from  the  ^^  Journal  of  Botamj"  September,  1895.) 

Charles  Cardale  Babington  was  born  on  November  23rd,  1808, 
at  Ludlow,  in  which  town  his  father,  Joseph  Babington,  was  a 
physician.  When  he  was  four  years  old,  the  family  removed  to 
Spaw  Place,  Humberston  Gate,  Leicester,  and  subsequently,  Mr. 
Babington  having  received  ordination  in  the  Established  Church, 
to  Hawksworth,  in  Nottinghamshire.  Mr.  Babington  had  a  fond- 
ness for  botany,  and  contributed  a  list  of  plants  found  near  Ludlow 
to  Plymley's  Agriculture  of  Shropshire.  While  at  Ludlow  he  sent 
lichens  to  Sir  J.  E.  Smith,  some  of  which  were  figured  and 
described  for  English  Botany  (see  E.  Bot.  450,  740,  887). 

When  he  was  eight  years  old,  young  Babington  was  sent  to 
Neodwood  Parsonage,  Staffordshire,  for  private  tuition,  where  his 
diary  tells  us,  he  was  not  well  treated.  After  being  at  another 
private  school,  he  was  sent  (in  1821)  to  the  Charterhouse,  but  here 
he  did  not  stay  long.  "Not  getting  on  well  with  my  learning," 
says  his  diary,  "I  was  removed  at  my  own  wish  from  the  Charter- 
house and  went  to  Mr.  W.  Hutchins's  school  at  Bath."  His  father, 
Avhose  infirmities  had  compelled  him  to  abandon  clerical  duty,  had 
at  this  time  settled  in  Bath.  During  the  time  that  young  Babington 
was  a  day -scholar  at  the  school  mentioned,  he  "  formed  an  intimate 
acquaintance  with  the  neighbourhood  of  Bath,  and  began  to  study 
its  botany  and  to  collect  plants  and  insects."  His  father  had 
previously  taught  him  the  elements  of  botany,  from  Lee's  Intro- 
duction and  Withering's  Arrangement. 


Ixviii  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTOJ^. 

On  Oct.  11th,  1826,  Babington  took  up  his  residence  at  St. 
John's  College,  Cambridge.  In  the  following  year,  he  notes  under 
April  30th,  "Went  to  Prof.  Henslow's  first  lecture  on  Botany," 
and  on  May  2nd,  "  Conversed  with  hinii  after  the  botanical  lecture, 
and  was  asked  to  his  house.  Assisted  Prof.  Henslow  in  putting 
things  in  order  before  and  after  the  lectures."  In  1830  he  took  his 
B.A.  degree  and  became  a  Fellow  of  the  Linnean  Society,  of  which 
at  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  the  "father."  In  1833  he  went 
into  college,  and  was  created  M.A. 

It  was  in  this  year  that  his  more  definite  botanical  work  began. 
We  have  seen  that  during  his  school  days  he  studied  the  plants  of 
Bath,  and  on  visiting  that  city  in  July,  1831,  he  was  requested  by 
Mr.  E.  CoUings  "to  look  over  a  list  of  the  Bath  plants,  and  make 
additions  and  corrections.  I  found  the  list  so  imperfect  that  it  was 
determined  to  endeavour  to  complete  my  own  list  of  those  which 
I  had  observed.  I  worked  hard  all  the  summer,  and  finished  the 
manuscript  on  the  15th  October,  having  had  the  loan  of  Dr.  H. 
Gibbes's  Flora  Bathon.  and  assistance  from  Mr.  E.  Simms  and  Dr. 
J.  F.  Davis." 

The  Flora  Bathoniensis  was  published  at  the  beginning  of  1834; 
it  contains  a  few  critical  notes  and  references  to  continental  floras, 
which  indicate  the  lines  of  the  author's  future  work,  and  adds 
Euphorbia  pilosa  (called  epithymoides)  to  the  British  Flora. 

In  1836  (at  its  second  meeting)  Babington  became  a  Fellow  of 
the  Botanical  Society  of  Edinburgh.  In  1837  (at  the  beginning  of 
which  he  "  was  taken  with  the  prevalent  influenza")  he  made  his  first 
visit  to  the  Channel  Islands,  in  company  with  R.  M.  Lingwood,  with 
whom  and  John  Ball,  another  Cambridge  friend,  he  had  visited 
Ireland  in  1835.*  He  returned  in  1838,  and  the  results  of  his 
observations  are  embodied  in  his  Frimitiae  Florae  Sarnicae,  published 
in  1839.  A  much  more  important  work,  however,  was  already  in 
progress.  In  his  diary  for  1835  is  the  entry:  "May  11.  Com- 
menced my  Manual  of  British  Botany"  and  with  this  his  time  was 
largely  occupied  until  1843,  when  the  last  proof  of  the  book  ("which 
has  kept  me  most  fully  occupied  all  the  winter  ")  was  corrected ;  the 
preface  is  dated  May  1st,  1843.  Of  this  work  it  is  not  too  much  to 
say  that  it  revolutionized  the  study  of  British  plants,  and  gave  an 
impetus  to  thought  and  work  among  British  botanists  to  a  degree 
unequalled  by  any  publication  of  the  century.  To  say  this  is  by  no 
means  to  ignore  the  excellence  of  Smith's  English  Flora  (1828),  or 
to  depreciate  other  books  then  existing,  such  as  the  seventh  edition 
of  Withering's  Arrangement  (1830).  But  the  bulk  of  these,  aug- 
mented as  it  was  in  the  latter  case  by  the  addition  of  a  vast  quantity 
of  extraneous  though  not  uninteresting  matter,  rendered  them 
cumbrous  for  field  work;  and  although  the  useful  Compendium  of 

*  Babington's  accoxint  of  this  visit  will  be  found  in  Maff.  Nat.  Sist.  ix. 
119—130  (1836). 


KEMINISCENCES.  Ixix 

the  Encilish  Ilora  (which  first  appeared  in  English  in  1829)  was 
sufficiently  convenient  in  size,  the  descriptions  were  meagre. 
Hooker's  British  Flora,  which  first  appeared  in  1830,  successfully 
supplied  the  demand  for  a  compendious  handbook,  as  is  shewn  by 
the  fact  that  four  large  editions  were  exhausted  in  less  than  twelve 
years.  These  were  all  arranged  on  the  Linnean  system,  but  the 
fifth  edition,  published  a  year  before  the  Manual,  followed  the 
natural  arrangement.  But  by  this  time  Sir  William  Hooker  had 
become  Director  of  Kevv  Gardens,  and  it  is  not  astonishing  that 
his  new  labours  left  him  but  little  time  for  British  botany.  Save 
in  its  rearrangement,  this  edition  shews  little  advance  upon  its  pre- 
decessors ;  and  the  time  was  ripe  for  the  appearance  of  a  new  book. 
Other  important  reasons  for  the  production  of  such  a  work  are 
well  set  forth  in  the  preface  to  the  first  edition  of  the  Manual — 
a  thousand  copies  of  which,  as  of  subsequent  editions,  were  printed. 
Babington  tells  us  that,  having  taking  up  British  botany,  he  "had 
not  advanced  far  in  the  critical  examination  of  our  native  plants 
before  he  found  that  a  careful  comparison  of  indigenous  specimens 
with  the  works  of  eminent  continental  authors,  and  with  plants 
obtained  from  other  parts  of  Europe,  must  necessarily  be  made, 
for  it  appeared  that  in  very  many  cases  the  nomenclature  employed 
in  England  was  different  from  that  used  in  other  countries,  that 
often  plants  considered  as  varieties  here  were  held  to  be  distinct 
species  abroad,  that  several  of  our  species  were  only  looked  upon  as 
varieties  by  them,  and  also  that  the  mode  of  grouping  into  genera 
was  frequently  essentially  different.  The  discovery  of  these  facts 
produced  considerable  astonishment,  and  the  author  was  led  to 
consider  what  could  have  been  the  cause  of  so  remarkable  a 
discrepancy.  The  following  appears  to  be  the  most  probable 
explanation.  It  is  well  known  that  at  the  close  of  the  last 
century  Sir  J.  E.  Smith  became  the  fortunate  possessor  of  the 
Herbarium  of  Linnaeus,  and  was  thus  enabled  to  ascertain,  with 
very  considerable  accuracy,  the  British  species  which  were  known 
to  that  distinguished  man,  and  to  publish,  in  the  most  improved 
form  that  he  had  given  to  his  system,  a  remarkably  complete 
and  excellent  Flora  of  Britain.  Then  followed  the  long-continued 
separation  of  this  country  from  France,  and  indeed  from  most  of 
the  European  nations,  by  which  we  were  almost  completely  pre- 
vented from  observing  the  progress  which  botanical  science  was 
making  in  other  countries,  and  at  the  same  time  our  own  flora  was 
continually  receiving  accessions  of  new  plants  which  it  was  nearly 
impossible  to  identify  with  the  species  detected  and  published  in 
France  and  Germany.  At  the  conclusion  of  the  war  we  had  become 
so  wedded  to  the  system  of  Linnaeus,  and,  it  may  even  perhaps  be 
allowable  to  add,  so  well  satisfied  with  our  own  proficiency,  that, 
with  the  honourable  exception  of  Mr.  Brown,  there  was  at  that 
time  scarcely  a  botanist  in  Britain  who  took  any  interest  in  or  paid 
the  least  attention  to  the  classification  by  natural  orders  which  had 


Ixx  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

been  adopted  in  France,  and  to  the  more  minute  and  accurate 
examination  of  plants  which  was  caused  by  the  employment  of  that 

philosophical  arrangement The  publication  of  so  complete 

and  valuable  a  Linnaean  work  as  the  English  Flwa  greatly  con- 
tributed to  the  permanency  of  this  feeling,  and  accordingly  we  find 
that  at  a  very  recent  period  working  English  botanists  were  un- 
acquainted with  any  of  the  more  modern  continental  floras,  and 
indeed  even  now  many  of  those  works  are  only  knoAvn  by  name  to 
the  great  mass  of  cultivators  of  British  botany." 

The  continental  floras  mentioned  as  having  been  consulted  for 
the  Manual  are  entirely  German — Koch's  Synopsis,  Reichenbach's 
Icones  and  Iconographia,  and  Sturm's  DeutscJdands  Flora.  In  the 
second  edition  (1847)  Nee's  Genera  and  Schkuhr's  Riedgrdser  are 
added.  The  third  and  fourth  editions  (1851  and  1856),  although 
including  "many  additions  and  corrections,"  do  not  present  many 
noteworthy  changes,  except  in  detail :  but  the  care  which  the 
author  took  in  revising  each  edition  should  be  mentioned ;  Babing- 
ton's  interleaved  copies  of  each  issue  are  preserved  in  the  Cambridge 
Herbarium,  and  afford  ample  evidence  of  the  conscientious  work 
which  rendered  the  often  abused  phrase  "new  edition"  no  empty 
formula.  Mr.  Newbould  had  a  similar  copy ;  his  suggestions  were 
always  at  Babington's  service,  and  frequently  proved  useful. 

The  fifth  edition,  published  in  1862,  is  noteworthy  for  the 
recommendation  of  numerous  French  works,  especially  Grenier  and 
Godron's  Flore  de  France,  and  of  Fries's  Novitiae.  From  this  it  will 
be  seen  that  by  this  time  Babington  had  mastered  the  contents  of 
the  principal  critical  floras  of  the  Continent,  and  had  recognized 
their  bearing  upon  British  plants.  Following  his  dictum  "It  is 
most  desirable  that  the  students  of  our  native  Flora  should  not 
confine  their  attention  to  books  published  in  this  country,"  comes 
the  sound  advice  which  even  at  the  present  time  cannot  be  con- 
sidered altogether  needless : — "  It  is  necessary  to  warn  students 
against  the  very  common  error  of  supposing  that  they  have  found 
one  of  the  plants  described  in  a  foreign  Flora,  when  in  reality  they 
have  only  gathered  a  variety  of  some  well-known  British  plant. 
The  risk  of  falling  into  such  errors  renders  it  necessary  to  consult 
such  Avorks  as  those  of  Messrs.  Boreau  and  Jordan  with  great 
caution,  lest  we  should  be  misled  by  descriptions  most  accurate 
indeed,  but  often  rather  those  of  individuals  than  species.  Amongst 
plants  so  closely  allied  as  are  many  of  those  called  species  in  some 
continental  works,  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  arrive  at  a  certain  con- 
clusion without  the  inspection  of  authentic  specimens." 

Shortly  after  the  publication  of  the  fourth  edition  of  the  Manual, 
an  important  rival  had  appeared  in  Mr.  Bentham's  Handbook  of  the 
British  Flora  (1858).  There  is  no  need  here  to  enter  upon  a 
discussion  as  to  the  relative  merits  of  these  works,  each  of  which 
has  proved  useful  to  many  generations  of  botanists  ;  but  it  may  be 
well  to  reprint  the  remarks  which  Babington  made  in  the  preface 


REMINISCENCES.  Ixxi 

to  the  fifth  edition  of  the  Manual — the  next  which  appeared  after 
the  publication  of  Bentham's  book,  which  latter,  as  every  one 
knows,  considerably  "reduced  the  number  of  our  native  species." 
No  one  would  disparage  for  one  moment  the  value  of  Bentham's 
work  or  the  sanity  of  his  conclusions ;  yet  it  is  well  known  that 
it  was  mainly  based  upon  the  examination  of  herbarium  specimens, 
and  this  in  spite  of  the  large  number  of  living  plants  always  at 
hand  in  the  Gardens  to  which  the  Kew  Herbarium  is  an  adjunct. 

"An  attempt  has  recently  been  made,"  says  Babington,  "greatly 
to  reduce  the  number  of  our  native  species.  The  results  obtained 
seem  to  be  so  totally  opposed  to  the  teaching  of  the  plants  them- 
selves, and  the  evidence  adduced  in  their  favour  is  so  seldom  more 
than  a  statement  of  opinion,  that  they  cannot  safely  be  adopted ; 
nor  does  the  plan  of  the  present  work  admit  of  discussion  of  the 
many  questions  raised  by  them.  Also,  it  has  been  laid  down  as  a 
rule  by  some  botanists  that  no  plant  can  be  a  species  whose  dis- 
tinctive characters  are  not  as  manifest  in  an  herbarium  as  when 
it  is  alive.  We  are  told  that  our  business  as  descriptive  botanists 
is  not  'to  determine  what  is  a  species,'  but  simply  to  describe  plants 
so  that  they  may  be  recognised  from  the  dry  specimen.  The  author 
cannot  agree  to  this  rule.  Although  he,  in  common  with  other 
naturalists,  is  unable  to  define  what  is  a  species,  he  believes  that 
species  exist,  and  that  they  may  often  be  easily  distinguished 
amongst  living  plants,  even  when  separated  with  difficulty  from 
their  allies  when  dried  specimens  only  are  examined.  He  also 
thinks  that  it  is  our  duty  as  botanists  to  study  the  living  plants 
Avhenever  it  is  possible  to  do  so,  and  to  describe  from  them ; 
to  write  for  the  use  and  instruction  of  field-  rather  than  cabinet- 
naturalists — for  the  advancement  of  a  knowledge  of  the  plants 
rather  than  for  the  convenience  of  possessors  of  herbaria ;  also, 
that  the  differences  which  we  are  able  to  describe  as  distinguishing 
plants,  being  taken  from  their  more  minute  organs,  is  not  a  proof 
that  they  constitute  only  a  single  species.  It  seems  to  be  our 
business  to  decide  upon  the  probable  distinctness  of  plants  before 
we  attempt  to  define  them ;  to  make  the  species  afford  the  character, 
not  the  character  form  the  species." 

The  sixth  (1867),  seventh  (1874),  and  eighth  (1881)  editions 
were  reviewed  at  some  length  in  this  Journal  on  their  appearance 
by  Mr.  Carruthers,  Dr  Trimen,  and  myself  respectively,*  and  the 
principal  changes  which  accompanied  them  duly  noted.  One  sen- 
tence may  be  quoted  from  the  last  of  these  which  is  applicable  to 
every  edition:  "The  words  'corrected  throughout'  which  appear 
upon  the  title  page  are  always  amply  justified  by  the  contents  of 
the  volume ;  and  although  many  of  the  alterations  introduced  into 
each  successive  edition  seem  in  themselves  trifling,  they  shew  a 
gratifying  anxiety  for  accuracy  in  detail,  and  that  no  pains  have 

*  Journ.  Bot.  1867,  1S4;  1874,  215;  1881,  280. 


Ixxii  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

been  spared  to  ensure  a  satisfactory  result."  Babington's  depre- 
catory note  regarding  these  alterations  and  the  modest  statement 
of  his  aims  with  which  it  concludes  are  very  characteristic :  "  The 
progress  of  our  knowledge  has  caused  changes  in  the  nomenclature 
in  successive  editions  of  this  book  and  in  the  author's  views  of  the 
value  of  forms — as  species  or  varieties.  The  inconvenience  of  these 
alterations  to  all,  especially  to  statistical  botanists,  is  fully  ad- 
mitted ;  but  the  author  does  not  know  of  any  mode  by  which  it  can 
be  avoided  if  each  edition  is  to  be  brought  up  as  completely  as  is  in 
his  power  to  the  contemporary  knowledge  of  our  plants.  No  altera- 
tions have  been  admitted  until  careful  study  has  convinced  the 
author  that  they  are  required.  He  may  have  fallen  into  error,  but 
has  earnestly  endeavoured  to  discover  the  truth."  With  regard  to 
nomenclature,  however,  Babington  was  by  no  means  rigorist,  as 
will  be  seen  by  a  reference  to  his  paper  on  the  subject  in  this 
Journal  for  1888,  pp.  369 — 371,  although  in  the  case  of  the  trans- 
ference of  a  species  he  supported  "the  plan  adopted  by  most 
botanists  until  very  recently,  of  giving  as  the  authority  for  the 
binomial  name  the  author  who  placed  [the  species]  in  its  new  and 
apparently  more  correct  genus." 

Although,  as  every  one  knows,  Babington  was,  even  before  the 
publication  of  the  Manual,  the  recipient  of  communications  from 
"botanical  friends  and  correspondents  almost  too  numerous  to 
mention,"  it  may  be  of  interest  to  cite  the  names  of  those  whom  he 
singles  out  for  special  mention.  In  the  first  edition  he  names 
J.  H.  Balfour,  D.  Moore,  W.  Borrer,  E.  Forster,  J.  E.  Henslow, 
and  W.  A.  Leighton,  and  most  of  these  are  mentioned  in  the  second 
edition.  Thereafter  none  are  named ;  had  any  been  mentioned,  it 
would  assuredly  have  been  Mr.  Newbould,  whose  devotion  to  the 
Manual  and  its  author  amounted  almost  to  a  cultus,  and  whose 
excitement  during  the  preparation  and  on  the  publication  of  a  new 
edition  was  almost  ludicrous  in  its  intensity. 

It  seemed  desirable  to  say  what  had  to  be  said  about  the  Manual 
in  a  connected  form ;  but  we  must  now  return  to  the  period  when 
the  first  edition  appeared.  Before  Babington  had  any  official  con- 
nection with  the  University,  his  influence  was  apparent  in  many 
directions.  He  took  an  important  rather  than  a  prominent  part — 
for  he  was  always  of  a  retiring  disposition — in  numerous  projects 
which  space  will  not  allow  us  to  enumerate  here,  and  was  generally 
helpful.  A  resident  of  more  than  forty  years  testifies  that  he  was 
then  "the  central  figure  among  those  in  Cambridge  who  took  delight 
in  Natural  History :  and  his  simple  character  and  keen  interest  in 
nature  were  very  attractive  to  younger  men  who  had  similar  likings. 
He  certainly  did  more,  in  my  time,  than  any  one  else  to  promote  the 
study  of  Natural  Science  in  the  University."  As  an  archaeologist 
he  took  a  high  position ;  he  published  papers  on  "  Ancient  Cam- 
bridgeshire "  and  the  history  of  the  chapel  of  his  college. 

In   1836  a  society  called  the  Eay  Club  was  formed,  to  take 


REMINISCENCES.  Ixxiii 

the  place  of  Henslow's  Friday  evening  parties :  in  this  Babington 
took  a  leading  part,  and  he  was  the  last  survivor  of  its  founders.  In 
1844  the  Ray  Society  was  established ;  Babington  was  on  the 
council,  and  many  of  the  publications,  such  as  the  Memorials  of 
Ray  and  the  volume  of  his  Cmrespondence,  owe  much  to  his  help : 
the  preface  to  the  latter  says  that  he  had  "looked  over  the  proof 
sheets,  given  the  modern  names  of  the  plants  referred  to,  and  added 
many  valuable  notes."  In  or  about  1862,  a  Committee  of  the 
British  Association,  consisting  of  Babington,  Newbould,  and  J.  E. 
Gray,  was  appointed  to  prepare  a  report  on  the  plants  of  Ray's 
Synopsis  Stirpium,  but  this,  unfortunately,  was  never  presented. 

The  list  of  papers  under  Babington's  name  in  the  Royal  Society's 
Catalogue,  which  extends  down  to  1883,  is  131,  and  several  have 
appeared  since  then  in  this  Journal.  His  first  paper,  however,  was 
not  botanical,  but  entomological ;  it  appeared  in  the  Magazine  of 
Natural  History  for  1832,  and  enumerated  certain  "Additions  to 
the  List  of  British  Insects,"  among  which  are  some  beetles  new  to 
science.  He  was  an  ardent  student  of  insects,  and  at  first  his  work 
seems  to  have  lain  in  that  direction,  as  out  of  the  first  twelve  papers 
which  he  published,  seven  were  entomological.  But  bis  last  contri- 
bution to  entomology  was  the  "Dytiscidae  Darwinianae,"  published 
in  the  Entomological  Society's  Transactions  for  1841 — 43,  since  which 
time  his  published  papers  have  been  almost  entirely  botanical.  A 
large  number  of  these  appeared  in  the  short-lived  Botanical  Gazette 
(1849 — 51)  and  in  the  pages  of  this  Journal,  of  which  he  has  always 
been  a  friend  and  supporter :  the  first  article  in  our  first  volume 
is  from  his  pen,  and  his  name  appeared  in  our  list  of  contributors 
for  1891.  Among  papers  calling  for  more  especial  mention  may 
be  noted  the  "Revision  of  the  Flora  of  Iceland,"*  in  which  he 
brought  together  with  much  care  the  results  of  previous  investi- 
gators, embodying  with  these  his  own  observations  made  during 
a  brief  visit  in  1846.  This  and  his  visit  to  the  Channel  Islands  were 
the  only  occasions  on  which  Babington  left  England. 

Besides  the  papers  which  stand  in  his  name  in  the  above- 
mentioned  Catalogue,  Babington  described  several  plants  for  the 
Supplement  to  English  Botany  (Glyceria  Borreri  Bab.,  t.  2797), 
the  first  and  last  plates  of  which  were  accompanied  by  text  from 
his  pen.  The  first  Glyceria  Borreri  (t.  2727,  issued  1837),  had 
been  previously  detected  by  Borrer,  and  Babington  named  it  "after 
its  discoverer,  as  a  slight  acknowledgment  of  the  many  favours 
received  from  him."  The  figure  had  been  drawn  by  Sowerby  as  far 
back  as  1829,  and  is  marked  by  him  "Glyceria  species  nova(?)": 
Hooker,  however,  notes  on  the  drawing,  "  I  cannot  make  this  a  new 
species  "  :  there  are  also  notes  in  Borrer's  and  Babington's  writing. 
The  last  Anacharis  Alsinastrum  (t.  2993),  was  not  published  until 
1865.     This  plant,  as  it  is  well  known,  shortly  after  its  introduction 

*  Journ.  Linn.  Soc.  xi.  282—348. 


Ixxiv  CHARLES  CARDALE   BABINGTON. 

to  the  Cambridge  Botanic  Gardens,  made  its  escape  through  a  waste 
pipe,  found  its  way  into  the  Cam,  and  in  1852  impeded  navigation 
and  threatened  to  injure  the  drainage  of  the  fen  country.  The  plant 
was  styled  by  some  humorous  undergraduate  Bahingtonia,  to  which 
some  uncomplimentary  epithet — diabolica,  pestifera,  or  damnosa — was 
added.  It  is  unnecessary  to  say  that  Babington  was  in  no  way 
directly  responsible  for  the  introduction,  and  the  name  does  not  find 
any  place  in  the  Index  Kewensis,  although  it  certainly  has  some  claims 
to  inclusion.  The  genus  named  in  his  honour  by  Lindley  {Bot.  Beg. 
1842,  t.  10)  is  now  by  common  consent  referred  to  Baeckea,  so  that 
no  distinct  generic  type  is  associated  with  him,  although  Atriplez 
Bahingtonii  commemorates  his  early  critical  work  at  a  difficult  genus. 

It  was  in  1846  that  the  "Synopsis  of  British  Rubi" — the  fore- 
runner of  the  important  book  issued  in  1869 — appeared  in  the 
Annals  and  Magazine  of  Natural  History.  It  was  reprinted  in 
pamphlet  form,  and  gave  an  impetus  to  the  study  of  this  trouble- 
some group,  the  effects  of  which  are  by  no  means  expended.  The 
later  work,  The  British  FmU,  was  printed  at  the  cost  of  the  University 
Press,  and  was  to  have  been  accompanied  by  a  volume  of  plates  by 
Mr.  J.  W.  Salter.  Some  of  these  were  completed  and  printed  off, 
and  are  extremely  beautiful ;  but  the  work  was  arrested  by  Salter's 
death,  and  has  not  since  been  proceeded  with.  The  acquisition  of 
G-enevier's  great  Buhus  herbarium  enabled  Babington  to  pursue  the 
study  of  this,  his  favourite  group,  with  the  assistance  of  a  large 
series  of  French  types :  he  had  for  many  years  been  preparing  a 
new  edition  of  the  Buhi,  in  which  the  comparison  of  our  English 
plants  with  these  would  have  doubtless  suggested  interesting  con- 
clusions.    In  1851  he  was  elected  F.  R  S. 

In  1860  Babington  published  his  Flmxt  of  Camhidgeshire — an 
excellent  book,  to  which  may  be  largely  attributed  the  historical 
treatment  which  prevails  in  our  best  local  floras. 

On  the  death  of  Prof.  Henslow,  on  May  16th,  1861,  it  seemed 
obvious  that  Babington  would  be  his  successor,  and  in  less  than  a 
month  he  was  appointed  to  the  post.  He  at  once  set  to  work  to 
improve  the  Herbarium,  which  was  in  an  unsatisfactory  condition ; 
additions  were  steadily  made,  both  to  it  and  to  the  library,  some  of 
them,  such  as  Genevier's  Bubi,  at  Babington's  expense.  His  own 
time  was  so  much  occupied,  as  he  states  in  the  Museum  Report  for 
1881,  in  examining  plants  for  other  people,  that  the  work  of  in- 
corporating additions  and  rearranging  the  collections  was  mainly 
left  to  his  assistants— Messrs.  W.  Hillhouse  (1878—81),  T.  H.  Corry 
(1881—83),  M.  C.  Potter  (1884—91),  and  I.  H.  Burkill,  who  still 
occupies  the  post,  and  to  whose  kind  helpfulness  in  the  preparation 
of  this  memoir  I  am  largely  indebted.  Mr.  Corry,  it  will  be  remem- 
bered, met  his  death  by  drowning,  and  Babington's  notice  of  him 
(Journ.  Bot.  1883,  313)  shews  a  warm  appreciation  of  his  talents 
and  personal  qualities — "  I  lose  in  him  not  only  an  excellent  scien- 
tific helper,  but  also  a  very  greatly  valued  friend." 


REMINISCENCES.  Ixxv 

Mr.  Burkill  writes :  "  His  extreme  kindness  kept  him  always 
busy  for  others — this  was  one  of  his  most  noticeable  characteristics. 
When  he  appointed  me  as  his  assistant  in  1891,  it  was  but  a  month 
before  his  illness ;  but  then  and  during  the  three  previous  years, 
when  from  time  to  time  I  had  had  occasion  to  ask  his  advice  about 
any  plant,  I  always  found  him  busy  with  the  same  work — either 
Eubi  from  his  own  collection  or  Eubi  for  some  one  else  :  more  rarely 
it  would  be  something  of  a  different  genus,  but  nearly  always  it  was 
work  for  somebody  who  had  written  to  him.  I  myself  owe  much  to 
him  for  his  great  kindness.  When  I  began  work  here,  he  used  to 
come  down  an  hour  earlier  than  usual,  because  he  found  it  suited 
me  better,  and  he  liked  to  be  there  to  help  me  in  getting  started. 
He  was  extremely  retiring  in  many  ways,  and  though  he  usually 
spent  more  money  on  the  maintenance  of  the  Herbarium  than  the 
allowance,  he  never  mentioned  it  in  his  report.  He  was  extremely 
methodical :  everything  was  noted  down  at  once.  His  critical  work 
was  rather  slow  and  sure,  for  he  always  said  that  another  would 
take  in  the  difference  between  the  plants  in  less  time  than  he  could. 
He  did  not  see  differences  at  the  first  glance,  but  worked  them  out 
slowly  and  thoughtfully." 

The  extreme  kindness  which  Babington  shewed  to  all  with 
whom  he  came  in  contact,  and  especially  to  beginners  in  his 
favourite  science,  was  very  marked.  He  answered  letters  promptly, 
and  his  replies  were  full  of  interest;  many  of  those  who  subse- 
quently made  for  themselves  a  name  among  British  botanists  were 
stimulated  by  his  encouragement.  He  was  glad  to  share  his  pleasure 
with  others  ;  when  away  on  a  holiday  in  some  place  where  interesting 
plants  abounded,  he  would  say,  "  We  must  get  Newbould  down  here," 
conscious  that  his  old  friend  and  admirer  would  take  keen  delight  in 
the  things  which  gave  him  so  much  happiness,  as  well  as  in  the 
genial  company  which  would  recall  early  rambles  together.  For, 
as  the  sketch  which  I  published  of  Mr.  Newbould*  shews,  a 
warm  attachment  existed  between  the  two  botanists,  dating  from 
their  college  days.  Newbould  had  met  Babington  in  Scotland  in 
1845,  had  accompanied  him  to  Pembrokeshire  in  1848,  to  Ireland 
in  1852  and  again  in  1858,  and  to  North  Wales  (with  Jacques  Gay) 
in  1862  :  they  had  previously  worked  in  Cambridgeshire  and  Essex, 
and  in  later  life  a  visit  to  Babington  was  one  of  the  keenest  joys  of 
Newbould's  existence.  They  spent  a  pleasant  time  together  at 
Grange-over-Sands  in  1884,  after  the  meeting  of  the  British  Asso- 
ciation at  York.  Babington's  affectionate  tribute  to  the  memory  of 
his  friend  will  be  found  in  this  Journal  for  1886,  p.  159. 

Any  account  of  Babington  would  be  incomplete  which  did  not 
contain  some  reference  to  the  strong  religious  spirit  which  domi- 
nated his  life.  Brought  up  in  the  Evangelical  school  of  thought, 
which  at  that  time  aroused  the  Established  Church  from  the  lethargy 

*  Journ.  Bot.  1886,  161-  174. 


Ixxvi  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

into  which  it  had  sunk,  he,  unlike  so  many  of  his  contemporaries,. 
— the  two  Newmans,  for  instance — never  deviated  from  his  early- 
beliefs.  As  a  boy  he  became  acquainted  with  William  Wilberforce, 
an  old  friend  of  his  father ;  at  Cambridge  as  an  undergraduate  he 
heard  Charles  Simeon  preach,  and  later  took  others  to  hear  him ; 
he  attended  missionary  meetings  where  Baptist  Noel  spoke  ;  he 
supported  Connop  Thirlwall  in  the  action  which  he  took  as  to  the 
admission  of  dissenters  to  academical  degrees ;  and  in  later  life — 
indeed,  up  to  his  death — actively  supported  a  number  of  philan- 
thropic societies,  all  characterized  by  a  strong  Protestant  tone. 
His  drawing-room  was  a  centre  for  meetings  of  these  bodies,  and, 
in  conjunction  with  Mrs.  Babington,  he  promoted  missionary  work 
both  at  home  and  abroad.  But  all  was  done  quietly  and  unosten- 
tatiously ;  and  however  strong  his  principles  might  be,  his  natural 
kindliness  of  heart  and  consideration  for  others  prevented  that 
aggressive  assertion  of  them  which  characterizes  the  less  cultured 
representatives  of  Protestantism.  The  various  and  ever-varying 
aspects  of  Biblical  criticism  and  the  evolution  hypothesis  never 
disturbed  him.  His  friend,  the  Rev.  H.  C.  G.  Moule,  Principal  of 
Ridley  Hall,  writing  in  the  Record  for  Aug.  9th,  says  :  "  Like 
Sedgwick,  his  elder  friend,  and  Adams,  his  younger,  he  seemed  to 
live  above  perplexity  and  doubt,  in  a  bright,  pure  air  and  light,  in 
which  the  imagined  conflict  between  research  and  the  believer's 
hope  was  nowhere  to  be  seen.  To  him  the  Bible  was  the  Word  of 
his  Lord,  reverenced  and  believed  without  reserve  ;  worship  was  his 
delight;  and  his  keen,  practical  interesfin  Christian  work  ran  side 
by  side  with  his  enquiries  into  nature  and  history."  But  he  was 
fair  to  those  from  whom  he  differed.  Prof.  Mayor,  writing  of  a 
memorable  encounter  of  the  British  Association,  of  which  body 
Babington  was  always  a  member, — it  was  at  a  meeting  of  the 
Association  that  he  first  met  the  lady  whom  he  married  in  1866, 
— says  :  "  I  well  remember  the  glee  which  he  displayed  over  Samuel 
Wilberforce's  discomfiture  by  young  Huxley.  In  creed,  doubtless, 
he  was  much  nearer  to  the  Bishop  than  to  his  conqueror,  but  he 
distrusted  and  hated  clap-trap  as  a  stop-gap  for  argument  and  fact.. 
In  later  life  he  lamented  the  tendency  to  forsake  Huxley's  Physiology 
as  outworn." 

Like  many  of  the  older  men,  Babington  was  not  in  sympathy 
with  the  more  recent  tendencies  of  botanical  research,  the  intro- 
duction of  which  by  Dr.  Vines,  coupled  with  the  non-insistence  of 
the  attendance  of  medical  students,  caused  a  great  diminution  in 
the  number  of  those  present  at  his  lectures.  Prof.  Mayor  says  : 
"He  pitied  the  botanist  who,  never  seeking  living  plants  in  their 
homes,  armed  with  microscope,  ransacks  their  cell  and  fibre.  A 
student  of  the  first  class  in  the  Natural  Science  Tripos,  observing 
a  specimen  of  (what  I  Avill  call  X)  in  his  drawing-room,  on  learning 
the  name  cried,  '  So  that  is  really  X  1  I  know  all  about  that ; 
I  guessed  it  would  be  set,  and  it  was.'     Science  which  cannot  see 


REMINISCENCES.  Ixxvii 

the  wood  for  the  trees,  growing  herb  or  animal  for  cell  laid  bare  by 
scalpel,  had  for  him  no  charm.  His  joy  in  Nature  was  the  joy  of 
a  child."  On  one  of  his  few  visits  to  the  Botanical  Department  of 
the  British  Museum  he  told  us  with  much  relish  a  story  which  may 
be  a  variant  of  the  foregoing — ^how  a  young  lady,  coming  into  his 
room  and  seeing  a  specimen  of  Feziza  coccinea  on  his  table,  was  struck 
by  its  beauty,  and  asked  its  name.  On  being  told,  she  exclaimed, 
"  Peziza  !  why  I  have  been  working  at  that  for  a  fortnight !  " 

During  the  later  years  of  his  life,  Babington — always  in  com- 
pany with  his  devoted  wife,  who  shared  all  his  interests — spent  long 
periods  of  rest  in  various  parts  of  the  country — Yorkshire,  Cornwall, 
Durham,  and  Scotland,  especially  at  Braemar,  which  they  visited 
annually  from  1886  to  1891.  The  rest  of  the  year  was  spent  at 
Cambridge,  where  on  a  fine  day  he  might  be  seen  in  his  wheel  chair 
either  in  the  Botanic  Gardens  or  on  the  Trumpington  Road,  or  at  other 
places,  or  occasionally  going  for  drives,  almost  the  last  drive  being 
to  Cherry  Hinton  Chalk-pit  close  (1894).  All  the  winter  he  would 
be  in  the  house,  and  read  from  morning  to  night,  his  sight  being 
excellent.  He  was  never  in  the  Herbarium  after  August,  1891,  but 
he  retained  charge  of  this  till  his  death,  his  assiduous  assistant, 
Mr.  Burkill,  visiting  him  weekly  to  receive  such  instructions  as 
were  necessary.  Some  two  or  three  years  since  he  appointed  Mr. 
Frank  Darwin  Deputy-Professor,  with  the  charge  of  the  laboratories. 
His  own  herbarium  and  library,  the  latter  containing  some  1600 
volumes,  are  bequeathed  to  the  University;  the  interest  of  the 
former,  of  course,  lies  mainly  in  the  Bubi,  but  there  is  also  an 
extremely  interesting  collection  of  British  plants,  formed  during  his 
long  botanical  career. 

His  end,  like  his  life,  was  peaceful.  When  the  news  of  his 
death,  which  took  place  on  the  22  nd  of  July,  reached  me,  I  was 
staying  at  a  Benedictine  abbey  in  the  far  north ;  and  the  motto  of 
the  house — "  Pax  " — seemed  the  most  fitting  message  of  sympathy 
which  could  be  sent.  It  is  pleasant  to  know  that  the  message  gave 
comfort  to  the  one  for  whom  it  was  intended.  The  funeral  took 
place  at  Cherry  Hinton  on  July  26th,  none  but  friends  and  the 
Cambridge  botanical  staff  being  present. 


BRITISH  RUBI. 

By  James  E.  Bagnall,  A.L.S. 

To  no  British  botanist  are  we  more  indebted  for  our  knowledge 
of  critical  plants  than  to  Professor  Babington,  who  in  the  various 
editions  of  his  great  and  classical  work.  The  Manual  of  British  Botany, 
has  always  been  the  advanced  leader,  giving  to  its  students  descrip- 
tions of  all  recent  additions  to  our  flora;  and  the  results  of  his 
extensive  knowledge  of  the  botanical  literature  of  the  continent, 
and  of  his  examination  of  the  herbaria  issued  by  continental  experts. 


Ixxviii  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

But  the  special  work  of  Professor  Babington  has  been  the  study  of 
the  EuM.  For  more  than  fifty  years  his  earnest  attention  was  given 
to  the  plants,  and  by  his  patient  plodding  and  careful  investigation, 
the  chaotic  state  in  which  he  found  Eubi  in  the  earlier  days  has 
been  transformed  into  the  more  systematic  arrangement  of  recent 
times. 

The  first  work  specially  devoted  to  the  study  of  the  Bubi,  "A 
Synopsis  of  British  Rubi,"  was  published  by  Professor  Babington  in 
The  Annals  of  Natural  History  (1846).  This  was  afterwards  issued 
as  a  separate  work,  and  was  the  first  complete  and  systematic 
account  of  the  British  Eubi  that  had  at  that  time  been  given,  but 
both  the  nomenclature  and  arrangement  were  merely  tentative,  and 
were  modified  as  knowledge  grew  from  more  to  more.  In  this 
essay  descriptions  are  given  of  thirty  species  and  thirty  varieties, 
together  with  valuable  notes  and  comments  following  the  description 
of  each.  In  a  condensed  form,  but  with  one  or  two  additional 
species,  this  was  afterwards  given  in  the  second  edition  of  The 
Manual  (1847).  The  influence  of  this  work  "The  Synopsis"  is 
shewn  in  the  fact  that,  in  the  third  edition  of  The  Manual  (1851) 
forty  species  and  thirty  varieties  are  described,  but  there  is  very 
little  alteration  in  the  systematic  arrangement,  Eubus  Leesii,  E. 
hystrix,  E.  pallidus,  E.  scaber,  E.  pyramidalis,  being  amongst  the 
additions  to  his  former  list.  In  the  fifth  edition  of  The  Manual 
(1862),  forty -three  species  and  nineteen  varieties  are  enumerated 
and  described,  some  of  the  varieties  of  former  editions  being  raised 
to  specific  rank.  The  arrangement  of  the  plants  gives  evidence  of 
careful  thought  and  study ;  this  was  much  modified,  and  was  that 
which  has  since  been  adhered  to  in  all  his  later  editions  of  The 
Manual :  E.  Colemanni,  E.  Bloxamii,  E.  rosaceus,  E.  jjyg'nia^us,  E. 
diversifolius,  E.  foliosus,  being  now  described  as  species,  whilst  E. 
calvatus  became  a  variety  of  E.  Salteri. 

In  1869  Professor  Babington's  great  work.  The  British  Eubi,  an 
attempt  to  discriminate  the  species  of  Eubi  known  to  inhabit  the  British 
Isles,  was  published.  The  value  of  this  work  can  scarcely  be 
estimated.  If  it  had  been  published  in  the  form  originally  intended, 
i.e.  with  plates  illustrating  each  species,  it  would  have  been  a  grand 
work,  but  I  think  scarcely  so  useful  as  in  its  present  form ;  its  cost 
would  have  placed  it  far  above  the  reach  of  the  ordinary  student, 
so  that  only  the  few  more  wealthy  ones  could  have  availed  them- 
selves of  its  help.  This  was  the  first  work  published  in  Britain  in 
which  an  elaborate  account  was  given  of  these  plants,  and  for  the 
first  time  the  British  student  of  the  Eubi  had  a  guide,  helpful  and 
trustworthy.  In  The  British  Eubi,  forty-three  species  and  twenty 
varieties  are  described  with  a  fulness  not  before  attempted,  so  that 
all  the  minuter  details,  of  habit,  clothing,  leaf  form,  and  margination 
are  given ;  but  that  which  adds  so  materially  to  the  value  of  this 
work,  is  the  commentary  which  follows  each  description,  shewing 
the  fulness  of  knowledge  and  vast  experience  of  the  author,  and 


EEMINISCENCES.  Ixxix 

rendering  the  work  not  only  valuable  as  a  guide,  but  also  of  the 
greatest  charm  to  one  interested  in  this  study.  Beside  the  descrip- 
tions and  valuable  comments,  the  area  of  each  plant  is  given, 
together  with  the  geographical  distribution  throughout  the  British 
Isles,  so  far  as  was  then  known ;  the  Watsonian  provinces  being 
adopted.  The  result  of  the  publication  of  this  work  was  a  great 
increase  in  the  number  of  the  students  who  gave  special  attention 
to  the  Bubi,  and  all  that  has  since  been  done  in  this  study  among 
British  botanists  owes  its  origin  to  The  British  Bubi.  The  fundamental 
knowledge  of  the  plants,  and  the  higher  critical  power  of  our  modern 
British  students,  have  been  mainly  gained  by  the  use  of  this  book. 

The  seventh  edition  of  The  Manual  (1874),  contained  the 
condensed  descriptions  of  the  Bubi  given  in  the  above  work,  with 
the  same  arrangement  of  the  species,  two  varieties,  B.  Briggsii 
and  B.  Beuteri  being  the  only  additions;  but  between  1869  and 
1878  very  much  work  had  been  done  by  British  specialists  in  the 
Bubi ;  many  of  the  students  had  availed  themselves  of  the  help  of 
Professor  Babington  in  determining  their  plants  (help  always  given, 
with  the  prompt,  courteous  kindness,  so  characteristic  of  our  leader 
in  this  study) ;  the  result  being  that  very  much  material  of  great 
value  and  interest  had  accumulated ;  and  in  the  Journal  of  Botany 
(1878),  Professor  Babington  gave  a  series  of  papers.  Notes  on  Bubi, 
in  which  he  carefully  reviewed  certain  critical  species,  with  a  fulness 
so  characteristic,  and  a  courteous  respect  for  the  opinions  of  other 
workers,  so  specially  his  own.  The  plants  more  especially  treated 
being :  B.  ramosus,  B.  Warrenii,  B.  festivus,  B.  obliquus,  B.  mutabilis,. 
B.  cavatifolius,  B.  emersistylus,  B.  heteroclitus,  B.  Purchasii,  some  of 
which  were  retained  as  additions  to  our  flora. 

The  salient  features  of  these  "  Notes  on  Eubi "  were  afterwards 
given  in  the  eighth  edition  of  The  Manual  (1881).  This  was  the  last 
edition  published  of  this  great  work,  Avhich  for  fifty  years  had  been 
the  text-book  of  all  advanced  British  botanists.  In  a  footnote  on 
page  106,  the  author  gives  evidence  that  a  closer  examination  of 
continential  herbaria,  and  the  study  of  the  works  of  Genevier  and 
Focke,  had  influenced  him.  He  says,  "When  the  continental  plants  are 
better  known,  it  is  feared  that  considerable  changes  of  nomenclature 
will  be  necessary."  This  sentence  was  characteristic  of  the  writer, 
who  appears  to  have  been  always  ready  to  receive  new  opinions,  if 
those  opinions  appeared  the  more  worthy  of  acceptance.  In  the 
eighth  edition  of  The  Manual,  forty-eight  species  and  twenty-seven 
varieties  are  given,  and  in  addition  to  the  plants  noticed  in  "Notes 
on  Rubi,"  B.  hemistemon  and  B.  hirtifolius  are  described  as  species, 
and  B.  adornatus  as  a  variety  of  B.  folios^is. 

After  the  publication  of  this  edition  of  The  Manual,  Professor 
Babington  seems  to  have  very  closely  studied  the  Herbarium  speci- 
mens of  Genevier  and  typical  specimens  from  Dr.  Focke,  and  to 
have  carefully  compared  our  British  species  with  these  ;  to  have 
also  given  much  attention  to  the  published  works  of  these  great 


Ixxx  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

authorities,  and  to  the  writings  of  P.  J.  Miiller  and  L,  V.  Lefevre, 
and  these  studies  evidently  influenced  his  later  views,  so  that  in  the 
list  of  FmU  published  in  the  London  Catalogue  of  British  Plants 
(8th  edition,  May  1886)  we  have  sixty -one  species  and  thirty-five 
varieties  given  as  natives  of  Great  Britain,  with  several  changes  in 
the  nomenclature ;  and  in  the  Journal  of  Botany  (July  and  August, 
1886)  he  published  a  most  valuable  paper,  "Notes  on  British  Rubi," 
with  special  reference  to  the  list  given  in  the  London  Catalogue 
(8th  edition).  In  this  all  the  special  plants  are  noticed,  and  the  new 
species  are  fully  described.  This  was  the  last  important  communi- 
cation from  Professor  Babington,  and  though  published  just  forty 
years  after  his  first  special  work  on  this  subject,  "  The  Synopsis  " 
was  still  as  full  of  vigorous  thought  as  was  his  earlier  production. 

Through  his  influence  great  advances  had  been  made  in  the 
study  of  these  difl&cult  plants,  and  from  first  to  last  we  find  him 
ever  ready  to  accept  new  light,  and  as  enthusiastic  in  his  love  of  his 
study  in  the  latter  days  as  he  had  been  half  a  century  before. 

But  it  was  not  merely  as  our  greatest  authority  on  the  Rubi  that 
Professor  Babington  was  known,  but  also  as  one  ready  to  devote  his 
valuable  time,  and  to  give  his  great  knowledge  to  the  help  of  others 
far  less  favoured,  and  I  know  by  my  own  experience  that  his  help 
was  always  given  without  stint,  and  with  a  courteousness  that 
enhanced  the  service. 

I  think  I  ought  to  have  added  to  my  notes  that  the  latest 
published  opinions  of  Professor  Babington,  i.e.  his  Preface  and 
Introductory  Note  on  the  PiuU,  published  in  the  Journal  of  Botany 
(July,  1896),  which  was  prepared  for  the  work  which  he  had  in 
hand,  and  did  not  alas !  complete,  shews  that  had  he  been  spared  to 
have  published  The  Revision  of  British  Rubi,  he  would  have  given  to 
the  student  of  the  Ruhi  a  work  of  surpassing  interest  and  of  greatest 
worth.  No  one  could  read  (as  I  have  been  permitted  to  do)  the 
MS.  itself  without  being  astonished  at  the  fulness  of  knowledge  of 
which  the  entire  work  gives  noble  evidence. 


PROFESSOR  BABINGTON  ON  RUBUS  IN   1891. 

[Reprinted  from  the  "Journal  of  Botany"  for  July  1896.] 

[Professor  Babington,  some  years  before  his  death,  had  nearly  completed 
a  work  which  he  hoped  to  publish  as  a  Revision  of  JBi'itish  JRuhi.  Ill 
health  unfortunately  prevented  him  from  finishing  it ;  and  so  much  additional 
light  has  been  thrown  on  the  subject  since  he  was  last  able  to  deal  with  it 
{i.e.  in  1890  or  1891),  in  consequence  of  Dr.  Focke's  visits  to  this  countrj- 
and  the  increased  activity  of  British  students  of  the  genus,  that  veiy  much 
of  what  he  left  in  MS.  is  now  necessarily  out  of  date.  To  so  great  an  extent, 
indeed,  is  this  the  case,  that  I  believe  no  British  batologist  who  read  it  through 
could  desire  the  publication  of  the  work  as  it  has  been  left.  I  have  ventured, 
however,  to  recommend  the  printing  of  the  completed  introduction,  as  well 
for  its  own  intrinsic  value  as  on  account  of  the  position  the  Professor  so  long 


KEMINISCENCES.  Ixxxi 

occupied  as  our  greatest  authority  and  most  patient  teacher  and  guide  in  our 
study  of  these  puzzling  plants.  No  British  botanist  who  realizes  even  partially 
the  invaluable  work  done  by  him  throughout  the  course  of  his  long  professorial 
career  can,  I  think,  fail  to  be  both  interested  and  instructed  by  this  fragment 
of  his  last  work  for  us.  With  Mrs.  Babington's  permission,  I  have  also 
extracted  from  the  body  of  the  work  the  Professor's  account  of  M.  lentiginosus 
Lees.  I  have  thought  this  too  obscui*e  a  form  to  claim  a  place  in  our  Rubus 
list ;  but  I  have  now  had  the  advantage  of  seeing  Lees's  authentic  specimens 
in  the  Cambridge  Babington  Herbarium,  and  I  find  them  identical  with  the 
plant  described  by  Dr.  Focke,  and  published  only  last  year  in  Griffith's 
Fl.  Angl.  and  Carnarv.  as  B.  camhricus  Focke.  This  latter  name  must 
now  of  course  give  place  to  R.  lentiginosus  Lees,  published  so  long  ago  as 
1849  in  Steele's  Sandhooh,  p.  60.  Dr.  Focke  would  place  it  next  to 
B.  Questierii  Lefv.  and  Muell. — W.  Moyle  Rogees.] 


Preface. 

The  time  seems  to  have  arrived  when  a  new  treatise  on  the 
British  Eubi  is  required,  and  as  I  am  told  that  this  is  expected  from 
me,  I  have  endeavoured  to  prepare  one.  It  does  not  supersede 
my  British  Eicbi,  the  object  of  which  was  to  ascertain  the  plants 
intended  by  British  authorities  up  to  the  time  (1869)  of  its  pub- 
lication. My  chief  object  now  is  to  endeavour  to  identify  our 
plants  with  those  of  the  continental  authors,  especially  Focke  and 
Genevier. 

I  now  possess  the  means  wanting  to  me  in  1869,  for  the  whole 
herbarium  of  Genevier  has  come  to  Cambridge,  and  through  the 
kindness  of  Dr.  Focke  I  possess  named  specimens  of  most  of  his 
species ;  many  others  which  he  could  not  give  me,  have  been 
obtained  by  the  liberality  of  English  botanists,  who  have  had 
their  plants  named  by  him.  I  feel  therefore  that  probably  the 
duty  of  preparing  a  new  British  Rubi  has  really  devolved  upon 
me.  But  the  further  I  go  in  the  study  of  our  native  plants,  the 
clearer  it  becomes  that  we  really  are  far  from  truly  understanding 
them.  As  my  former  book  was  only  provisional,  this  also  cannot 
claim  any  higher  position.  If  it  helps  forward  those  who  are 
studying  this  difficult  genus,  my  Avishes  are  fully  met. 

Not  only  is  much  continued  study  of  the  plants  required  before 
we  can  decide  what  forms  are  to  be  accepted  as  species,  what  are 
permanent  varieties,  and  what  are  only  variations  which  may  be 
expected  to  revert  when  propagated  by  seed  to  the  more  permanent 
forms,  and  also  which  of  them  may  be  fairly  considered  as  the 
result  of  hybridization,  but  a  careful  study  of  them  all  in  the  living 
state  must  be  made.  Unfortunately  living  in  a  district  where  Ruhi 
are  far  from  abundant,  it  has  been  out  of  my  power  to  do  this,  and 
therefore  I  may,  nay  must,  have  fallen  into  error  in  many  cases. 
Those  botanists  who  are  more  favourably  situated  must  be  looked 
to  for  making  the  necessary  corrections.  This  book  can  only  be 
considered  as  a  preliminary,  very  far  from  a  final,  determination 

/ 


Ixxxii  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

of  the  Euhi  to  be  found  in  Britain.  I  have  therefore  named  and 
described  many  forms  which  seem  to  be  well  marked,  but  may  not 
prove  to  be  permanent  after  the  requisite  study  has  been  bestowed 
upon  them  in  their  native  places  of  growth. 

Focke  justly  remarks  that  "Very  few  botanists  recognize  the 
fact  that  there  are  in  Europe  at  the  present  time  perhaps  fifty 
times  more  apparently  permanent  forms  of  plants  reproduced 
from  seed,  than  we  find  species  recorded  in  books.  According  to 
my  view,  it  is  therefore  erroneous  to  take  permanency  from  seed 
as  a  decided  criterion  of  species." — pp.  89,  90.  He  also  justly 
remarks  that  "  it  is  only  by  means  of  minute  descriptions  that  we 
are  able  to  recognize  with  certainty  the  various  forms  of  plants. 
Those  who  rely  too  much  on  single  characters  for  the  recognition 
of  species  in  very  short  diagnoses  or  tabular  forms,  will  only  too 
often  find  themselves  in  a  maze  of  error,  for  there  is  not  one  single 
character  that  can  be  considered  as  absolutely  permanent  and 
reliable." — Focke,  p.  91. 


Introductory. 

After  much  consideration  I  have  arrived  at  the  conclusion  that 
Dr.  Focke's  arrangement  is  more  satisfactory  than  that  of  Genevier, 
for  it  does  not  separate  allied  plants  so  much.  Genevier  seems  to 
have  wished  to  use  an  artificial  arrangement,  which  he  probably 
believed  to  be  more  convenient  for  the  readers  of  his  book,  than  a 
more  natural  one.  Although  he  has  to  some  extent  succeeded,  he  is 
far  from  having  wholly  done  so.  I  have  therefore  chiefly  followed 
Focke  in  this  essay;  merely  deviating  from  him  in  those  cases 
where  our  views  do  not  quite  agree. 

M.  Camus,  in  his  recently  published  Catalogue  des  plantes  de 
France,  de  Suisse,  et  de  Belgique  (1888),  has  made  a  bold  attempt, 
with  some  success,  to  form  what  may  be  called  aggregate  species. 
I  fear  that  we  can  only  approach  to  the  formation  of  such  definite  and 
natural  collections  of  named  forms  at  present.  I  have  endeavoured 
so  to  arrange  our  forms,  as  far  as  they  are  yet  determined,  for  there 
may  probably  be  many  more  than  we  know  at  present,  in  as  con- 
venient and  at  the  same  time  natural  a  manner  as  is  in  my  power. 
It  will  be  seen  that  the  present  arrangement  is  fundamentally  the 
same  as  I  have  always  followed,  although  it  will  be  new  to  our 
botanists  in  some  few  points.  I  do  not  see  how  to  improve  it.  It 
must  be  always  remembered  that  a  linear  arrangement  is  necessarily 
unnatural ;  for  the  affinities  of  the  different  plants  do  not  lie  in  only 
two,  but  in  many  directions.  We  must  therefore  not  be  surprised 
by  finding  plants,  which  are  manifestly  allied,  placed  in  distinct 
groups,  when  they  seem,  taking  all  the  characters  into  account,  to 
be  more  fitly  there  placed,  than  with  the  others  to  which  they  shew 
a  relationship.      Of   course   this  adds   much  to   the   difficulty   of 


EEMINISCENCES.  Ixxxiii 

arranging  them  upon  anything  approaching  to  a  natural  system ; 
we  are  obliged  to  employ  a  linear  arrangement. 

Gandoger,  in  his  remarkable  Flora  Europaea,  tom.  viii.,  divides 
the  genus  into  three,  and  has  taken  much  pains  to  reduce  the 
number  of  species  by  arranging  under  each  of  his  species  those  of 
other  authors  which  he  combines  with  them  severally.  To  this 
attempt  I  have  paid  much  attention,  but  have  not  thought  it 
desirable  to  adopt  the  new  genera  into  which  he  divides  Bubus. 
Unfortunatelj''  he  gives  no  definition  of  these  genera,  nor  of  the 
species,  although  he  points  out  innumerable  varieties  under  each 
of  the  latter. 

As  Dr.  Focke  remarks,  there  seems  to  be  endless  variation 
amongst  brambles,  and  therefore  endless  forms  which  may  and 
perhaps  ought  to  be  named  and  defined.  It  matters  little  whether 
we  call  them  species  or  varieties,  or  only  forms ;  for  who  can  define 
a  species,  now  that  we  have  had  to  give  up  the  old  view  that  all 
species  were  intended  to  be  permanently  distinct  ?  Now  that  we 
know  how  extensively,  slightly  varying  forms  are  reproducible  from 
seed,  we  must  either  accept  each  of  these  forms  as  an  aboriginal 
species,  or  give  up  the  theory  that  those  first  created  have  been 
kept  specifically  distinct  until  the  present  time.  We  who  have  been 
trained  to  hold  this  latter  view,  find  it  difficult  to  give  up.  But  the 
search  after  truth  leads  us  necessarily  to  accept  the  former  view. 
Although  therefore  I  have  called  many  species  forms  in  this  essay, 
I  must  not  be  supposed  to  state  or  believe  that  their  characters  do 
not  vary  to  a  greater  or  less  extent  under  changed  circumstances  of 
climate  or  locality.  We  find  that  very  similar  plants  gathered  in 
the  north  or  west  are  often  only  very  similar,  although  we  give  them 
the  same  names.  For  this  reason,  when  we  gather  a  plant  in  Devon 
or  Cornwall,  we  look  to  M.  Genevier's  elaborate  book  for  its  name, 
when  working  in  the  east  or  north-east  of  England  and  Scotland, 
our  attention  is  necessarily  directed  to  the  valuable  descriptions  of 
Dr.  Focke,  or  the  Scandinavian  botanists ;  and  even  then  we  must 
not  always  expect  the  plants  to  be  absolutely  identical.  In  accepting 
nomenclature,  I  quite  agree  with  Dr.  Focke  that  we  are  not  obliged 
to  "waste  our  time  in  studying  the  foolish  writings  of  every  ignorant 
and  mischievous  manufacturer  of  names"  (Journ.  Bot.  1890,  98). 
I  may  quote  another  remark  of  the  same  author  which  seems  to  be 
very  applicable  to  what  is  being  attempted  in  botanical  nomen- 
clature. He  says,  "We  have  far  too  many  botanical  rag-collectors, 
who,  in  following  out  their  view  of  priority,  penetrate  everywhere, 
dragging  matters  again  into  the  light  of  day  which  had  better  have 
been  left  in  the  shades  of  night"  (Focke,  Syn.  p.  58).  It  is  a 
matter  of  mere  convenience  what  plan  of  nomenclature  we  follow. 
Calling  plants  species  or  sub-species  makes  very  little  difference,  for 
we  have  to  define  the  plants  just  as  much  on  one  plan  as  on  the 
other.  If  we  are  to  advance  our  knowledge  and  ascertain  the 
extent  of  variation  of  each  form  (and  that  is,  I  conceive,  our  duty 


Ixxxiv  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

as  students),  we  may  fairly  say  with  Lindley  (Synopsis,  ed.  1,  ix.) 
that  "  our  daily  experience  shews  that  excessive  analysis  is  far 
preferable  to  excessive  synthesis." 

As  has  been  remarked,  it  is  quite  apparent  that  there  are  very 
many  more  forms  of  plants  that  are  continued  by  seed  than  we  have 
been  accustomed  to  believe ;  and  that  we  must  give  up  the  favourite 
idea  that  those  are  distinct  species  which  are  easily  and  fully 
reproducible  by  seed.  We  must  also  give  up  the  once  prevalent 
view  that  a  single  marked  character  may  always  be  depended  upon 
as  the  mark  of  a  species.  After  much  study  we  learn  how  difficult 
it  is  to  define  almost  any  one  of  the  recognised  species,  so  as  to 
include  all  its  possible  forms,  and  so  as  to  separate  it  clearly  from 
all  possible  forms  of  allied  plants. 

In  this  book  I  do  not  pretend  to  have  entered  into  that  difficult 
subject  with  the  elaborate  detail  which  has  been  so  well  carried  out 
by  Dr.  Focke ;  but  I  have  done  so  rather  more  than  is  usual  with 
other  rubologists.  Neither  have  I  attempted  to  form  an  analytical 
table  such  as  that  of  Genevier;  for  I  have  not  found  even  that, 
with  all  its  excellence,  to  be  a  true  and  certain  guide.  And  if  not 
so,  an  analytical  table  is  very  liable  to  lead  us  astray.  As  I  have 
said  in  my  Manual  of  British  Botany,  such  a  Synopsis  "must  be 
used  with  caution,  as  a  very  slight  error  will  totally  mislead." 

We  are  accustomed,  and  perhaps  advisedly,  to  look  for  such 
distinctive  marks  as  are  afforded  by  the  direction  of  the  stem : 
(1)  either  quite  or  nearly  upright;  (2)  more  or  less  highly  arching, 
but  turning  down  at  the  end  in  the  autumn  so  as  to  reach  the  soil, 
and  then  penetrating  into  it  and  throwing  out  roots,  and  thus 
forming  a  new  centre  for  the  growth  of  the  following  year ;  (3)  or 
rising  with  a  very  small  arch  and  then  becoming  prostrate,  and 
often  following  the  inequalities  of  the  ground  with  singular  exact- 
ness for  a  considerable  distance,  but  in  the  late  autumn  again 
forming  a  small  arch  so  as  to  present  its  growing  point  directly 
towards  the  earth  and  penetrating  into  it,  and  rooting  there  as  in 
the  former  case.  It  often  happens  that  these  naturally  prostrate 
plants  rise  to  a  considerable  height  by  being  supported  by  the 
neighbouring  shrubs ;  and  in  such  a  case  they  treat  the  top  of  a 
hedge  as  if  it  was  the  surface  of  the  ground,  and  run  along  it  for  a 
considerable  extent ;  in  such  cases  the  end  frequently  is  not  able  to 
reach  the  earth  before  being  killed  by  the  cold  of  winter :  for  this 
condition  I  have  with  Focke  used  the  term  scandent. 

The  form  of  the  terminal  leaflet  has  been  justly  much  trusted  by 
us.  The  form  and  character  of  the  panicle,  or  rather  inflorescence, 
and  direction  of  the  sepals  require  much  attention. 

Until  recently  we  have  in  this  country  systematically  neglected 
the  valuable  characters  which  appear  to  be  afforded  by  the  colour 
of  the  different  parts  of  the  flower,  and  their  relative  proportions 
and  direction.  We  had  been  taught  to  consider  such  points  as 
undeserving  of  attention,  from  being  too  variable  to  be  of  any  use. 


REMINISCENCES.  Ixxxv 

The  colours  are  apparently  somewhat  variable,  but  less  so  than  we 
have  been  led  to  suppose ;  but  their  proportions  and  direction  in 
the  several  stages  in  the  course  of  reproduction  seem  to  be  very- 
constant.  It  has  been  said  that  the  relative  length  of  the  stamens 
and  styles  is  the  result  of  dimorphism.  It  is  doubtless  so  in  many 
plants,  but  observation  has  not  led  rubologists  to  the  conclusion 
that  such  is  the  case  amongst  Ruhi.  It  would  appear  that  the 
dehiscence  of  the  outer  ring  of  anthers  at  the  time  when  the 
stigmas  are  ripe  aflFords  a  sufficient  security  for  cross-fertilization ; 
the  fertilization  has  usually  taken  place  before  the  inner  rows  of 
stamens  have  produced  any  pollen ;  but  insects  continue  to  frequent 
the  flowers,  and  convey  the  pollen  of  these  later  stamens  to  another 
flower,  having  already  done  this  with  the  product  of  the  first 
ripened  anthers. 

It  is  very  much  to  be  wished  that  collectors  would  make  a  note 
of  the  characters  afforded  by  the  flowers,  as  well  as  record  the 
direction  of  the  growing  stem ;  as  the  want  of  such  information 
renders  their  specimens  of  very  much  less  value.  I  have  been  as 
much  at  fault  as  others  in  former  years,  and  thus  a  considerable  part 
of  my  collection  consists  of  specimens  scarcely  determinable. 

The  points  which  seem  to  require  especial  attention  are  the 
direction  of  growth  of  the  barren  stem  of  the  year,  the  form  of  its 
transverse  section,  and  its  armature ;  also  when  leaves  are  men- 
tioned without  any  distinction,  those  found  on  that  stem  are 
intended.  In  the  description  of  those  leaves  attention  should  be 
paid  to  the  stalked  or  sessile  state  of  the  leaflets,  especially  the 
lower  or  outer  pair;  the  form  of  the  terminal  leaflet,  all  parts 
of  it  being  considered ;  and  the  relative  length  of  it  and  its  partial 
petiole ;  and  the  character  of  its  toothing.  The  form  and  structure 
of  the  panicle  is  also  very  important;  the  form  and  direction  at 
different  stages  of  the  sepals  and  their  armature ;  the  length  and 
direction  of  the  stamens  relatively  to  the  pistils  and  their  colour, 
and  that  of  the  petals.  Colour  is  usually  considered  by  botanists 
to  be  of  very  little  value,  but  it  seems  to  be  important  and  often 
quite  permanent  in  many  Ruhi. 

There  is  also  another  point  concerning  which  I  know  very  little, 
which  our  great  masters  in  this  study  consider  of  value ;  I  mean 
the  presence  or  absence  of  hairs  on  the  young  germens.  It  will  be 
seen  that  many  of  these  things  can  only  be  observed  on  the  living 
plant ;  it  is  therefore  most  important  that  they  should  be  noted  at 
the  time  when  the  specimen  is  collected.  The  want  of  this  care  on 
the  part  of  collectors  has  caused  exceeding  difficulty  in  correctly 
naming  many  of  their  specimens  which  may  be  in  most  other 
respects  well  preserved. 

It  has  been  well  remarked  by  Weddell  {Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  s6r.  6, 
ii.  356)  that,  "Except  in  a  very  few  cases,  it  is  impossible  to 
distinguish  exactly  one  species  from  its  neighbours  by  one  single 
character  alone."     This  is  the  case  in  all  groups  where  the  species 


Ixxxvi  CHARLES  CAllDALE  BABINGTOX. 

are  numerous  and  closely  allied,  and  in  such  cases  we  are  deprived 
of  the  use  of  analytical  keys  such  as  that  prepared  with  so  much 
care  by  Genevier.  In  almost  all  cases  there  are  intermediate  forms 
which  are  not  discoverable  by  them.  Also  they  require  the  presence 
of  much  knowledge  which  is  often  absent  when  the  key  is  brought 
into  use.  I  refer  to  such  points  as  (1)  the  direction  of  barren 
growing  stem  of  the  year ;  (2)  the  form  and  especially  the  colour  of 
the  petals  ;  (3)  the  length  and  direction  of  the  stamens ;  (4)  the 
direction  of  the  sepals  both  in  the  flower  and  with  the  fruit. 

The  question  of  nomenclature  is  very  difficult.  We  have  been 
used  primarily  to  look  to  the  Ruhi  Germanici  as  a  great  authority. 
But  there  a  difficulty  meets  us.  The  descriptions  and  plates  do  not 
always  seem  to  correspond.  The  two  authors  appear  to  have  worked 
independently.  The  specimens  named  by  Nees  for  Leighton  have 
rather  confused  our  ideas  instead  of  clearing  them.  This  is  now 
more  apparent  since  Banning  and  Focke  have  determined  thirty- 
three  out  of  the  forty-two  species  of  Weihe  "with  absolute  certainty." 
The  latter  distinguished  botanist  has  cultivated  many  of  them,  and 
described  them  Avith  remarkable  care  in  his  Synopsis.  He  also  holds, 
as  I  do,  that  it  is  not  advisable,  nor  for  the  promotion  of  science,  to 
"  drag  into  the  light  of  day  obscure  matters  which  had  better  have 
been  left  in  the  shades  of  night."  Thus  names  buried  in  little-known 
tracts  or  neglected  books  had  better  not  be  hunted  out  to  replace 
universally  recognised  names,  however  much  it  may  seem  to  be 
required  by  the  rigid  application  of  laws  of  nomenclature. 

The  great  variability  of  some  "  species  "  causes  much  trouble  to 
the  describer  of  plants.  Many  of  these  forms  seem  to  retain,  even 
from  seed,  marked  and  often  striking  peculiarities,  and  deserve 
distinctive  names,  although  we  can  hardly  call  them  species. 
Hybrids  also  seem  to  be  not  very  uncommon,  and  when  their 
parents  can  be  discovered  they  are  well  deserving  of  notice.  But 
such  plants  often  are  mistaken  for  species,  for,  owing  to  the  way  in 
which  brambles  increase  by  offsets,  one  of  them  may  be  found 
covering  a  large  space,  although  possibly  never  producing  ripe  seeds. 
Such  ought  to  be  described,  but  doubtful  isolated  plants  should  be 
neglected  until  we  can  learn  more  about  them,  and  that  seems  to  be 
the  duty  of  the  botanist  who  observes  them  in  a  living  state. 

Rubus  lentiginosus  Lees.  Stem  "  suberect,"  furrowed  upwards, 
slightly  hairy.  Prickles  conical,  slightly  declining  from  dilated 
compressed  base,  on  angles.  Leaves  5nate-digitate.  Leaflets  thin 
plicate,  not  imbricate,  doubly  and  irregularly  serrate,  green,  nearly 
glabrous,  but  slightly  hairy  on  veins  beneath  ;  terminal  2-3  times  as 
long  as  its  petiole,  obovate-acuminate,  narrowed  and  scarcely  notched 
below.  Branches  of  rather  long  narrow  leafy  panicle  ascending,  race- 
mose, its  rachis  and  peduncles  pilose,  not  felted,  with  many  strong 
declining  or  deflexed  prickles.  Sepals  oval,  linear-pointed,  slightly 
setose,  aciculate,  adpressed  to  fruit. 

R.  lentiginosus  Lees  in  Steele,  60  (1849);  Phytol.  iv.  927. 


REMINISCENCES.  Ixxxvii 

R.  affinis,  /3.  lentiginosus  Bab.  B.  R.  72. 

The  stems  apparently  do  not  root  at  end,  but  the  plant  can 
hardly  be  placed  with  the  Suberedi.  It  seems  far  more  nearly 
allied  to  R.  Lindleianus,  but  is  abnormal  in  respect  to  stem  among 
Rhamnifolii.  The  panicle-branches  have  a  long  naked  unbranched 
base  as  in  R.  Lindleianus,  and  the  rachis  has  many  rather  strong 
deflexed  prickles.  I  have  no  certain  knowledge  of  the  relative 
lengths  of  stamens  and  styles,  but  apparently  the  former  exceed  the 
latter.*  This  is  an  interesting  plant  as  connecting  the  two  sections, 
but  being  apparently  far  more  allied  to  the  plants  included  in 
Rhamnifolii  than  to  Suberedi. 

Hab.  Capel  Curig  {Lees)  and  Aber  (Bloxam)  and  Llanberis 
(/.  H.  Lewis).     Near  Plymouth,  Devon  [Briggs). 

Mr.  Lees  says  in  the  Phytologist  that  the  flowers  are  in  general 
small,  and  the  whole  plant  weak,  yet  the  stem  is  very  prickly,  and 
the  point  of  the  prickles  are  sharp  and  attenuated.  The  stem 
seems  to  be  constantly  suberect,  but  bent  to  the  ground  with 
the  flower-shoots.  Leaves  sometimes  7nate.  Panicle  fiexuose  on 
luxuriant  plants,  Avith  many  alternating  axillary  racemes  of  small 
flowers.  Peduncles  and  bracts  covered  with  long  spreading  hairs, 
with  a  few  glands  (setae)  on  the  latter.  Sepals  patent  with  flower 
and  young  fruit,  then  becoming  loosely  reflexed.  Petals  very  small. 
Stamens  and  styles  pale  green. 

[Reprinted  from  the  Obituary  Notices  of  the  Proceedings  of 
THE  Royal  Society,  Vol.  59.] 

Charles  Cardale  Babington  was  born  at  Ludlow  on  the  23rd 
of  November,  1808.  His  father,  who  was  originally  a  member  of  the 
medical  profession,  afterwards  becoming  a  clergyman  of  the  Church 
of  England,  took  considerable  interest  in  botany.  Whilst  his  son 
was  still  a  schoolboy,  he  retired  from  work  and  settled  at  Bath. 
The  subject  of  our  present  memoir  entered  St.  John's  College, 
Cambridge,  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  took  his  B.A.  degree  four  years 
later,  and  his  M.A.  at  the  age  of  twenty-five.  At  first  his  inclina- 
tions were  towards  entomology,  but  he  attended  Henslow's  lectures 
on  botany,  and  like  so  many  others,  fell  under  his  magnetic  influence. 
He  joined  the  Linnean  Society  in  1830,  and  for  a  short  time  after 
the  death  of  the  Rev.  L,  Jenyns,t  was  its  oldest  Fellow.  His  first 
botanical  book  was  the  Flora  Bathoniensis,  published  in  1834.  He 
visited  Ireland  in  company  with  the  late  Mr.  John  Ball,  in  1835, 
and  gave  an  account  of  his  tour  in  the  9th  volume  of  the  Magazine 
of  Natural  History.  His  Primitiae  Florae  Sarnicae  was  the  result  of 
excursions  taken  during  two  long  vacations,  in  one  of  which  the 
Rev.  W.  W.  Newbouldl  was  his  companion,  and  was  published  in 

*  "  Stamens  and  styles  atout  equal." — Focke.  j-  [Afterwards  Blomefield]. 

J  [Not  Mr.  Newbould.     See  Journal. — Ed.] 


Ixxxviii  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

1839.  In  company  with  Professor  J.  H.  Balfour,  he  visited  the 
Outer  Hebrides,  in  1841,  and  reported  on  their  scanty  vegetation. 
His  work  was  almost  entirely  confined  to  British  botany,  but  he 
published  in  the  eighteenth  volume  of  the  Transactions  of  the  Linnean 
Society,  a  monograph  of  the  Indian  Polygonums,  and  in  the  11th 
volume  of  the  Journal  of  the  Linnean  Society,  a  paper  on  the  "  Flora 
of  Iceland,"  giving  a  complete  list  of  the  Phanerogamia  of  the  island, 
which  he  had  visited  during  the  year  1846.  The  first  edition  of  his 
magnum  opus,  the  Manual  of  British  Botany,  appeared  in  1843.  This 
work  ran  through  eight  editions  during  his  life-time  and  was  for 
fifty  years  almost  universally  used  as  a  hand-book  and  standard 
of  nomenclature  by  local  botanists  who  made  a  study  of  critical 
British  plants.  The  special  feature  of  the  work  was  a  careful 
study  of  the  difficult  genera  by  means  of  the  books  and  fasciculi  of 
dried  specimens  published  by  the  critical  botanists  of  neighbouring 
continental  countries.  In  the  early  editions  he  relied  mainly  upon 
Koch,  Fries,  and  Reichenbach,  and  in  the  later  to  these  were  added 
the  writings  of  Grenier,  Godron,  Boreau,  Jordan,  and  Lange,  and 
the  Exsiccata  of  Reichenbach,  F.  Schultz,  and  Billot.  This  book 
brought  him  into  frequent  communication  with  nearly  all  the  active 
collectors  in  different  parts  of  Britain,  and  entailed  upon  him  a  mass 
of  correspondence  as  referee,  which  occupied  a  large  proportion  of 
his  time.  The  writer  of  the  present  notice  remembers  with  feelings 
of  gratitude  the  kind  and  patient  way  in  which  the  Professor  helped 
him  in  his  difficulties  when,  between  forty  and  fifty  years  ago,  he 
was  beginning  the  study  of  British  botany,  and  was  living  in  a  small 
country  town  where  there  were  no  herbaria  or  books  of  reference. 
Professor  Babington  generally  spent  his  long  holidays  in  exploring 
some  rich  botanical  district  at  home,  such  as  the  Snowdon  country, 
Braemai',  and  Teesdale,  and  in  this  way  made  acquaintance  in  a 
living  state  with  most  of  the  plants  with  which  he  had  to  deal. 
Amongst  the  genera  and  sub-genera  that  he  revised  may  be  mentioned 
Atrijylex,  Arctium,  Fumaria,  Batrachium,  Cerasti^mi,  Dryas,  Armeria, 
Saxifraga,  Hieracium,  Fotamogeton,  and  especially  Eubus.  He  con- 
tributed about  150  papers,  mainly  on  critical  British  plants,  to 
different  periodicals  and  societies. 

In  1 846  he  published  the  first  edition  of  his  Synopsis  of  British 
Eubi,  and  a  much-enlarged  second  edition  in  1869.  This  was  in- 
tended to  have  been  illustrated  by  a  series  of  plates  drawn  by  Mr. 
J.  W.  Salter,  but  the  preparation  of  these  was  stopped  by  Salter's 
death,  and  they  were  not  published. 

In  the  Ray  Society,  which  was  founded  in  1844,  as  an  enlarge- 
ment of  a  Ray  Club,  which  was  started  in  1836,  he  took  an  active 
interest,  serving  on  its  council  and  helping  in  the  editing  of  some  of 
its  publications,  especially  the  volumes  devoted  to  the  memoirs  and 
correspondence  of  the  great  naturalist  from  whom  the  Society  took 
its  name. 

He  was  elected  a  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society  in  1851,  the  same 


REMINISCENCES.  Ixxxix 

year  in  which  Huxley,  Sir  James  Paget,  and  Lord  Kelvin  were  also 
elected,  but  he  never  took  any  active  part  in  the  affairs  of  the 
Society. 

In  1860  he  published  his  Flora  of  Cambridgeshire,  in  which  the 
distribution  of  the  species  through  the  different  districts  of  the 
county  is  traced  out  very  carefully,  and  the  changes  in  the  vegetation 
caused  by  the  drainage  of  the  fens  are  dwelt  on. 

On  the  death  of  Professor  Henslow  in  1861,  Babington  succeeded 
him  as  Professor  of  Botany  at  Cambridge,  and  held  the  chair  up 
to  the  time  of  his  death,  on  the  22nd  of  July,  1895.  His  lectures 
dealt  mainly  with  organography  and  systematic  botany,  and  were 
not  accompanied  by  laboratory  work.  They  were  discontinued  for 
several  years  before  his  death,  and  as  years  went  on,  the  teaching 
of  botany  in  the  University  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  men  of  a 
younger  generation,  with  different  ideals  and  different  plans  of  work. 

J.  G.  BAKER. 


By  the  Ven.  Archdeacon  D.  R.  Thomas,  F.S.A.,  Canon 
of  St.  Asaph,  Chairman  of  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association. 

Of  Professor  Babington's  eminence  in  other  fields  of  science  and 
of  literature,  or  of  his  high  personal  character,  it  is  not  my  purpose 
to  write ;  but  only  of  his  distinction  as  an  archaeologist,  and  of  his 
long  and  valued  services  in  connexion  with  our  Cambrian  Association- 
It  was  in  the  year  1850  that  Mr.  Babington  joined  the  Association, 
when  it  was  just  emerging  from  its  tentative  stage  of  infancy  and 
beginning  to  launch  out  on  its  own  responsibility.  The  journal, 
the  Archaeologia  Cambrensis,  which  down  to  that  year  had  been  the 
private  venture  of  the  editors,  now  became  the  property  and  the 
acknowledged  organ  of  the  Association.  The  first  Annual  Meeting 
he  attended  was  the  one  held  at  Tenby  in  1851,  when  he  took  part 
in  the  discussions.  In  1853,  at  Brecon,  he  was  elected  a  member  of 
the  General  Committee,  and  in  1855,  at  Llandilo,  he  was  chosen  to 
be  its  Chairman,  and  at  the  same  time  was  placed  on  the  small 
Publication  Committee  of  three.  As  Chairman  of  the  Committee 
it  was  one  of  his  duties  to  give  at  the  evening  meetings  a  resumS  of 
the  day's  excursion,  and  to  point  out  the  chief  objects  of  interest 
visited,  with  their  bearing  on  general,  as  well  as  local,  archaeology. 
The  purpose  of  the  resumS  was  twofold ;  to  enable  those  who  had 
been  unable  to  accompany  the  excursions  to  follow  their  proceedings, 
and  to  elicit  a  fuller  discussion  of  the  more  important  points  than 
was  possible  in  the  limited  time  available  on  the  spot.  Such  a  duty 
required  not  only  a  wide  and  accurate  knowledge  of  archaeology, 
but  also  a  thoughtful  arrangement  and  a  clear  and  ready  expression ; 
and  so  efficiently  did  he  discharge  this  duty  that  for  thirty  years  in 


xc  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

succession  he  was  re-elected  to  the  position.  To  mark  still  further 
their  appreciation  of  his  services  the  Association  chose  him  to  be 
their  President  for  the  year  1881,  when  it  met  at  Church  Stretton, 
a  compliment  which  he  acknowledged  in  his  address  to  be  peculiarly 
gratifying,  not  only  because  of  the  special  interest  he  felt  in  the 
botany  and  archaeology  of  the  district,  but  also  because  it  was  in 
his  native  county  of  Salop.*  Under  the  pressure,  however,  of 
failing  health,  he  was  reluctantly  compelled  in  1885  to  resign  the 
chairmanship  which  he  had  filled  so  long  and  well,  and  the  Annual 
Report  of  that  year  bore  testimony  to  the  onerous  duties  which 
he  had  discharged  with  unfailing  courtesy  and  with  a  breadth  of 
knowledge  in  archaeological  subjects  which  had  been  of  great 
service  to  the  Association ;  and  when  finally  he  passed  to  his  rest 
in  July,  1895,  a  resolution  was  carried  in  the  following  month,  at 
the  Annual  Meeting  held  at  Launceston,  expressive  of  the  loss  the 
Association  had  felt  in  the  death  of  one  of  its  most  learned  members, 
and  of  its  sympathy  with  Mrs.  Babington  in  her  affliction. 

On  looking  back  over  the  records  of  the  discussions  at  the  Annual 
Meetings,  and  the  witness  they  bear  to  his  knowledge  of  general 
archaeology,  we  find  that  the  phase  which  appeared  to  have  most 
attraction  for  him  was  that  of  the  ancient  defences  and  fortifications 
of  the  country,  and  it  was  on  these  that  almost  all  his  articles  in  the 
Journal  turned.  Indeed,  this  line  was  foreshadowed  in  his  article 
on  "Ancient  Cambridgeshire," in  the  publications  of  the  Cambridge 
Antiquarian  Society,  reviewed  in  the  Archaeologia  Cambrensis,  1856, 
and  it  was  wound  up  in  his  presidential  address  at  Church  Stretton 
on  "  The  Classification  of  the  Camps  and  Primeval  Fortifications  of 
Wales." 

The  list  of  his  contributions  to  the  Journal  comprise  : — in 

1857.  "Gaervawr,  and  a  supposed  Roman  Road  near  Welsh- 

pool." 

1858.  "The  Firbolgic  Forts  in  the  South  Isles  of  Arran,  Ireland." 

1861.  "Ancient  Fortifications  near  the  Mouth  of  the  Valley  of 

Llanberis,  Carnarvonshire." 

1862.  "  The  Kjokkenmoddings  of  Denmark." 

1863.  "The  Hospital  of  St.  Lawrence  de  Ponteboy,  Bodmin." 
1865.     "Cyclopean  Walls  near  Llanberis." 

1876.     "An  Ancient  Fort  near  St.  Davids." 

1879.  "On  the  supposed  Birth  of  Edward  II.  in  the  Eagle 

Tower  of  Carnarvon  Castle." 

1880.  "On  several  Antiquities  in  North  Wales." 
1882.     "  On  the  Circular  Chapel  in  Ludlow  Castle." 

*  He  was  born  at  Ludlow,  and  his  last  contribution  to  the  journal  was  on 
"  The  Circular  Chapel  in  Ludlow  Castle." 


REMINISCENCES.  xci 

Professor  Babington  on  the  Sunday  Opening  of  the 
Botanic  Garden,  1881 — 2. 

On  the  5th  of  April,  1881,  seven  Syndics  of  the  Botanic  Garden 
Syndicate  reported  to  the  Senate,  enclosing  two  Memorials,  one 
(a)  very  numerously  signed,  representing  "  that  it  would  be  a  great 
iDOon  to  Members  of  the  Senate  if  they  could  be  permitted  to  visit 
the  Botanic  Garden  with  their  friends  on  Sunday  afternoons  during 
the  months  of  May,  June,  July,  August,  and  September."  (b)  as 
follows  {Reporter,  26th  April,  1881,  pp.  496—498) : 

We,  the  undersigned  Resident  Members  of  the  Senate,  having  learned  that 
a  Memorial  has  been  presented  to  the  Vice-Chancellor  in  favour  of 
opening  the  Botanic  Garden  to  Members  of  the  Senate  and  their  friends 
on  the  afternoons  of  Sundays  during  the  summer  months,  beg  leave 
hereby  to  express  our  objection  to  such  opening  of  the  Garden: 
J,  Baeton.  G.  Phillips.  A.  W.  W.  Steel. 

E.  B.  CowELL.  C.  K.  Robinson.         A.  W.  Stbeane. 
J.  T.  Lang.  H.  E.  Savage.  H.  Trottee. 

F.  C.  Maeshall.      C.  E.  Seaele.  B.  F.  Westcott. 
H.  C.  G.  MouLE.      R.  Sinker. 

On  the  28th  of  April  the  Report  was  discussed  in  the  Arts' 
School  {Reporter,  3rd  May,  pp.  519 — 521).  The  Vice-Chancellor 
said  that  he  had  received  a  memorial  signed  by  six  out  of  the  eight 
men  employed  in  the  gardens.     The  memorial  is  as  follows : 

Having  learned  from  the  public  prints  that  an  application  is  to  be  made  to 

the  Syndicate  to  open  the  Botanic  Garden  during  some  part  of  Sunday, 

we,  the  men  employed  in  the  Garden,  beg  most  respectfully  to  represent 

that  it  would  cause  much  additional  work,  and  that  we  have  always 

understood  that  Sunday  is  intended  to  be  a  day  of  rest  from  all  but 

absolutely  necessary  work.    We  therefore  venture  to  hope  that  we  shall 

not  be  required  to  work  on  that  day  in  opposition  to  conscientious 

opinions.     We  are  quite  ready  to  attend  to  the  necessary  duties  of  the 

Garden,  but  not  to  work  on  Sunday  for  the  pleasure  of  others  who 

desire  to  walk  there  on  that  day. 

Professor  Babington  had  not  signed  the  report.  .  .  .  He  quite  agreed  with 

all  that  had  been  said  against  the  report.      He  asserted  that  it  would  be 

impossible  to  do  without  additional  attendance ;  he  need  not  say  why,  but  he 

was  convinced  of  it.     There  must  be  some  one  to  see  that  the  right  persons 

and  not  the  wrong  were  admitted  to  the  Garden.    For  himself,  he  felt  it  would 

be  absolutely  wrong  to  give  additional  employment  on  Sunday  for  his  own 

gratification.    The  number  of  persons  for  whom  the  proposed  change  would  be 

useful  was  exceedingly  small He  objected  entirely  to  anything  which 

would  interfere  with  the  holiday  which  labouring  men  should  have  on  Sunday. 

The  following  memorandum  is  printed  from  Professor  Babington's 
manuscript : 

"  As  it  is  my  intention  to  oppose  the  Grace  concerning  the  Botanic 
Garden  which  is  to  be  offered  to  the  Senate  on  May  19,  I  venture 
to  place  before  the  members  of  the  University  some  of  the  reasons 
which  lead  me  to  do  so. 


xcu  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON. 

"  It  is  proposed  to  open  the  Garden  on  Sundays,  but  it  must  be 
manifest  that  that  can  be  a  real  advantage  or  even  convenience  to 
very  few.  It  is  only  those  who  live  near  to  the  Garden  who  can 
suppose  it  to  be  important  to  them ;  and  of  them  very  few  of  the 
class  contemplated  are  not  provided  with  private  gardens,  well  fitted 
for  quiet  Sunday  recreation  ;  and  still  fewer  would  probably  wish  to 
give  trouble  and  discomfort  to  the  persons  employed  in  the  Garden  by 
requiring  their  presence  on  that  day,  or  knowingly  ask  work  from 
those  who  have  scruples  as  to  its  lawfulness.  It  has  been  well 
remarked  that  "  it  is  impossible  to  change  the  manner  of  spending, 
the  day  of  national  rest  without  seriously  affecting  the  comfort  of 
all  who  live  by  labour." 

"The  following  questions  must  be  answered  in  the  affirmative 
before  we  have  any  right  to  require  work  on  the  Sunday — 

"  1.  Are  we  justified  in  sanctioning,  far  less  requiring,  any  un- 
necessary work  on  the  Lord's  Day,  which  will  deprive  others  of  the 
rest  for  which  it  was  instituted  1 

"  2.  Have  we  a  right  to  bribe  any  man  by  extra  wages,  or  in  any 
other  way,  to  do  unnecessary  work  on  that  day  1 

"  3.  Is  our  own  fancied  comfort  or  convenience  any  excuse  for 
making  our  dependents  work  unnecessarily  on  that  day  ? 

"  In  my  opinion  absolutely  necessary  work  is  alone  allowable : 
such  as  the  preservation  of  a  Garden  and  its  contents  from  injury  : 
not  the  enabling  people  to  walk  and  take  their  pleasure  in  it.  The 
proposed  plan  excludes  the  undergraduates  who  might  wish  (un- 
advisedly in  my  opinion)  to  use  the  Garden  as  a  place  of  study  on 
Sunday.  They  have  six  days  in  the  week  for  study,  and  could  not 
advantageously  have  the  seventh  added  to  them. 

"  Also,  as  I  have  already  said,  those  who  wish  to  use  the  Botanic 
Garden  on  a  Sunday  have  mostly  gardens  of  their  own,  even  though 
(as  in  my  case)  small  ones,  or  they  live  at  such  a  distance  from  the 
Garden,  and  are  so  much  nearer  to  the  grounds  of  the  colleges,  as  to 
render  the  addition  of  this  Garden  to  the  places  open  to  them  quite 
unnecessary.  I  must  be  allowed,  therefore,  to  be  rather  surprised 
by  seeing  some  of  the  names  appended  to  the  memorial  to  the  Vice- 
Chancellor,  unless  it  has  been  done  with  a  view  to  the  opening  of 
all  museums  and  gardens  on  that  day. 

"  But  I  venture  to  think  that  the  supporters  of  this  proposition 
have  somewhat  overlooked  the  real  use  of  a  Botanic  Garden,  when 
they  look  at  it  from  the  point  of  view  of  a  place  of  recreation,  and 
propose  to  use  it,  and  the  funds  by  which  it  is  supported,  for  the 
purpose  of  increasing  their  own  comfort  or  pleasure.  It  will  be 
found  on  reference  to  the  original  documents  that  the  Garden  was 
given  and  endowed  by  Dr.  Walker  for  scientific  purposes  alone  :  for 
the  growing  of  plants  to  be  used  in  the  study  of  their  "  properties 
and  uses  for  the  benefit  of  mankind  "  {Endowments  of  University,  250), 
and  not  at  all  for  the  recreation  of  the  members  of  the  University  ;. 


REMINISCENCES.  xciii 

and  that  all  persons  are  expressly  excluded  from  it  on  Sundays 
{Ih.  251). 

"  I  think,  therefore,  that  I  may  reasonably  ask  the  members  of 
the  Senate  not  to  pass  the  proposed  Grace,  by  which  the  character 
of  the  Garden  would  be  totally  changed  from  the  use  for  which  it 
was  designed  by  its  founder,  and  the  workmen  employed  in  contra- 
vention of  the  Divine  and  human  laws  regulating  the  Lord's  Day." 

The  amended  report  of  the  seven  Syndics,  dated  7th  May,  1881, 
may  be  seen  in  the  Reporter  for  10th  May,  pp.  531 — 2.  On  the 
19th  May,  the  report  as  amended,  was  confirmed  by  144  votes 
against  129  {Reporter,  29th  May,  p.  589). 

On  the  6th  of  May,  1882,  seven  Syndics  signed  a  report  recom- 
mending the  renewal  for  1882  of  the  former  grace  {Reporter,  9th  of 
May,  1882,  p.  529).  On  the  10th  of  May  {Ihid.  16th  of  May,  1882, 
pp.  558 — 9),  this  report  was  discussed  in  the  Arts'  School. 

The  Vice-Chancellor,  Dr.  Porter,  Master  of  Peterhouse,  explained  that  he 
signed  the  report  only  because  he  thought  it  right  that  an  opportunity  should 
be  afforded  to  the  Senate  of  considering  it.  The  recommendations  of  the 
present  report  were  almost  identical  with  those  of  last  year,  the  chief  change 
being  the  omission  of  the  recommendation  that  the  services  of  a  policeman  be 
obtained.  This  change  was  due  to  the  fact  that  the  Watch  Committee  had 
last  year  declined  to  supply  the  services  of  a  policeman,  thinking  it  undesirable 
to  increase  the  labours  of  the  police  on  Sundays.  He  strongly  took  the  same 
view,  and  thought  it  very  undesirable  that  any  unnecessary  labour  should  be 
placed  upon  any  official  on  Sundays.  Three  members  of  the  Syndicate  had 
not  signed,  viz.  the  Master  of  Clare,  Dr.  Paget,  and  the  Professor  of  Botany. 
Two  other  members  of  the  Syndicate  had  not  been  present  at  the  meeting,  and 
had  not  had  the  report  sent  to  them. 

Dr.  Paget  had  no  objection  to  the  report  being  brought  forward,  but  he 
could  not  recommend  as  a  member  of  the  Syndicate  that  the  proposals  be 
accepted.  He  had  not  a  strong  opinion  on  the  subject,  but  on  the  whole  he 
thought  the  Garden  had  better  not  be  opened  on  Sunday. 

Professor  Babington  thought  it  highly  undesirable  that  either  the  Curator 
or  his  deputy  should  be  required  to  be  in  his  house  or  in  tbe  Gardens  on 
Sunday  afternoon  for  the  convenience  of  Members  of  the  Senate.  It  was  a 
Garden  for  scientific  purposes,  and  there  were  six  days  for  those  purposes,  and 
could  be  no  necessity  for  a  seventh.  He  did  not  wish  to  see  the  point  of  the 
wedge  inserted  by  increasing  work  on  Sunday,  and  thus  encouraging  those  who 
were  in  favour  of  opening  museums  and  other  places  of  public  resort  on 
that  day. 

On  the  25th  of  May,  1882,  the  report  was  confirmed,  placet  87, 
non-placet  77  {Reporter,  30th  of  May,  p.  623). 

On  the  10th  of  May,  1883,  seven  Syndics  again  recommended 
the  opening  of  the  Garden  for  the  summer  months  {Ihid.  15th  of 
May,  1883),  but  the  question  was  not  brought  before  the  Senate. 

Endowments  of  the  University,  p.  529  :  "  The  Act  declares  the  New 
Botanic  Garden  to  be  under  the  direction,  government,  management, 
and  superintendence  of  the  same  persons,  and  subject  to  the  same 
orders  and  regulations,  and  with  all  such  powers  and  provisions  for 
the  maintenance,  support,  and  conduct  thereof,  as  the  Old  Garden." 


xciv  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABIN6T0N. 

[The  following  poem  is  taken  from  a  privately  printed  volume, 
"  A  Wreath  of  Wind-Flowers,"  by  Thomas  Hughes  Corry  (Belfast, 
1882)  pp.  56,  57.     See  above  pp.  xxiv,  xxxiii.] 

A  DIRGE. 

"  We  thought  he  slept." 

Sleep !  is  this  sleep,  this  rest  so  deep,  unbroken, 

Which  soothes  that  burning  brow  P 
Nay,  this  is  death ;  God's  everlasting  token 

Of  peace  and  comfort  now. 

Yes,  he  has  passed  the  dim  and  shadowy  portal 

That  bounds  our  earthly  home. 
And  entered  thro'  those  gates  of  pearl  immortal, 

Beneath  Heaven's  golden  dome. 

Life — life  with  us,  so  busy,  eager,  buoyant. 

Has  passed  away  and  fled ; 
But  tho'  its  impulse  now  is  stilled  and  dormant. 

His  spirit  is  not  dead. 

Yet  while  we  live,  he  still  will  move  around  us 

Till  Time  shall  be  no  more, 
Tho'  his  triumphant  glory  would  confound  us. 

Should  it  its  radiance  pour. 

His  place  is  set  within  the  throng  of  blessed. 

He  sees  his  Saviour's  face, 
And  knows  his  name  by  Christ  our  Lord  confessed 

Before  the  throne  of  grace. 


But  God,  who  is  Himself  the  Strength  and  Giver 

Of  all  our  life  and  breath. 
Hath  perfect  power  His  children  to  deliver 

From  the  cold  seal  of  death. 

Grieve,  grieve  no  more,  he  is  not  dead,  but  living- 

In  realms  that  need  no  sun, 
But  God's  own  light  a  lustrous  splendour  giving  j 

His  work  on  earth  was  done. 


JOUElSrAL. 


The  student  of  nature,  who,  without  surrendering  one  particle  of  physical 
truth,  or  admitting  any  restriction  on  the  freedom  of  scientific  investigation,  is  yet 
able  to  withstand  the  most  dangerous  temptation  which  besets  his  favourite 
pursuits — the  tendency  to  a  mechanical  philosophy,  or  the  resting  in  second 
causes — and  who,  resigning  himself  to  the  consciousness  of  his  limited  faculties 
and  imperfect  knowledge,  clings  to  the  centre  of  his  spiritual  being,  and  finds  a 
secure  anchorage  in  the  love  of  his  Heavenly  Father,  as  revealed  in  the  Gospel 
of  Jesus  Christ — such  a  one  exhibits  one  of  the  noblest  examples  of  Christian 
humility,  wisdom,  and  self-control,  that  in  these  days  it  is  possible  to  witness. 

CONNOP  THIRL  WALL,  Charge,  Oct.  1863,  p.  36. 


W.'k-iiBi"ii,lll't: 


CHARLES     CARDALE     BABINGTON, 


JOURNAL. 


I,  Charles  Cardale  Babington,  was  born  at  Ludlow  in 
Shropshire  on  the  23rd  day  of  November,  1808,  as  may  be  seen 
by  the  following  note  in  the  handwriting  of  my  father,  who  was 
the  son  of  Thomas  Babington,  of  Rothley  Temple  in  Leicestershire. 
{See  Babington  pedigree,  and  the  History  of  that  County.)  My 
mother  was  the  daughter  of  John  Whitter,  Esq.,  of  Bradninch  in 
the  County  of  Devon.  They  were  married  at  that  place  on  the 
15th  of  August,  1803.  My  father  lived  in  a  house  near  to  the 
Castle  Gate  at  Ludlow,  the  first  house  on  the  right  hand  side 
looking,  from  the  gate.  Mr.  Charles  Rogers,  my  mother's  uncle, 
lived  in  the  house  exactly  opposite,  before  he  purchased  and  built 
the  house  at  Stanage  in  Radnorshire. 

Note  in  the  handwriting  of  Dr.  Joseph  Babington :  "  Charles  Cardale 
Babington,  son  of  me  Joseph  and  Catherine  my  wife,  was  born  on  the 
twenty-third  day  of  November  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  eight,  about  twenty  minutes  after  twelve  in  the 
day,  and  was  baptized  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Baugh,  now  Rector  of  Ludlow, 
on  this  eighteenth  day  of  January,  1809,  being  now  two  months  old. 
He  was  christened  March  2nd,  1809,  having  as  sponsors,  Rev.  Thomas 
Gisborne,  of  Yoxall  Lodge,  Staffordshire,  Charles  Rogers,  Esq.,  of 
Stanage,  Mrs.  Whitter,  his  grandmother,  and  Mrs.  F.  Cardale,  of 
Cossington,  Leicestershire.  He  was  vaccinated  by  Mr.  Adams,  Sur- 
geon, Ludlow,  on  this  27th  of  March,  1809,  at  ten  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  on  the  left  arm ;  the  disease  went  through  its  regular  course 
very  properly — the  scab  fell  off  April  25th.  He  had  the  measles  in 
July,  1822. 

"  Frederick  John  Babington,  son  of  Joseph  and  Catherine  Babington,  was 
born  Feb.  20th,  1810."     (He  died  within  the  year  following.) 

My  father  left  Ludlow  when  I  was  not  more  than  four  years  of 
age,  and  lived  for  about  two  years  at  Spaw-Place,  Humberston 
Grate,  Leicester.  He  having  entered  into  Holy  Orders,  we  went  to 
live  at  Hawksworth  in  Nottinghamshire,  in  the  summer  of  1814. 

I  went  to  school  to  Mr.  Price,  of  Needwood  Forest  Church,  in 
the  summer  of  1817,  and  remained  with  him  till  1819. 

Note  in  his  father's  handwriting :  "  Charles  Cardale  Babington  went  to 
Mr.  Price  for  private  tuition,  at  Needwood  Parsonage,  Staffordshire, 
on  the  28th  of  July,  1817,  aged  eight  years  and  a  half." 
"  He  soon  after  composed  the  following  lines  extemporary,  on  the  situation 
of  Mr.  Price's  residence : 

"I'm  going  up  the  mountains  high, 
And  on  the  top  there  is  a  plain, 
With  ridges  far  and  nigh ; 
And  on  that  plain  there  is  a  house 
And  near  to  it  a  place  to  douse." 
(In  my  mother's  handwriting,  C.C.B.) 


2  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1819—26 

Upon  leaving  Mr.  Price's,  I  went  to  Dr.  Knight's  school,  at 
South  Wraxhall  Hall,  Wilts.  This  was  rather  a  large  school, 
consisting  of  more  than  forty  boys.  My  father  had  removed  to 
Broughton  GifFord,  Wilts.,  in  June,  1818.  At  Dr.  Knight's  school 
I  became  acquainted  with  S.  S.  Brown,  the  son  of  J.  T.  Brown,  of 
Winifred  House,  Bath.  About  this  time  my  father  taught  me 
the  elements  of  Botany  from  Lees'  "  Introduction,"  and  Withoring's 
"  AiTangement," 

In  1821  I  was  removed  from  Wraxhall  Hall  and  sent  to  the 
Charterhouse,  of  which  Dr.  Eussell  was  then  the  Headmaster,  I 
was  in  the  house  of  Mr.  Lloyd,  which  was  just  outside  the  gate  of 
the  Charterhouse,  in  the  square.  During  the  time  that  I  remained 
at  that  school  (until  Aug.  1823),  I  used  often  to  spend  my  Sundays 
at  Mr.  Brown's  at  Tooting,  or  at  my  cousin  T.  Babington's  at 
Hampstead.  The  school  at  that  time  consisted  of  about  480  boys. 
In  the  summer  of  1822  I  had  the  whooping  cough  at  school. 

Note  by  Dr.  Joseph  Babington :  "  The  following  year  he  had  the 
whooping  cough  at  school.  He  has  also  had  the  chicken  pox  and 
scarlatina,  1823.  At  the  age  of  fifteen  he  was  five  feet  seven  inches 
in  height." 

Not  getting  on  well  with  my  learning,  I  was  removed  at  my  own 
wish  from  the  Charterhouse,  and  went  to  Mr.  W.  Hutchins'  school 
at  33,  Grosvenor  Place,  Bath.  My  father  and  mother  had  removed 
to  8,  Hanover  Street,  Bath,  in  Sept.  1822,  he  being  obliged  to  give  up 
clerical  duties  from  the  loss  of  the  use  of  his  legs.  I  remained  with 
Mr.  Hutchins  until  I  went  to  college,  and  got  on  pretty  well  with 
my  studies  under  him.  At  this  school  my  acquaintance  commenced 
with  Thos.  Fortune,  Heaviside,  now  Canon  of  Norwich,  and  several 
others.  During  the  years  that  I  was  at  that  school,  as  a  day  scholar, 
I  formed  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  neighbourhood  of  Bath, 
and  began  to  study  its  botany,  and  to  collect  plants  and  insects. 
In  the  month  of  July  1825  the  thermometer  registered  (at  the  back 
of  the  house  in  Hanover  Street)  89°  on  the  17th,  87°  on  the  18th, 
and  on  the  same  day  it  stood  at  92°  at  Walcote  Parade. 

1825.  Nov.  2.  I  ordered  the  first  and  second  volumes  of  Smith's 
"English  Flora"  of  Collings  the  bookseller,  of  Saville  Kow,  Bath, 
and  received  them  on  the  7th  together  with  the  third  volume. 

Nov.  4.  I  first  began  to  study  Greek  plays,  "Philoctetes"  of 
Sophocles. 

Nov.  13.  Saw  Mr.  Wilberforce  for  the  first  time.  He  called 
upon  my  father. 

Nov.  19.     I  dined  with  Mr.  Wilberforce  at  1,  Queen  Square. 

1826.  April  5.  Sat  for  a  likeness  to  be  taken  by  Mrs.  Hoare 
in  pencil.  She  also  took  pencil  sketches  of  my  father  and  mother 
(which  I  still  have,  1873). 


1826—27]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE.  3 

April  7.     Heard  of  the  death  of  my  uncle,  the  Eev.  F.  Bedford. 

April  28.     Dined  with  Mr.  Wilberforce. 

May  27.  Called  upon  Mr.  Wilberforce,  when  he  gave  me  a  copy 
of  his  "Practical  View." 

Note. — On  the  first  page  of  this  volume  is  the  following  inscription  :  "  To 
Mr.  Charles  Babington,  the  son  of  his  old  friend  the  Rev.  Dr.  Babing- 
ton,  this  book  is  given  when  he  is  about  to  enter  into  life,  as  a  pledge 
of  friendly  regard  bv  William  Wilbeefobce. — Bath,  May  2Qth, 
1826." 

Oct.  9.  Went  to  London  from  Bath  by  coach,  which  took  twelve 
and  a  half  hours.  Went  to  my  cousin  G.  G,  Babington's  house,  26, 
Golden  Square. 

Oct.  10.  Had  much  difficulty  in  getting  a  place  to  Cambridge ; 
called  at  six  places  before  doing  so.  Went  by  the  "  Times  "  coach 
at  3.30  p.m.,  and  reached  the  "Eagle"  at  Cambridge  at  9.30;  slept 
at  the  "Eagle." 

Oct.  11.  At  11  a.m.  called  upon  Mr.  Hornbuckle,  the  Tutor  of 
St.  John's  College.  He  gave  me  rooms  in  the  "Labyrinth,"  but  in 
the  afternoon  removed  me  to  the  Second  Court  (third  door  to  left, 
door  to  right,  ground  floor).  My  bedmaker,  Mrs.  Hopper,  is  the 
widow  of  the  gyp  to  my  father. 

Oct.  1 4.  Called  with  my  father's  letter  on  the  Master,  Dr.  Wood. 
N.B. — Dr.  Wood  always  comes  out  at  the  north-west  corner  of  the 
second  court  at  7.30  a.m.  and  returns  at  7.50.  Men  keeping  in 
College  have  to  keep  nine  chapels,  others  seven  in  the  week. 
Gwatkin  recommended  me  to  read  with  Maddy  as  a  private  tutor, 
and  I  did  so. 

Dec.  4.  About  this  time  Dr.  Spurzheim  lectured  at  Cambridge, 
and  a  Phrenological  Society  was  formed,  of  which  I  was  a  member. 

Dec.  15.  My  father  died  this  dayaX  8,  Hanover  Street,  Bath,  but 
I  did  not  know  of  it  until  some  days  afterwards,  or  even  of  his  illness. 

Dec.  16.     Went  by  coach  to  Oxford  in  thirteen  hours. 

Dec.  18.     Went  to  Bath,  slept  that  night  at  the  York  House. 

Dec.  19.     Went  to  Broughton  Giflford  with  the  funeral. 

1827.     Feb.  3.     To  Cambridge  by  "Telegraph"  coach. 

March  27.  Attended  twentieth  Divinity  Lecture,  and  got  a 
certificate  from  the  Professor,  Hollingworth. 

Note. — "  Cambridge,  March  27th,  1827.  Charles  Cardale  Babington,  of 
St.  John's  College,  has  attended  the  Divinity  Lectures.  J.  B.  Holling- 
worth, D.D.,  Norrisian  Professor." 

April  30.     Went  to  Professor  Henslow's  first  lecture  on  Botany. 


4  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1827—30 

May  2.  Conversed  with  him  after  the  botanical  lecture,  and 
was  asked  to  his  house.  Put  an  end  to  the  Phrenological  Society 
this  evening.  Assisted  Professor  Henslow  in  putting  his  things  in 
order,  before  and  after  the  lectures. 

June  9.     To  Southampton  to  join  my  mother  and  aunt  Bedford. 

June  13.  Went  by  steamer  to  the  Isle  of  Wight;  landed  at 
Cowes,  and  went  by  coach  to  Newport,  visited  Carisbrook  Castle. 
Left  my  mother  and  aunt  and  walked  alone  by  Pedford,  Godshill, 
Appledurcombe  Park,  to  Steephill  and  St.  Lawrence,  returned  by 
Whitwell  to  Newport.     Keturned  to  Southampton  next  day. 

June  19.     Botanized  about  Netley  Abbey. 

June  22.     We  removed  to  Ryde,  going  in  a  sailing  packet. 

June  23.  Walked  to  St.  Helens,  crossed  the  mouth  of  Brading 
Haven,  to  Culver  Cliffs  {Ophrys  apifera).  Returned  by  Yaverland 
and  Brading. 

July  3.  Went  by  Newchurch  to  Ventnor,  then  along  the  top  of 
the  cliffs  to  Sandrock  hotel  and  Blackgang  Chine.     Slept  at  hotel. 

July  4.  Returned  to  Ryde,  Bonchurch  footpath  through  east 
end,  Shanklin  and  Brading. 

CN^o  Notes  kept  between  Aug.  2&th  and  the  following.) 

1830.     Took  my  B.A.  Degree  in  January. 

April  23.     Lodgings  at  Mrs.  Tomlinson's,  Fitzwilliam  Street. 

May  24.     Elected  a  Fellow  of  the  Philosophical  Society. 

May  26.     Paid  a  life  subscription  as  a  F.C.P.S. 

July  3.     To  Oxford,  Mitre  hotel.— /w/?/  4.     To  Bath. 

July  5.     To  Birmingham  and  North  Wales. 

Mallet  (afterwards  Fellow  of  Pembroke),  having  agreed  to  go 
as  tutor  with  Hockin  and  Fleming  to  North  Wales,  I  determined  to 
join  them  for  a  time  in  order  to  see  the  country. 

July  5.  Left  Bath  by  Birmingham  coach,  where  we  arrived  at 
7  p.m.     Left  it  for  Shrewsbury  at  10  p.m.  and  arrived  there  at 

5  a.m.  Took  coach  for  Bangor  in  half-an-hour.  Country  flat  until 
we  arrived  at  the  river  Dee,  when  it  began  to  heighten,  and  con- 
tinued rising  all  the  way  to  Bangor.  After  following  the  vale  of 
the  Dee  up  the  river  for  some  way,  we  passed  over  into  the  vale  of 
Conway,  in  which  the  mountains  rise  to  a  great  elevation  on  both 
sides,  and  are  mostly  covered  with  wood.  This  we  descended  as  far 
as  Bettws-y-Coed,  near  which  we  passed  over  a  beautiful  iron  bridge 
of  one  arch,  and  saw  the  waterfall  of  Rhaiadr-y-Wenol,  close  to  which 
the  road  runs,  and  soon  arrived  at  Capel  Curig,  having  been,  since 
we  left  Bettws,  ascending  a  branch  of  the  Conway,  which  we  followed 
as  far  as  its  source  in  Llyn  Ogwen,  from  which  lake  the  river  Ogwen 


1830]  JOURNAL— WELSH  TOUR.  5 

also  runs  at  the  opposite  end.  The  road  then  led  us  along  a  ledge 
on  the  side  of  the  mountain  called  Carnedd  Davidd,  by  a  waterfall, 
into  the  valley  of  Nant  Francon,  which  we  followed  by  the  slate 
quarries  to  Bangor.  (The  quarries  are  on  the  side  of  a  mountain, 
which  at  a  distance  looks  as  if  it  were  formed  of  heaps  of  loose 
slates,  and  is  of  great  elevation ;  the  slates  are  brought  to  Bangor 
by  a  railway.)  As  soon  as  we  got  out  of  the  valley,  and  had  left 
the  great  mountains  behind  us,  we  obtained  a  fine  view  of  the  Bay 
of  Beaumaris,  bounded  on  one  side  by  Priestholme,  or  Ceriol's  Isle, 
and  on  the  other  by  the  Great  Orme's  Head,  which  projecting  into 
the  sea,  and  being  joined  to  the  land  by  a  low  tract  of  country, 
looked  like  an  island.  Nearer  at  hand  we  saw  Penmaenmawr,  pre- 
senting its  precipitous  face  to  the  sea,  round  which  the  road  from 
Bangor  to  Conway  winds,  the  isle  of  Anglesea,  and  town  of 
Beaumaris  with  its  Castle,  the  city  of  Bangor,  and  the  Menai  Straits. 
On  arriving  at  Bangor,  we  dined  with  the  rest  of  the  passengers, 
and  after  they  were  gone  walked  into  the  inn  (Penrhyn  Arms) 
garden,  which  overhangs  the  sea,  and  found  on  a  rocky  bank  in  it 
the  Luzula  sylvatica  in  great  beauty.  After  amusing  ourselves  for 
some  time  there,  we  took  a  car  and  went  over  the  Menai  Bridge  and 
along  the  beautiful  road  made  by  the  late  Lord  Buckley,  to  Beau- 
maris, where  we  put  up  at  the  Bull,  then  started  to  hunt  for  lodgings, 
(in  which  we  could  not  suit  ourselves),  and  inspected  the  Castle, 
which  is  very  perfect  and  well  worth  examination.  The  next  day 
(July  7)  we  determined  on  walking  to  Carnarvon,  a  distance  of 
ten-and-a-half  miles,  which  would  have  been  very  pleasant  had  it  not 
rained  the  last  seven  miles,  so  that  we  were  glad  to  arrive  at  the 
Uxbridge  Arms,  Carnarvon,  to  dinner.  Went  out  in  the  evening 
and  hired  lodgings,  myself  for  no  fixed  time,  my  friends  for  three 
months,  to  read. 

July  8.  Having  obtained  lodgings  we  took  a  large  sailing  boat 
for  ten  shillings  to  carry  us  to  Beaumaris  and  bring  us  and  our 
boxes  etc.  back,  but  after  we  had  had  a  beautiful  sail  through  the 
straits,  and  passed  under  the  Menai  Bridge,  and  taken  our  things  on 
board  at  Beaumaris  and  Bangor,  we  found  that  the  wind  was  so  high 
that  we  should  not  be  able  to  get  back  by  water  and  therefore  got 
out  and  walked,  and  left  the  boat  to  bring  our  things  as  soon  as  it 
could  get  (which  it  did  at  the  next  tide).  We  found  on  the  way 
Lepidium  Smithii,  Sagina  apetala,  etc. 

July  9.  Walked  about  the  town  botanizing,  etc.  Dined  at 
Mallet's  lodgings,  where  we  shall  dine  every  day. 

July  11.  Sunday.  Went  to  the  church,  which  is  a  neat  one, 
having  one  of  its  sides  formed  of  part  of  the  town  wall,  and  its 
tower  being  a  round  stunted  one  belonging  originally  to  the  same. 
The  bell  is  in  a  little  open  arch  on  the  top  of  the  tower.  Eained 
most  of  the  day.     Thermometer  61°. 


6  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1830 

July  12.  Found  Papaver  somniferum,  Epildbium  angustifolium,  and 
variety  of  Viola  tricolor^  with  blue  flowers,  in  a  corn  field  near  the 
town,  but  on  the  other  side  of  the  river,  where  there  are  no  houses, 
or  I  should  have  thought  them  cultivated. 

July  13.  Attempted  to  find  the  road  to  the  mountains  near 
Llanberis,  but  by  taking  what  we  supposed  would  be  a  short  cut, 
arrived  at  the  river  having  only  a  foot  bridge  over  it,  with  a  gate  in 
the  middle  well  guarded  with  spikes.  The  bridge  was  formed  of 
two  planks  parallel  to  each  other,  and  bent  into  an  elliptical  arch  by 
being  fastened  tight  to  the  rock  on  each  side  without  any  support  in 
the  middle.  Being  stopped  by  this,  we  had  to  return  nearly  three 
quarters-of-a-mile,  and  then  continued  the  road  we  were  in  before. 
After  having  crossed  the  river  by  a  stone  bridge  further  up,  we 
were  foolish  enough  to  take  another  short  cut  which  appeared  to 
lead  to  the  mountains,  which  we  followed  for  about  two  miles,  and 
then  stopped  to  examine  a  bog  in  which  we  found  nothing  worth 
having,  and  then  turned  back,  not  having  time  to  go  farther.  On 
our  road  back  we  met  with  Sderanthus  annuus  and  Alchemilla  vulgaris^ 
the  first  in  plenty  in  one  place,  but  only  one  specimen  of  the  latter. 
The  finest  day  that  we  have  had  this  summer. 

July  15.  Wind  continued  very  high  so  that  we  did  not  go  far, 
but  only  obtained  a  few  plants  and  insects  near  at  hand. 

July  19.  Walked  to  the  Llanberis  lakes  and  saw  Dolbadarn 
Castle ;  the  view  from  the  top  amply  repaid  the  danger  of  the 
ascent.  The  castle  supposed  to  have  been  in  existence  in  the  sixth 
century,  as  it  is  mentioned  as  occupied  by  Maelgwm  Gwynedd  in 
his  contention  with  the  Saxons. 

July  31.  Started  with  Mallet  for  Llanberis,  and  on  arriving  at 
the  bottom  of  the  lakes,  took  a  boat  which  carried  us  to  the  top  of 
the  first  lake,  from  which,  after  examining  the  river  between  the 
lakes,  we  walked  up  the  road  to  the  village  of  Llanberis,  the  road  to 
which  is  only  passable  for  horses ;  it  passes  under  the  enormous 
precipices  of  Snowdon,  near  a  copper  mine.  We  then  returned  to 
the  Dolbadarn  inn  for  dinner,  just  before  which,  Mr.  C.  Words- 
worth, of  Trinity  College,  came  in,  and  not  being  able  to  find  either 
a  room  to  sit  down  in  or  anything  for  dinner,  he  asked  and  obtained 
permission  to  join  our  party.  After  dinner  we  went  to  see  a  water- 
fall about  half-a-mile  from  the  inn,  which  is  worth  any  person's 
while  to  inspect,  although  small  in  quantity  of  water.  The  name  of 
the  waterfall  is  Cannent  Mawr,  formed  by  a  stream  called  Cwm 
Brwynog,  height  sixty  feet.  After  inspecting  the  waterfall,  ascend- 
ing a  mountain,  and  getting  into  a  bog,  we  returned  to  the  inn, 
intending  to  ascend  Snowdon  the  next  morning. 

Aug.  1.     Very  wet,  unable  to  ascend  Snowdon. 

Aug.  7.  Went  out  to  catch  water  insects,  of  which  I  obtained 
a  good  many. 


1830]  JOURNAL— WELSH  TOUS.  7 

Aug.  13.  Started  to  go  to  the  top  of  Moel  Elion,  a  high  moun- 
tain on  the  left  of  the  road  to  Beddgelert,  which  we  reached  after  a 
good  deal  of  very  uninteresting  climbing,  but  were  repaid  by  the 
view  from  the  top. 

Aug.  15.  Started  on  a  walk  towards  the  mountains  on  the 
Beddgelert  road,  and  turned  off  to  Mynydd  Mawr,  which  is  nearly 
opposite  to  Moel  Elion  on  the  right  of  the  road.  All  one  side  of  it 
consists  of  a  precipice,  up  the  side  of  which  we  ascended,  where  I 
found  the  first  mountain  Saxifrage  that  I  had  ever  seen  grooving 
{Saxifraga  stellaris) ;  and  on  another  part  of  the  same  side  of  the 
mountain  we  found  Cryptogramma  crispa  in  great  plenty  on  our  way 
home.  Also  saw  Callitriche  autumnalis  in  great  plenty  in  the  river 
which  runs  out  of  Llyn  Cwellyn.  Found  Carabus  glabratus  on  this 
mountain  running  on  the  grass,  never  under  stones. 

Aug.  19.  Callitriche  pedunculata  in  swamp  near  Newborough, 
Anglesea. 

Aug.  28.  Went  out  to  catch  water  insects,  and  obtained  a  good 
number,  but  got  very  wet  in  doing  so. 

Aug.  29.  Went  to  Mynydd  Mawr  to  look  for  insects,  but  found 
no  land  ones,  and  only  some  water  ones;  got  quite  wet  through 
by  a  storm  on  the  top  of  the  mountain. 

Aug.  30.  Walked  out  with  Mallet,  and  got  geological  specimens 
for  England. 

Aug.  31.  Started  on  foot  to  ascend  Snowdon ;  we  took  no  guide, 
and  found  our  way  very  well.  Obtained  a  large  number  of  plants 
in  the  rocks  near  the  mouth  of  the  copper  mine.  It  was  unfortunately 
very  cloudy,  so  that  we  lost  the  view  from  the  top.  Returned  to 
Dolbadarn  inn,  where  I  slept. 

Sept.  1.  Started  at  a  quarter-past  eight  in  the  morning,  and  after 
ascending  part  of  Glydr-y-Vawr,  passed  through  Llanberis  Pass,  at  the 
head  of  which  I  ascended  another  mountain  on  the  left.  Descended 
into  Nant  Gwynant,  which  I  followed  to  Beddgelert,  where  I  dined, 
and  afterwards  walked  back  to  Carnarvon.  Whilst  my  dinner  was 
cooking,  I  walked  to  Pont  Aberglasllyn,  which  is  about  a  mile-and- 
a-half  from  Beddgelert.    Total  distance  in  day  about  thirty-two  miles. 

Sept.  4.  Started  for  Llanberis  and  Snowdon,  at  the  latter  of 
which  we  (Mallet  and  I)  arrived  about  2  p.m.  After  getting  all 
the  plants  we  could  from  the  face  of  the  precipice  in  which  the 
copper  mine  is,  we  ascended  to  the  top,  and  re-visited  both  the  tops, 
finding  it  happily  pretty  clear,  although,  before  we  had  been  at  the 
top  for  any  length  of  time,  the  clouds  collected  around  the  mountain, 
but  quite  under  our  feet,  so  that  we  saw  a  complete  sea  of  clouds, 
which  was  the  most  beautiful  sight  that  I  ever  beheld.  After 
enjoying  the  sight  for  some  time,  we  saw  a  party  of  Cambridge 
men,  who  were  stopping  at  Beaumaris,  coming  up,  when  we  started 


8  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1830—32 

On  the  descent  towards  Beddgelert,  which  led  us  along  a  ridge  not 
so  wide  as  the  length  of  my  stick ;  the  path  followed  this  narrow 
ridge  for  I  should  suppose  about  half-a-mile,  when  it  descended  one 
side  of  it  into  a  very  boggy  valley,  in  which  after  following  the  path 
for  a  good  way  we  quite  lost  all  trace  of  it,  and  had  a  great  deal  of 
trouble  to  find  our  way  to  the  road,  which  we  reached  at  about 
three  miles  from  Beddgelert. 

Sept  10.  Left  Carnarvon,  but  did  not  arrive  at  Bangor  in  time 
for  the  Shrewsbury  coach. 

Sept.  11.  Started  at  7  a.m.  for  Salop.  At  Capel  Curig  a  gentle- 
man got  upon  the  coach  to  go  as  far  as  Bettws-y-Coed,  who, 
when  we  stopped  for  breakfast  at  a  house  not  far  beyond  Capel 
Curig,  said  he  should  walk  on  to  Khaiadr-y-Wenol.  I  obtained  a 
crust  of  bread  and  some  cheese,  and  accompanied  him,  and  was  well 

repaid  for  my  trouble  by  the  great  beauty  of  the  fall On  a 

high  hill  near  Llangollen  is  situated  the  ruin  of  Dinas  Bran  Castle, 
and  in  a  fine  valley  near  it  Valle  Crucis  Abbey,  and  the  very  small 
remains  of  the  house  of  Owen  Glyndwyr. 

Sept  12.  Arrived  at  Ludlow,  and  took  up  my  quarters  at  my 
aunt  Rogers'. 

Sept  13.  Went  with  Mrs.  Eogers  to  Stanage  Park,  through 
Leinterdine  and  Brampton  Brian,  near  which  last  place  on  the  right 
is  situated  the  hill  on  which  the  camp  of  Caractacus  was  situated 
before  the  last  battle  with  the  Romans,  and  on  the  left  the  hill 
where  the  Roman  camp  was  situated ;  both  camps  are  I  am  told 
very  easily  to  be  traced.  (N.B. — The  above  is  doubted  by  some 
antiquaries,  but  believed  by  most.) 

Sept  16.     At  Ludlow,  saw  Castle,  etc. 

Sept  17.     Left  Ludlow  at  2.30  p.m.     Arrived  Hereford  at  7. 
Sept  19.     To  Exeter,  where  my  mother  was  ill. 
'       Octlb.    To  Cambridge. 

Nov.  2.     Paid  life  composition  as  F.  L.  S. 

1831.  Jan.  29.  Went  into  College,  New  Court  C,  left  hand  top 
rooms. 

May  19.     Henslow's  party  to  Gamlingay. 

May  22.  Henslow's  party  to  Wood  Ditton.  Went  to  Sawtry, 
Hunts,  to  entomologize,  and  returned  to  Cambridge  on  the  29th. 

1832.  June  25.  Started  from  Bath  by  the  Cheltenham  mail,  passed 
Tetbury  and  Cirencester,  at  which  they  had  just  been  renewing  the 
church  porch  in  the  same  style  as  the  original  part ;  it  has  the  town 
hall  over  it.  .  .  .  At  about  two  miles  from  Cheltenham  is  a  country 
church  having  a  very  fine  circular  window,  but,  as  I  heard,  very 
much  injured  by  having  been  partly  filled  with  modern  painted 
glass. 


1832]  JOUKNAL— WELSH  TOUR.  9 

June  26.  Left  Cheltenham  at  quarter  before  6  in  the  morning 
by  a  coach  called  "L'Hirondelle,"  which  runs  as  far  as  Liverpool  in 
fourteen  hours.  It  goes  through  Kidderminster,  where  we  breakfasted, 
from  thence  to  Bridgnorth,  which  is  built  on  the  top,  and  under  a 
very  steep  hill,  of  new  red  sandstone,  having  houses  cut  out  of  the 
rock,  with  chimneys  built  up  the  side  of  it,  so  as  to  take  the  smoke 
out  of  the  way.  .  .  .  Arrived  at  Shrewsbury,  and  was  met  at  the 
inn  by  Holmes,  who  had  just  arrived  by  the  Bangor  mail  from 
London,  and  Leighton,  who  lives  near  to  Shrewsbury, 

June  27.  Left  Shrewsbury  at  quarter  before  6  a.m.  ...  At 
about  a  mile  from  Oswestry  we  passed  within  about  200  yards  of  a 
fine  fortification,  called  Hen  Dinas  (the  old  city),  and  anciently  Caer 
ogyrfan,  from  a  hero  of  that  name  in  the  time  of  Arthur ;  it  is 
worth  seeing.  .  .  .  The  next  point  worthy  of  notice  is  the  first  view 
of  Snowdon,  from  the  vicinity  of  Cernioge  inn ;  for  some  miles  of  the 
road  in  this  part  the  whole  of  the  Snowdonian  range  is  seen  to  very 
great  advantage,  if  the  day  is  fine.  A  short  distance  before  arriving 
at  Bettws-y-Coed,  a  fine  waterfall  is  passed  on  the  left-hand  side  of 
the  road,  called  Rhaiadr-y-Machno  ;  it  is  not  seen  well  from  the  road. 
At  Bettws  is  left  on  the  right  Pont-y-Pair,  a  curious  bridge  over  the 
river  Llugwy,  a  short  distance  up  which,  and  close  to  the  road,  the 
waterfall  called  Rhaiadr-y-Wenol  is  situated.  The  next  stage  is 
Capel  Curig.  .  .  .  The  road  now  continues  through  the  mountains 
in  a  very  barren  but  grand  country,  close  on  the  bank  of  Llyn 
Ogwen,  and  having  the  lofty  and  peculiar  mountain  Trevaen  on  the 
left ;  it  is  then  carried  along  the  side  of  Carnedd  Davidd  till  within 
a  few  miles  of  Bangor. 

June  28.  Walked  to  see  the  slate  quarries  at  Dolawen,  near 
Llyn  Merig,  the  property  of  Mr.  Pennant,  of  Penrhyn  Castle.  They 
are  now  cut  into  the  very  heart  of  the  mountain,  and  employ  more 
than  1600  men.  The  slates  are  conveyed  by  a  railroad  to  Port 
Penrhyn,  near  Bangor,  from  which  place  they  are  shipped,  twelve 
shiploads  having  this  year  gone  from  them  to  America. 

June  29.  "Went  to  Carnarvon  by  the  coach  at  nine  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  and  on  our  arrival  there  started  to  walk  to  Llanberis 
to  see  if  we  could  find  accommodation  for  a  few  days.  Having  done 
so  at  the  "Vaynol  Arms,"  kept  by  R.  Closs  (at  the  rate  of  one 
shilling  a  meal  and  one  shilling  a  bed),  we  went  back  to  Carnarvon. 
On  our  arrival  at  the  latter  place  we  found  Harold  Browne  (of 
Emmanuel  College),  who  was  going  to  stop  the  summer  in  that  part 
of  the  country  with  two  pupils,  one  of  whom,  Jacob,  of  Emmanuel 
College,  arrived  soon  after. 

June  30.  After  breakfasting  with  Harold  Browne  and  Jacob, 
they  started  to  walk  to  Tremadoc  to  see  if  they  could  get  accommo- 
dation to  stay  there,  and  we  took  a  car  to  Llanberis.  We  walked 
part  of  the  way  up  Snowdon  and  found  Sazifraga  hypnoides,  Sedum 


10  CHARLES   CARDALE   BABINGTON.  [1832 

Ehodiola,  Cryptogramma  crispa,  Viola  palustris,  etc.  After  dinner 
walked  a  short  distance  up  the  Llanberis  Pass,  or  Cwmglas,  as  it 
is  called  in  Welsh. 

July  2.  Started  at  a  little  after  nine  o'clock  to  ascend  the 
top  of  Snowdon,  went  a  short  distance  on  the  road  to  Dolbadarn 
castle,  and  then  ascended  a  steep  grassy  slope  extending  to  the  top 
of  the  range  of  hills  between  the  upper  lake  of  Llanberis  (or  Lyn 
Peris)  and  Cwm  Brwynog,  then  turning  to  the  left  followed  the 
road  to  the  copper  mine  for  some  distance,  then  ascending  the  steep 
bank  called  Llechwedd-y-R6  we  soon  arrived  at  the  spring  near  the 
place  called  Bwlch  Glas  Gap.  This  is  the  place  at  which  the  horses 
of  those  who  ride  up  are  left.  The  ascent  from  this  point  is 
steep  and  rocky  and  about  half-a-mile.  Directly  under  the  top 
(Y-Wyddfa)  is  the  precipice  called  Clogwyn-y-Garnedd,  at  the 
foot  of  which  is  seen  the  little  lake  Ffynnon  las,  and  beyond  that, 
connected  with  it  by  a  river,  Llyn  Llydaw.  We  continued  for 
some  time  at  or  near  the  top,  collecting  in  Clogwyn-y-Garnedd. 
We  found,  amongst  others,  Sazifraga  nivalis,  S.  caespifosa  and  S. 
hypndides,  Cerastium  latifolium,  Arenaria  verna,  Carex  rigida,  etc.  We 
then  descended  by  the  same  road  as  that  of  our  ascent.  Holmes 
found  for  me  in  Clogwyn-y-Garnedd  Chrysom.  cerealis  not  far 
from  the  top;  I  also  observed  Atopa  cervina  in  plenty  on  the 
very  top. 

July  4.  Crossed  the  river  near  the  aqueduct  and  found  Montia 
fontana  y3  major  {1)  and  afterwards,  on  a  steep  rocky  bank  rather 
farther  up  the  pass  than  the  church,  but  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river,  the  Trollius  Europaeus.  We  then  returned  home,  as  it  began 
to  rain  hard.  Afterwards  we  went  out,  and  I  got  a  few  water- 
beetles. 

July  5.  Started  at  half-past  nine  o'clock  and  ascended  the  same 
way  as  before  towards  Snowdon,  but  instead  of  going  to  the  top, 
went  to  the  mine  in  Clogwyn-dd<i'r-ardd<i ;  found  there  Cystopteris 
fragilis,  Asplenium  viride,  Thalidrum  alpinum,  Arenaria  verna,  Saxir 
fraga  hypnoides,  etc. ;  then  went  down  to  the  lake  (Llyn-ddft'r-arddft), 
once  black,  now  green  from  the  effects  of  the  copper,  and  ascended 
towards  the  more  perpendicular  part  of  the  rock  just  over  the  lake, 
worked  it  well  all  the  way  to  the  end  and  found  Trollius  Europaeits, 
.  Arabis  petraea,  Carex  speirostachya,  Thalidrum  minus,  Sazifraga  caespi- 
tosa,  etc.,  returned  along  the  side  of  the  valley,  and  round  by 
Dolbadarn  new  inn. 

July  7.  Went  in  the  morning  to  see  Mr.  A.  Smith's  slate 
quarries  at  Yr-Allt-Dd<i  and  Clogwyn-y-gifran,  situated  on  the 
side  of  Glydr-y-Vawr  at  a  great  elevation  above  the  north-east 
side  of  the  upper  Llanberis  lake ;  from  thence  there  is  a 
railwa)''  to  Aber-y-Pvvll,  about  the  centre  of  the  Menai  Straits, 
where  the  slates  are  shipped.     The  lower  part  of  the  quarry  is 


1832]  JOURNAL— WELSH  TOUR.  11 

much  below  the  level  of  the  railway,  and  the  slates  are  brought  up 
to  it  by  two  long  steep  inclined  planes  on  which  large  iron  vessels 
are  let  down  full  of  water,  which  pull  up  the  slate  wagons ;  when 
they  get  to  the  bottom  they  are  emptied  by  a  valve  and  then 
drawn  up  again  with  great  ease.  There  is  a  cistern  of  water 
supplied  from  a  small  mountain  stream  placed  over  the  top  of 
the  upper  of  the  two  planes  for  the  purpose  of  filling  the  vessels. 
The  upper  part  of  the  quarry  communicates  with  the  railway  by 
three  planes,  one  above  the  other,  on  which  the  descending  waggons 
draw  up  the  empty  ones.  Many  other  parts  of  the  excavations  are 
far  below  the  level  of  the  rail,  and  have  waterworks  for  the  purpose 
of  drawing  up  the  slate,  the  water  from  one  wheel  flowing  on  and 
working  another.  On  our  way  down  from  the  quarry  we  found 
near  the  lower  end  of  the  little  valley  in  which  it  is  situated 
Polemonium  caeruleum.  Dined  at  three  o'clock.  Started  at  four 
o'clock  and  walked  to  Carnarvon,  where  we  stayed  the  night. 

July  8.  Sunday.  Went  to  church  at  Carnarvon  at  11  o'clock, 
and  walked  back  to  Llanberis  afterwards.  It  was  a  most  stormy 
evening,  with  very  hard  rain  and  high  wind.  (N.B. — English 
service  every  Sunday  morning  at  Carnarvon.) 

July  10.  Started  earlier  than  usual  (about  half-past  8)  to  go 
to  Cwm  Idwal.  We  went  by  direction  up  the  stream  opposite  the 
inn  until  we  came  to  the  place  where  two  streams  and  an  empty 
channel  meet,  then  turned  to  the  right  up  the  mountain,  and  on 
our  arrival  at  the  top  kept  rather  to  the  left  between  the  one  which 
we  ascended  and  the  next  {i,e.  due  east),  and  soon  arrived  at  Llyn- 
y-Cwm.  In  it  we  found  Garex  ampullacea,  and  saw  leaves  of  Lobelia 
Dortmanna.  Following  the  stream,  we  arrived  at  the  top  of  Twll  Du, 
a  narrow  fissure  in  the  rock  about  three  yards  wide  and  nearly  a 
hundred  deep  in  the  lowest  part.  The  stream  from  Llyn-y-Cwm 
dashes  through  it  with  great  impetuosity.  We  tried  hard  to  find  a 
place  at  which  it  would  be  possible  to  descend  to  the  bottom  of  the 
fissure  where  it  opens  in  the  face  of  the  precipice  called  Castell-y- 
Geifr  (?)  over  Llyn  Idwal.  After  some  time  we  found  on  the  south 
side  a  way  down  a  ledge  of  rocks  (near  the  top  of  which  I  found 
Gnaphalium  dioicum)  which  led  us  to  the  lower  opening  of  the  fissure. 
The  view  up  it  was  very  fine,  there  being  a  waterfall  about  the 
middle.  We  then  went  along  a  narrow  ledge  on  the  other  side  of 
the  stream,  which,  after  leading  us  for  some  way  along  the  face  of 
the  precipice  and  under  a  sort  of  showerbath,  took  us,  with  some 
exertion,  to  the  top  of  the  rocks.  We  found  Galium  boreale,  Arenaria 
verna,  Thalidrum  alpinum  and  T.  minus,  Sedum  Rhodiola,  Asplenium 
viride,  Oxyria  reniformis,  Saxifraga  hypnoides,  various,  and  Cystopteris 
fragilis.  I  afterwards  ascended  to  the  top  of  a  part  of  Glydr-y-Vawr 
but  could  not  see  far  on  account  of  the  valley,  Cwm  Ffynnon,  being 
quite  full  of  cloud,  so  as  to  run  as  it  were  over  the  mountains  round 
it.     The  wind  on  the  top,  which  is  called  Caernedd-y-Gwynt  (the 


12  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1832 

height  of  tempests),  was  so  strong  that  I  could  hardly  stand  against 
it.  The  top  is  covered  with  loose  stones  almost  like  the  seaside. 
Descended  again  over  a  very  rocky  place  to  near  Llyn-y-Cwm,  and 
from  thence  to  Llanberis  by  the  same  way  we  had  ascended. 

July  12.  Went  to  see  the  waterfall  of  Rhaiadr  Cannent  Mawr, 
as  it  was  very  full  on  account  of  the  rain  that  had  fallen  during  the 
last  few  days.  It  was  very  fine,  as  the  water,  besides  going  down, 
the  inclined  part  of  the  rock,  shot  clean  over  the  side,  and  so  down 
at  once  into  the  hollow.  We  then  went  on  to  the  lower  end  of  the 
lakes  and  were  much  pleased  by  the  view  from  the  bridge  at  the 
bottom.  We  found  in  the  river  below  the  lakes  Pilularia  glohulifera^ 
Lobelia  Dortmanna,  and  Nymjphaea  alba.  The  lakes,  etc.,  were  at  least 
a  foot  higher  than  usual  through  the  rain. 

July  13.  Started  by  the  Capel  Curig  coach  to  see  the  E.haiadr-y- 
Wenol.  Saw  it  in  very  great  perfection,  it  being  very  full  of  water. 
Found  near  it  Hymenophyllum  Wilsoni,  Polypodium  Dryopteris,  and  a 
large  number  of  mosses.  .  .  .  About  a  mile  nearer  to  Capel  Curig  than 
the  place  where  the  Beddgelert  road  separates  from  the  Llanberis. 
we  found  Campanula  hederacea  in  plenty,  and  in  the  Capel  Curig 
lake,  Lobelia  Dortmanna. 

July  1 4.  Started  to  ascend  Snowdon.  ...  It  was  rather  hazy  at 
intervals  as  the  clouds  kept  forming  on  the  sides  of  the  mountains 
and  going  off  again,  but  not  so  as  to  obscure  the  view  to  any  great 
degree ;  we  indeed  saw  it  to  great  perfection.  I  counted  twenty- 
nine  lakes  in  sight  from  the  top,  and  was  not  very  particular  to 

include  the  whole We  then  set  off  botanizing  in  Clogwyn-y- 

Garnedd,  and  worked  our  way  quite  down  from  the  top  of  Y-Wyddfa 
nearly  to  Ffynnon  las.  I  found  two  specimens  of  Chrysom.  cerealis, 
and  we  met  with  the  following  plants :  Saxifraga  nivalis  in  some 
plenty,  Cerastium  latifolium,  Poa  alpina,  Poa  glauca,  (?)  Aspidium 
Lonchitis,  etc. 

July  16.  Went  up  to  Llyn-y-Cwm.  .  .  .  We  worked  the  rocks 
near  Twll  D<i  and  found  plenty  of  Gnaphalium  dioicum,  one  specimen 
of  Juniperis  nana,  and  one  of  Faccineum  Vitis-idaea.  After  we  had 
finished  there,  started  up  the  mountain  Glydr-y-Vawr,  and  soon 
attained  its  highest  point  ....  the  height  is  about  3300  feet. 
On  the  way  down  Holmes  found  Lycopodium  annotinum  in  small 
quantity,  but  not  in  fructification,  and  I  found  in  the  bogs  near 
Llyn-y-Cwm  Eriophorum  vaginatum  in  plenty. 

July  17.  Went  to-day  to  examine  the  rocks  near  Dolbadarn 
Castle,  having  seen  it  mentioned  that  Hymenophyllum  tunbridgense  ^y 
i.e.  Trichomanes  brevisetum  grew  there.  We  did  not  find  it,  but 
found  plenty  of  Hymenophyllum  Wilsoni,  some  of  the  fronds  in  a 
growing  state,  so  as  to  look  like  fructification  coming  at  the  ends  of 
them.  We  then  passed  the  river  between  the  lakes  and  ascended 
to  the  road  at  the  top  of  the  wooded  part  of  the  mountain  near  the 


1832]  JODENAL— WELSH  TOUR.  13 

slate  quarries,  and  found  one  additional  specimen  of  Polemonium 
caeruleum. 

July  18.  Went  through  the  pass  and  examined  the  descent  on 
the  other  side,  but  found  little.  Holmes  found  under  a  rock  a 
specimen  of  Lycopodium  selago  with  long  procumbent  stems.  At 
about  a  mile  beyond  the  junction  of  the  Beddgelert  and  Llanberis 
roads  to  Capel  Curig  we  found  plenty  of  Campanula  hederacea  in 
beautiful  flower  near  a  small  stream.  On  the  way  back  examined 
the  rocks  on  the  north  side  of  the  lower  end  of  the  pass,  particularly 
Craig-ddii,  and  I  found  a  few  specimens  of  Asplenium  septentrionale. 

July  19.  Ascended  Snowdon.  Went  up  behind  the  church, 
and  arriving  at  the  top  turned  towards  the  left  and  descended  into 
a  hollow  under  Crib-y-Distill,  and  worked  the  rocks  near  two  little 
pools  in  the  hollow,  one  of  them  called,  I  think,  Ffynnon  frig. 
We  then  ascended  a  precipice  near  to  Crib  Coch  and  found,  after 
we  had  gone  some  way,  that  we  could  not  return,  so  were  obliged 
to  go  to  the  top  of  it.  In  it  we  found  Polygonum  viviparum  and 
Draba  incana,  both  in  very  small  quantity.  The  place  to  which  we 
came  on  the  top  of  the  precipice  was  a  grassy  ridge  between  Crib 
Coch  and  Crib-y-Distill.  For  some  time  we  could  not  find  a  way 
from  it,  but  at  last,  after  some  hard  climbing,  we  attained  the 
summit  of  the  mountain  and  returned  home. 

July  20.  Did  not  start  soon  on  account  of  the  number  of  plants 
wanting  to  be  looked  over.  Went  down  the  road  by  the  lakes,  and 
found  in  the  lower,  Scirpus  lacustris,  Lobelia  Dortmanna,  Alisma  natans, 
and  Myriophyllum  spicatum  in  plenty.  Also  found  near  the  bridge, 
below  the  lakes,  in  the  river,  Iso'etes  lacustris,  Pilularia  globulifera, 
Carex  vesicaria. 

July  21.  Started  early  and  went  up  Snowdon  to  examine 
another  part  of  Clogwyn-y-Garnedd.  When  we  arrived  at  the 
top  of  the  ridge,  Bwlch  Glas,  met  with  a  Mr.  Eyton  (late  of  St. 
John's  College)  who  was  collecting  insects.  We  then  set  to  work 
at  Clogwyn-y-Garnedd,  and  I  found  one  specimen  of  Carex  atrata 
and  Holmes  one  of  Epilohium  alsinifolium.  (?)  We  found  about 
thirty  specimens  of  Saxifraga  nivalis  in  Clogwyn-y-Garnedd,  and 
one  a  short  distance  up  the  first  ascent  behind  the  church  at 
Llanberis. 

July  23.  Started  to  walk  to  Dolgelly  to  see  Cader  Idris.  Went 
by  the  Capel  Curig  coach  as  far  as  the  top  of  the  pass,  and  met  with 
Mr.  D.  Williams,  agent  for  Sir  K  Bulkeley.  ...  He  put  us  into  a 
track  over  the  mountains  to  Festiniog,  but  the  track  not  being  at 
all  well  marked  we  nearly  lost  our  way,  and  had  it  not  been  for  the 
map  and  my  compass  seal,  we  must  have  turned  back,  but  with  the 
assistance  of  these  we  at  length  found  our  way  to  that  part  of  the 
vale  near  Llyn  Cwmorthin.  The  road,  or  rather  way,  for  path 
there  is  none,  was  very  wild  and  dreary,  but  the  prospects  from 


14  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1832 

some  parts  very  fine  and  extensive.  Not  knowing  in  what  part  of 
the  vale  Festiniog  was  situated  we  passed  it,  and  walked  two-and-a- 
half  miles  to  Maentwrog.     This  was  a  very  hard  day's  work. 

Jvly  24.  Went  to  Dolgelly,  a  distance  of  eighteen  miles  along 
a  good  road.  Ascended  for  some  distance  at  first,  almost  as  far  as 
Trawsfynydd,  a  moderately  large  village  at  the  end  of  five  miles. 
(Found  on  the  top  of  a  wall  a  little  beyond  Trawsfynydd  Arrhena- 
therum  elatius  /3  nodosa,  and  in  plenty  in  the  same  part  Viola  lutea). 
We  then  on  the  whole  descended  most  of  the  way  to  Llanelltydd, 
within  one-and-a-half  miles  of  Dolgelly ;  the  last  half  of  it  was  very 
pretty  on  account  of  the  hills  being  well  wooded  on  both  sides  of 
the  river  Maw,  near  which  the  road  goes.  Just  at  the  entrance  of 
the  town  we  met  P.  Carlyon,  of  Emmanuel  College ;  he  would  have 
us  dine  with  his  party  (a  reading  one  under  Russell  of  Caius). 
They  gave  us  a  good  dinner  at  the  "  Ship,"  and  we  had  wine  with 
Russell  at  his  rooms  afterwards.     Spent  a  very  pleasant  evening. 

July  25.  Breakfasted  with  Carlyon,  and  then  went  with  W.  R. 
Pugh,  guide,  to  ascend  Cader  Idris ;  we  found  the  ascent  very  easy. 
The  day  was  very  fine,  and  we  were  much  pleased  with  the  mountain. 
After  staying  some  time  on  the  top  (Pen-y-Gader),  where  I  found  a 
very  hairy  corolla'd  Festuca,  we  went  along  the  top  of  the  mountain 
over  Mynydd  Moel  (?)  and  through  Bwlch  Coch  for  the  distance  of 
about  six  miles,  and  descended  into  the  road  to  Dinas  Mawddy,  at 
which  we  arrived  in  the  evening,  after  passing  over  Bwlch-y-Ddrews, 
and  finding  near  Vachell  (?)  one  mile  from  Dinas,  Spiraea  salicifolia  in 
plenty. 

July  26.  Left  Dinas  Mawddy,  and  ascended  the  river  Dyfi, 
along  an  interesting  vale  as  far  as  Llan-y-Mawddy,  soon  after  which 
the  road  crosses  the  river  and  ascends  the  very  lofty  pass  of  Bwlch- 
y-Groes,  from  the  top  of  which  the  prospect  was  most  extensive. 
Saw  Hypericum  dubium  near  Llan-y-Mawddy.  After  resting  for 
some  time  at  the  top  of  the  pass,  we  descended  the  remaining  half 
of  the  way  to  Bala,  the  last  four  miles  along  the  banks  of  the  lake. 
This  was  a  very  hot  day. 

July  27.  Left  Bala  (having  stopped  at  the  "Lion,"  a  most 
excellent  inn),  and  followed  the  old  road  to  Festiniog,  the  distance 
being  nineteen-and-a-half  miles.  The  road  passes  near  the  Arrenig 
mountains,  which  are  very  fine  and  lofty.  At  about  half-way  we 
found  some  Folemonium  caeruleum.  At  about  two  miles  from 
Festiniog,  passed  near  Rh.  Cynfel,  but  it  wanted  water.  We  went 
on  two-and-a-half  miles  to  Maentwrog.  Observed  the  great  force  of 
the  tide  coming  in  here. 

July  28.  Started  at  6.30,  and  walked  as  far  as  Beddgelert 
to  breakfast.  The  road  winds  very  much,  having  to  pass  over 
a  singularly  rocky  tract  of  country.  Went  on  to  Llanberis  by  way 
of  Nant  Gwynant,  passing  by  Dinas  Emrys,  a  singular,  insulated, 


1832]  JOURNAL— WELSH  TOUR.  15 

and  wooded  rock  of  great  antiquarian  note,  Llyn-y-Dinas,  and  Llyn 
Gwynedd.  Near  the  latter  saw  plenty  of  Hypericum  dubium;  the 
distance  to-day  was  about  twenty-two  miles. 

July  30.  Went  to  Carnarvon.  Took  Holmes  to  see  the  Roman 
city  of  Seguntum. 

Aug.  3.     Started  for  Shrewsbury. 

Aug.  4.  Took  up  my  quarters  at  W.  A.  Leighton's,  and  walked 
with  him  to  Bomere  Pool,  and  found  Dianthus  delMdes  by  the  way. 
Found  there  Typha  angustifolia,  Epipadis  latifolia,  and  Scheuchzeria 
palustris  in  seed. 

Aug.  6.  Went  by  coach  to  Buttington  (found  near  Buttington 
Inula  Selenium  in  plenty),  on  the  Welshpool  road,  where  we  met 
Lewis,  of  St.  John's  College,  who  went  with  us  to  ascend  the  Breidden 
mountain.  .  .  .  Amongst  some  rocks  near  the  beginning  of  the  ascent 
I  found  a  single  specimen  of  Potentilla  rupestris  in  seed.  On  the 
descent  we  found  Galeopsis  versicolor  in  plenty  in  some  fields  on  the 
way  to  Middletown  china  works. 

Aug.  8.  We  followed  the  banks  of  the  canal  to  a  place  called 
Uffington ;  on  our  way  saw  Carex  pseudo-cyperus,  Lemna  polyrrhiza, 
Typha  latifolia,  Sagittaria  sagittifoUa,  Hydrocharis  Morsus-ranae,  Stachys 
palustris,  etc.,  in  the  canal,  and  on  the  banks  near  Tragopogon  major  (?) 
and  Lathyrus  sylvestris.  We  then  ascended  Haughmond  Hill,  and 
after  walking  about  it,  and  finding  a  few  plants,  such  as  Anagallis 
tenella,  Scutellaria  minor,  etc.,  we  descended  to  Haughmond  Abbey,  a 
ruin,  some  parts  of  which  are  very  fine.  On  the  walls  I  found 
Dianthus  Caryophyllus. 

Aug.  9.     Set  off  for  Birmingham Went  to  see  Weaver's 

Museum  (see  London  Mag.  Nat.  His.  for  August).  It  is  well  worth 
seeing,  there  being  a  fine  collection  of  British  Insects. 

Aug.  10.  To  Yoxall  Lodge,  Barton-under-Needwood  (Rev. 
Canon  Gisborne). 

Aug.  11.  Went  to  Lushpool;  found  there  Potamogeton  gramineum 
and  F.  crispum,  Sparganium  simplex  and  S.  ramosum,  Sagittaria  sagitti- 
folia,  etc. 

Aug.  13.  Went  to  the  banks  of  the  Trent,  near  Walton,  and 
found  at  Barton  Campanula  patula  and  Hypericum  dubium. 

Aug.  24.  Went  to  Woodmill  Brook,  and  saw  there  Potamogeton 
perfoliatum,  Hippuris  vulgaris,  etc. 

Sept.  1.  Gathered  759  specimens  of  Potentilla  Tormentilla  to 
examine  for  the  variations  of  the  number  of  parts  by  which  the 
Linnean  Genera  Potentilla  and  Tormentilla  are  distinguished. 

Sept.  3.  Gathered  and  examined  1632  specimens  of  P.  Tormentilla, 
and  found  Ulex  nanus  in  plenty,  also  a  variety  of  Polygala  with  ovate 
leaves. 


16  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1832—33 

Sept.  7.  Found  Senecio  saracenicus  at  Thatchmore,  near  a  house, 
but  my  uncle  (Canon  Gisborne)  says  quite  wild. 

Sept.  10.  Went  to  Tutbury,  about  six  miles  from  the  Lodge ; 
saw  the  castle,  and  a  very  fine  Norman  church  door.  I  obtained  a 
number  of  the  coins  found  in  the  river  Dove  (See  Sir  C.  Mosley's 
*'  History  of  Tutbury  ").     Found  Fedicularis  sylvatica  and  a  Mentha. 

Sept.  12.  Left  the  Lodge  for  Bath.  When  at  Birmingham, 
I  went  again  to  see  Weaver's  Museum. 

1833.     March  20.     Fees  for  M.A.  Degree  : 


Senior  Proctor 

...     5 

4    6 

Eegistrary       

...     6 

6    0 

Do.  Man          

2    0 

Father  of  St.  John's 

Z     7 

3     6 

College  Servants         

7    6 

Huddling         

2    0 

£19    5     6 

April  22.  Henslow  commenced  his  lectures ;  this  is  the  sixth 
course  that  I  have  attended. 

May  9.  Professor  Henslow's  botanical  expedition  to  Gamlingay. 
We  had  one  stage  coach. 

May  16.  Botanical  expedition  to  the  fens  in  the  conservators' 
barge. 

May  23.  To  Linton ;  this  was  the  first  time  that  the  botanical 
party  went  there.  I  then  first  saw  growing  JBotrychium  Lunaria, 
Aceras  anthropophora,  Habenaria  viridis. 

June  1.  Henslow,  Power,  Broome,  and  myself  went  to  a  wood 
near  Baitsbite  to  get  some  very  fine  plants  of  Ophrys  apifera.  On 
the  way  found  Galium  erectum  at  Fen  Ditton. 

June  4.  I  went  to  town  and  attended  the  meeting  of  the 
Linnean  Society. 

June  5.  Mr.  Solly  showed  me  the  circulation  of  the  sap  in  the 
filaments  of  the  Tradescantia. 

June  8.     Started  by  coach  to  Colchester  to  visit  Holmes 

Went  to  Mersea  Island,  it  is  only  accessible  at  low  water,  botanized 
there,  found  many  plants.     {See  Herbarium.*) 

June  12.  Botanized  along  the  coast  to  the  south  of  the  town 
(Harwich).  First  saw  Poa  distans  and  F.  maritima,  Rotthoellia  incurva, 
and  Hordeum  maritimum. 

June  15.  Holmes  and  I  went  in  his  father's  gig  to  Tiptree 
Heath,  a  few  miles  south  of  Copford,  and  found  a  great  number  of 
plants.     I  first  found  Trigonella  ornithopodidides. 

*  This  reference  is  intended  to  convey  the  fact  that  the  plants  found  in  Mersea  Island  may 
be  seen  in  the  Cambridge  Univei'sity  Herbarium. 


1833]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE.  17 

June  18.  Went  to  Colchester.  The  castle  is  well  worth  seeing. 
It  is  of  Roman  architecture  and  consists  of  one  large  square  tower. 
It  is  now  used  temporarily  as  a  prison.  It  is  built  of  brick.  The 
Botanic  Gaiden  is  very  good ;  the  collection  of  plants  is  large,  but 
badly  named.     The  ground  is  well  laid  out. 

June  21.  Returned  to  Cambridge  by  coach  through  Halstead, 
Haverhill,  and  Linton.  The  only  object  worth  noting  is  that  the 
road  passes  near  Hedingham  Castle,  a  very  fine  ruin,  once  belonging 
to  the  family  of  De  Vere,  Earls  of  Oxford.  The  same  evening  I 
went  to  the  rooms  of  the  Philosophical  Society,  and  was  employed  for 
some  time  in  finding  rooms  for  the  members  of  the  British  Association 
that  arrived.     Mr.  J.  Curtis,  the  entomologsit,  I  tookto  Corpus. 

June  22.  Curtis  breakfasted  with  me,  and  then  we  walked  to 
Grantchester.  He  dined  with  me  in  Hall.  At  four  o'clock  I  went 
to  the  Philosophical  Society's  house,  and  took  my  station  at 
"Table  C"  for  the  delivery  of  tickets  to  the  members  of  the 
British  Association.     Remained  there  till  nine  o'clock. 

June  23.  Sunday.  D.  Don  (Librarian  of  the  Linnean  Society) 
breakfasted  with  me,  and  then  introduced  me  to  Mr.  W.  Christy, 
jun.  and  Mr.  A.  Cunningham,  M.A.,  the  New  South  Wales  botanist. 
We  three  went  to  Trinity  Church  and  heard  Simeon  preach.  They 
were  much  pleased. 

June  24.  This  day  the  Meeting  of  the  British  Association 
commenced.  I  was  employed  at  "  Table  C "  till  ten  o'clock,  at 
which  time  I  went  to  the  meeting  of  the  Committee  of  the  Natural 
History  Section.  Mr.  W.  L.  P.  Garnons,  of  Sidney  Sussex  College, 
was  elected  Chairman,  and  Mr.  D.  Don  and  myself  were  appointed 
Secretaries.  At  one  o'clock  there  was  a  general  meeting  of  the 
whole  body  in  the  Senate  House. 

June  26.  Dined  to-day  in  the  Hall  of  Sidney  College.  Quite  a 
Natural  History  party. 

June  27.     Dined  with  a  Natural  History  party  in  Clare  Hall. 

June  28.  The  last  day  of  the  meeting.  At  five  o'clock  there  was 
a  cold  collation  in  the  Hall  of  Trinity  College.    It  went  off  very  well. 

June  29.  This  day  Professor  Agardt,  of  Lund,  Mr.  W.  Christy, 
Mr.  Garnons,  Stephens,  the  great  entomologist,  and  Westwood 
breakfasted  with  me.  We  went,  under  the  direction  of  Henslow, 
into  the  fens.  We  had  the  conservators'  barge.  At  Baitsbite  we 
found  Potamogeton  zosterifoUus  in  the  ditch  leading  up  to  the  Horning- 
sea  road.  At  Clayhithe  we  examined  Bottisham  fen,  and  Professor 
Agardt  informed  us  that  the  Chara  we  had  been  accustomed  to  call 
gracilis  was  the  hyalina  of  his  work.  We  followed  the  river  as  far  as 
Upware  and  went  into  the  sedge  fen.    Saw  in  flower  Stratiotes  aldides. 

June  30.  Sunday.  Stephens  and  Westwood  breakfasted  with 
me,  and  went  to  hear  Simeon. 

2 


18  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON,  [1833 

July  1.  Stephens,  Westwood,  and  I  went  entomologizing  to 
Madingley  wood. 

My  2,  At  eight  this  morning  I  was  in  the  Senate  House  to 
be  "created"  an  M.A.  Breakfasted  at  Power's,  of  Clare  Hall. 
Stephens,  Westwood,  and  I  went  by  coach  to  the  Devil's  Ditch, 
and  at  six  o'clock  dined  with  the  Rev.  L.  Jenyns  at  SwafFham 
Bulbeck. 

July  3.     We  three  went  again  to  Madingley  wood. 

July  4.  Stephens  went  to  Monkswood,  Westwood  and  I  went 
to  the  Gogmagog  Hills.  I  found  forty  specimens  of  Cardiapus 
Matthewsii  on  the  Helianthemum  vulgare. 

July  10.  To  Bath.  ...  In  a  few  days  after  my  arrival  at  Bath 
Mr.  E.  Collings,  Librarian,  Saville  Row,  requested  me  to  look  over  a 
list  of  the  Bath  plants,  and  make  additions  and  corrections.  I 
found  the  list  so  imperfect  that  it  was  determined  to  endeavour  to 
complete  my  list  of  those  which  I  had  observed.  I  worked  hard  all 
the  summer  and  finished  the  manuscript  on  the  15th  of  October, 
having  had  the  loan  of  Dr.  H.  Gibbes'  "Flora  Bathoniensis,"  and 
assistance  from  Mr.  E.  Simms  (son  of  Mr.  Simms,  the  bookseller,  of 
George  Street)  and  Dr.  J.  F.  Davies. 

August.  I  was  employed  with  my  Flora  during  the  whole  of 
this  month  and  September. 

Od.  26.  This  day,  at  about  seven  p.m.,  my  mother  was  walking 
across  the  drawing-room  and  fell  down  and  fractured  the  neck  of 
her  left  thigh  bone.  We  had  Mr.  Norman  immediately.  This 
accident  brought  on  an  attack  upon  the  lungs.  .  .  . 

Nov.  4.  This  evening  the  first  regular  meeting  of  the  Entomo- 
logical Society  took  place.  I  was  prevented  from  attending  by  my 
mother's  illness. 

Nov.  18.     My  poor  mother  died  at  about  six  o'clock  a.m. 

Nov.  23.  This  day  she  was  buried  at  Broughton  Giflford,  Wilts, 
in  a  tomb  formed  for  my  father. 

Nov.  30.  I  this  day  corrected  the  last  proof  of  my  "Flora 
Bathoniensis." 

Dec.  4.  Went  to  the  Linnean  Society  to  examine  the  collections 
about  Euphorbia  epithymaides. 

Dec.  6.  Went  to  Mr.  J.  0.  Westwood's,  at  Hammersmith,  and 
stayed  the  night.  He  took  me  to  Chiswick,  where  is  the  tomb  of 
Hogarth. 

Dec.  10.  Went  to  Hammersmith,  and  in  the  evening  walked  to 
town  to  the  rooms  of  the  Entomological  Society,  and  then  to  the 
meeting  of  the  Zoological  Society  to  see  a  new  species  of  lion  found 
in  India  by  Captain  Smee,  who  killed  eleven  of  them.  It  has  very 
little  mane,  and  is  shorter  and  thicker  than  the  Indian  lion. 


1833—34]  JOUENAL— BATH.  19 

Dec.  11.  Went  to  Mr,  Stephens'  and  made  extracts  for  my 
paper  on  Dromius. 

Dec.  12.  Started  from  Westwood's,  near  the  fourth  milestone 
from  Hyde  Park  Corner,  at  twenty  minutes  past  eight  a.m.,  and 
arrived  at  Bath  at  half-past  eight  p.m. 

Dec.  13.     Am  now  reading  Burckhardt's  "Travels  in  Syria." 

Dec.  14.  I,  this  day,  commenced  reading  the  "Familiar  Letters 
and  Miscellaneous  Papers  of  Dr.  Benjamin  Franklin."  I  determined 
to  read  a  part  of  Rollin's  "  Roman  History  "  in  French  every  day, 
to  commence  on  Monday  next. 

Dec.  17.  Commenced  reading  the  "Life  of  Sir  W.  Penn,"  by 
Granville  Penn,  having  finished  Dr.  Franklin's  "Letters,"  with 
which  I  am  much  pleased. 

1834.  Jan.  1.  This  day  is  published  my  "Flora  Bathoniensis," 
price  Is.  %d. ;  or,  with  a  map  of  the  country  round  Bath,  2s. 

Jan.  20.  Attended  a  meeting  at  Collings'  Library,  for  the 
purpose  of  preparing  for  founding  an  Horticultural  Society  at  Bath. 
I  also  added  my  name  to  the  list,  prepared  by  Mr.  Goodrich,  for  a 
Botanical  Garden,  to  consist  of  forty  members. 

Jan.  23.     Commenced  reading  Niebuhr's  "History  of  Rome." 

Jan.  31.  Attended  a  public  meeting  at  Sydney  Gardens  to  form 
a  "Bath  Horticultural  and  Floral  Society."  I  seconded  the  third 
resolution  for  the  appointment  of  a  patron. 

Feb.  1.  I  walked  this  day  with  Mr.  Stuart  Menteath  to  Claverton. 
We  saw  in  flower  the  laurel,  elm,  etc.,  and  heard  the  blackbird  sing. 

Feb.  3.  Found  this  day  on  Claverton  Down  Helleborus  foeiidus, 
nearly  quite  out  of  flower ;  saw  also  in  flower  the  nut,  and  Geranium 

Robertianum. 

Feb.  17.  I  saw  to-day  the  Mercurialis  perennis  in  flower,  and 
Col.  Stone  told  me  that  his  apricot,  peach,  and  nectarine  trees  had 
been  in  flower  for  three  or  four  days. 

Feb.  26.  Started  at  7  p.m.  inside  the  "Monarch"  coach  for 
London,  arrived  in  town  at  8.30  a.m.  Dined  at  Mr.  Christy's. 
Met  Lord  Mountmorres  and  Mr.  Hooker,  a  botanist.  In  the 
evening  a  large  conversazione,  at  which  were  most  of  the  London 
naturalists  of  my  acquaintance. 

March  1.  Called  at  Rev.  F.  Hope's,  and  obtained  from  him  the 
loan  of  specimens  of  Dromius  sigma  from  the  continent,  and  also 
from  Aberystwith,  for  description  in  my  paper  on  that  genus. 

March  3.  Went  to  Linnean  Society  and  examined  works  upon 
Dromius.     Meeting  of  the  Entomological  Society  in  the  evening. 

March  6.  Started  at  10  by  the  "Telegraph"  coach  from  Charing 
Cross,  and  arrived  at  Cambridge  at  3. 


20  CHARLES  CARDALE   BABINGTON.  [1834 

March  10.     Went  to  Grantchester,  and  took  Hyd.  jtigularis,  etc. 

March  14.  Walked  with  Henslow,  and  found  Adorn  moschatellina 
in  flower. 

March  15.  Signed  a  petition  to  do  away  with  all  religious  tests 
at  the  time  of  taking  degrees,  in  any  thing  but  Divinity. 

March  22.  Went  at  7  a.m.  to  Shelford  Common  to  take  Haliplus 
elevatus  with  Power. 

March  26.  Went  with  Power  to  the  Hills.  The  Anemone  Pulsa- 
tilla in  flower. 

March  27.  Went  to  Copford  in  Essex  to  spend  a  short  time 
with  E.  A.  Holmes  and  his  father. 

March  29.  Found  in  Layer  wood  Vinca  minor  in  great  plenty, 
quite  wild. 

April  1.  Gathered  the  male  and  female  of  the  Viscum  album 
from  an  apple  tree. 

April  12.  This  day  it  snowed  more  than  it  had  done  during 
the  last  winter. 

Afril  14.     Eeturned  to  Cambridge. 

April  15,  16.  Worked  at  the  Philosophical  Society,  in  renewing 
the  spirit  for  the  bottles  for  the  Museum  and  covering  them  with 
india  rubber,  stretched  tight. 

April  22.  Went  with  Henslow  to  the  Gogmagog  Hills.  Power 
found  Chrysom.  sanguinolenta  in  a  chalk  pit. 

April  24.     Took  fifty  specimens  of  Hydroporus  jugularis. 

May  26.  Went  to  Haslingfield  to  look  for  Relham's  locality  for 
Myosurus  minimus,  but  did  not  find  it. 

May  11.  James  Brown  and  I  took  out  of  a  maple  rail  fifteen 
specimens  of  Nemosoma  elongatulum,  it  was  the  further  end  of  Little 
Grantchester  lane. 

May  15.  Botanical  expedition  to  Gamlingay.  We  obtained  of 
the  boys  there  about  seventy  Natterjacks,  and  they  had,  as  they 
told  us,  three  pecks  more  of  them.     I  took  Cassida  salicorniae. 

May  17.  Henslow,  Molineux,  Broome,  Lingwood,  and  I  went 
to  Horningsea  fen  to  look  for  Sesia ;  one  was  found. 

May  22.  Left  Cambridge  to  spend  a  few  days  with  W.  Whitear 
at  Cley-next-the-sea,  Norfolk. 

May  23.  We  went  upon  the  bank  of  shingle  that  divides  the 
marshes  and  the  harbour  from  the  open  sea.  Walked  as  far  as 
Blakeney  Meals  (low  hills  of  sand  nearly  surrounded  by  the  sea). 
Found  many  plants,  such  as  Carex  arenaria,  Elymus  arenarius,  Statice 
reticulata,  Chenopodium  maritimum,  Plantago  maritima,  Triglochin  mari- 
timum,  etc.    In  the  evening  went  to  look  at  the  outside  of  Cley  and 


1834]  JOUKNAL— NORFOLK.  21 

Wiveton  churches,  the  former  large,  old,  once  very  fine,  now  in  a 
very  bad  state  of  repair,  the  latter  large  and  very  light. 

May  24.  Walked  as  far  as  Glandford,  church  in  ruins,  used 
about  eighty  years  since.  The  country  hilly,  hills  formed  of  sand 
with  a  subsoil  of  chalk,  covered  with  gorse,  Rosa  spinosissima,  fern, 
etc.  In  the  fields  Fapaver  Eheas,  dubium,  and  argemone  are  very 
common. 

May  25.  Sunday.  Whitear  has  adopted  the  plan  of  taking  the 
New  Testament,  and  explaining  it  regularly  from  the  pulpit  in  the 
form  of  short  lectures. 

May  26.  To  Langham  and  Burnham  Abbey,  a  fine  monastic 
building  (formed,  like  nearly  all  the  buildings  of  this  part  of  the 
country,  of  pebbles  mortared  together),  all  quite  in  ruin,  except  part 
of  the  church,  now  used  by  the  parish.  Then  to  Stifkey,  an  old 
house  with  four  round  towers  at  the  angles,  part  in  ruins,  now  used 
as  a  farmhouse :  by  Morston  and  Blakeney  home. 

May  27.  Went  along  the  coast  in  a  gig  by  Salthouse  to  Wey- 
bourne,  a  fine  old  monastery  in  ruin,  the  church  used  by  the  parish. 
Walked  under  or  upon  the  cliff's  to  Sherringham  and  Cromer.  Dined 
half-way  up  the  cliffs  between  Sherringham  and  Cromer.  Cromer 
church  partly  in  ruin.  Returned  inland  by  Runton  and  Beeston 
to  Sherringham,  a  small  monastic  building  quite  ruined,  has  been 
very  elegant. 

May  28.  To  Edgefield  Heath,  south  of  Holt,  found  there  Drosera 
longifolia  in  plenty. 

May  30,  31.  Was  not  well,  obliged  to  have  the  advice  of  Mr. 
Buck,  a  clever  man,  formerly  a  naval  surgeon. 

June  4.  Went  to  the  marshes,  and  found  a  large  number  of 
Macroplea  Zosterae  on  Potamogeton  in  fresh  water. 

June  5.  Found  Lepidium  ruderale  in  great  plenty  just  below  the 
town  of  Cley.  In  the  evening  went  to  Holt,  preparatory  to  my 
return  to  Cambridge,  June  6th. 

June  9.  Went  with  Power  to  the  Hills,  and  took  Haltica 
antennata  in  plenty,  also  Cryptocephalus  Morei. 

June  11.  Left  Cambridge  for  the  Long  Vacation.  Arrived  in 
London.  Saw  D.  Don,  to  whom  I  engaged  to  send  specimens  of 
EuphorUa  epithjmdides  for  Sowerby's  "Supplement  to  the  English 
Botany." 

June  12.  Went  to  Hammersmith  to  J.  0.  Westwood;  he  said 
that  he  was  fully  convinced  that  my  Malachius  is  quite  distinct  from 
that  which  is  figured  in  Panzer.  I  delivered  to  him  my  paper  on 
Dromius  to  be  read  to  the  Entomological  Society.  He  promised  to 
purchase  for  me  (at  Mr.  Haworth's  sale)  one  of  his  cabinets,  containing 
forty -four  drawers,  not  giving  more  than  15s.  a  drawer  for  it. 


22  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1834 

June  13.     Bath. 

June  16.  Went  to  the  lane  near  to  Prior  Park  to  get  Euphorbia 
epithym&ides ;  obtained  forty-four  specimens  of  it,  in  a  very  good  state 
for  drying. 

June  17.  Gathered  on  the  canal  bank  120  specimens  of  Carex 
remota,  to  dry  for  Henslow's  Botanical  Collections,  fasc.  2. 

June  20.  Gathered  specimens  of  Euphorbia  epithijmdides  in  the 
wood  near  Prior  Park  for  W.  Christy. 

June  21.  Took  fourteen  specimens  of  Chrysomela  graminis  in  the 
lane  between  Swainswick  and  Batheaston. 

June  23.  Gathered  at  Batheaston  sixty-four  specimens  of 
Digraphis  arundinacea  to  dry  for  the  Cambridge  Botanical  Collections. 

June  24.  Meeting  and  Show  of  the  Bath  Horticultural  Society. 
I,  being  a  member  of  the  Committee,  was  in  attendance  at  Sydney 
Gardens  at  seven  in  the  morning  to  assist  in  arranging  the  plants, 
etc.  At  half-past  nine  breakfasted  with  Mr.  Goodrich,  and  then 
returned  to  the  gardens.  At  about  eleven  o'clock  I  was  appointed 
a  Censor  of  the  prizes  for  cottagers  and  for  vegetables,  conjointly 
with  two  practical  men.  At  two  the  public  were  admitted  on 
payment  of  2s.  6d.  each,  or  producing  a  ticket.  "We  had  a  large 
tent  in  the  centre  of  the  garden  for  the  show  of  flowers,  and  the 
people  spread  themselves  all  over  the  gardens.  At  five  the  rest  of 
those  who  chose  to  come  were  admitted  at  Is.  each,  and  we  proceeded 
almost  immediately  to  pay  the  prizes.  I  did  not  get  away  till  half- 
past  eight  in  the  evening.     The  sum  taken  at  the  door  nearly  £100. 

June  27.  Found  the  note  appended,  from  Mr.  Borrer,  upon 
whom  I  immediately  called.  He  gave  me  a  number  of  plants 
gathered  by  him  in  Wales.  We  then  went  to  the  station  of 
Euphorbia  {epithijmdides  ?),  and  afterwards,  by  means  of  a  fly,  to  the 
station  of  Lysimachia  thyrsiflora.  We  dined  together  at  the  York 
House,  and  had  a  great  deal  of  most  interesting  botanical  conversation. 

Note. — "  Mr.  Borrer  requests  of  Mr.  Babington  a  direction  to  the  stations 
of  Euphorbia  epithymdides.     York  House.     Friday  morning." 

July  1.  Mr.  E.  Colli  ngs,  of  Saville  Row,  and  I  took  a  gig  to 
Cheddar.  We  started  at  two  o'clock.  Went  through  Corston, 
Marksbury,  Chelwood,  Stanton  Wick,  Stowey,  West  Harptree, 
and  then,  instead  of  turning  to  the  left  and  ascending  the  Mendip 
Hills,  we  went  on  by  Compton  Martin,  Ubley,  and  Blagdon,  there 
turned  up  the  hill,  and  after  some  difficulty  found  our  way  down 
through  the  cliffs  to  Cheddar. 

July  2.  At  6  a.m.  I  went  to  the  rocks,  and  after  much  climbing 
found  a  few  plants  of  the  Dianthus  growing  on  nearly  inaccessible 
parts  of  the  cliff.  I  also  found  on  the  rocks  Thalidrum  minus, 
Meconopsis  cambrica,  Polypodium  Bryopteris,  etc We  took  our 


1834]  JOURNAL— BATH.  23 

gig  through  Axbridge  and  Winscombe  to  Banwell.  Saw  the  bone 
cave,  containing  by  far  the  largest  collection  of  fossil  bones  that  has 
been  found  in  any  part  of  the  kingdom  (it  belongs  to  Dr.  Law, 
Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells).     Also  saw  the  Bishop's  cottage,  from 

which  there  is  an  extremely  fine  view Returned  to  Bath  by 

Churchill,  Burrington,  Blagdon,  and  so  on  by  the  route  of  yesterday. 

July  3.  Found  in  the  field  behind  the  farm-house  on  Claverton 
Down  Hahenaria  viridis  and  Orchis  ustulata. 

July  4.  Went  this  day  to  Box  and  saw  a  Roman  pavement  in 
the  garden  of  a  house  below  the  church.  It  is  not  a  very  fine  one, 
nor  very  perfect.  Westwood  bought  for  me  this  day  in  London  one 
of  the  late  Mr.  Haworth's  cabinets  at  an  auction  for  £31. 

July  8.  Left  Bath  at  eight  a.m.  and,  passing  through  Cheltenham, 
Worcester,  Kidderminster,  and  Bridgnorth,  arrived  at  Shrewsbury 
at  half -past  ten  p.m.  At  the  farther  end  of  the  valley  of  Stroud  on 
the  side  of  the  hill  I  noticed  plenty  of  Brachypodium  pinnatum.  Slept 
at  the  "  Raven  and  Bell." 

July  9.  Went  to  breakfast  at  W.  A.  Leighton's.  We  went  to  Bo- 
mere  and  found  Scheuchzeria,  Carex  limosa,  C.  teretiuscula,  C.  carta,  etc. 

July  12.  Went  by  the  Pool  coach  to  the  Breidden,  left 
Shrewsbury  at  half-past  five  a.m.,  following  the  lower  edge  of 
the  craggy  part  of  the  mountain,  gradually  ascending  until  we 
came  to  a  cleft  in  the  rocks,  which  we  ascended  to  the  highest 
part  of  the  rocks.  Returned  by  Criggeon.  Found  Hieracium 
alpinum,  Sedum  Forsterianum,  and  Potentilla  rupestris  in  seed  on  a 
crag  at  the  top  of  the  nearer  end  of  the  precipice. 

July  13.     Sunday.     Went  to  church  at  Meole. 

July  14.  Started  by  coach  at  half-past  five  a.m.  to  NesclifFe  Hill, 
where  we  met  Mr.  J.  F.  M.  Dovaston,  of  West  Felton.  Botanized 
there  for  some  time,  and  noticed  particularly  an  oak  tree  growing 
plentifully  wild  there.  It  is  probably  the  Durmast  Oak  of  Martyn's 
"  Flora  Rustica."  It  has  a  much  darker  appearance  than  the  Querciis 
robur  which  grows  with  it.  Walked  on  to  Mr.  Dovaston's  house, 
and  after  dinner  went  to  see  the  church,  etc.  He  has  a  very  curious 
Yew  tree  in  his  garden,  with  drooping  branches,  which  give  it  a  most 
beautiful  appearance,  and  having  both  male  and  female  flowers  on 
the  same  plant  but  on  different  branches. 

July  23.  Left  Shrewsbury  at  a  quarter  before  four  a.m.  Arrived 
at  Liverpool  at  half-past  eleven  a.m.  Passed  through  Ellesmere  ; 
the  church  very  fine,  and  some  most  beautiful  and  most  botanical 
looking  lakes.  Also  Wrexham  and  Chester,  the  latter  a  fine  old 
place  with  a  new  bx'idge  over  the  Dee,  having  the  largest  stone  arch 
in  Europe.  Crossed  the  Mersey  by  Birkenhead  ferry,  saw  the  docks, 
completely  full  of  ships,  and  the  new  but  unfinished  custom-house — 
it  will  be  a  most  beautiful  building.     Also  went  to  the  Zoological 


24  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1834 

Garden,  a  new  institution,  but  beautifully  laid  out,  and  having  a 
very  good  collection  of  animals.  Here  I  first  saw  a  rhinoceros  and 
some  young  alligators.  It  is  a  most  formidable  rival  to  the  London 
institutions  of  a  similar  kind.  At  five  p.m.  left  Liverpool  by  the 
railroad  for  Manchester.    Arrived  at  6.15,  distance  thirty-one  miles. 

Jtily  24.  Left  Manchester  at  a  quarter  before  five  a.m.  for 
Darlington.  Passed  over  some  high,  barren  moorland,  and,  before 
reaching  Huddersfield,  had  to  walk  a  mile-and-a-half  down  a  hill 
on  account  of  the  road  having  been  quite  cut  up,  as  if  with  a  plough, 
by  two  hours'  rain  the  evening  before.  It  was  as  much  as  they 
could  manage  to  get  the  coach  itself  over.  Reached  Leeds  at  half- 
past  nine  and  proceeded  immediately  through  Harrogate  and  Ripon 
to  Darlington,  at  which  place  arrived  at  half -past  four  p.m.  Harrogate 
is  divided  into  two  villages,  Upper  and  Lower.  Ripon  has  a  very 
good  square  market  place,  and  the  Minster  is  a  very  beautiful  object 
from  the  road.  After  dinner  I  walked  to  High  ConisclifFe,  about 
five  miles  up  the  Tees,  to  see  J.  J.  Cundill,  late  of  St.  John's,  and  to 
stay  a  few  days. 

July  25.  We  walked  about  a  mile  up  the  river  Sherne  to  look 
for  Lysimachia  punctata,  but  found  only  L.  vulgaris. 

July  26.     We  saw  the  Campanula  latifolia  in  great  beauty. 

July  27.  The  church  of  Coniscliffe  is  very  old,  and  has  old 
carved  pews  in  it.  The  parsonage  house  is  seated  on  the  top  of  a 
rock  that  has  been  worked  as  a  lime  quarry,  so  that  the  garden  wall 
rises  from  the  edge  of  the  rock.  Here  I  first  saw  Primula  farinosa 
growing  wild. 

July  30.  Went  to  Clifle  wood  and  the  petrifying  spring  on  the 
bank  of  the  river.     Found  in  the  wood  Bibes  alpinum. 

Aug.  1.  Went  to  Darlington  by  the  Barnard  Castle  omnibus  at 
half -past  eleven,  left  Darlington  by  the  "  High  Flyer  "  at  two  p.m. 
and  arrived  in  Durham  at  about  half-past  three  ("  The  Three  Tuns," 
in  the  New  Elvet,  at  Durham).  The  church  at  Darlington  is  a 
cvirious  structure,  well  worth  inspection.  At  Durham  called  at  the 
Prebendal  College  in  hopes  of  finding  Mr.  Gisborne,  but  he  had  left 
a  week  before.  Went  to  the  Minster  and  was,  of  course,  much 
pleased  with  it.  It  stands  between  two  steep  banks  descending  to 
the  river.  There  is  hardly  any  painted  glass.  In  the  evening 
walked  along  the  left  side  of  the  Wear  through  some  wood,  and 
was  much  pleased  by  the  beauty  of  the  views. 

Aug.  2.  Started  at  eight  a.m.  for  Newcastle-on-Tyne.  Called 
on  Mr.  Wailes,  Mr.  Bowman,  and  Mr.  Winch.  Tea  with  Mr. 
Bowman.     We  had  much  botanical  conversation. 

Aug.  3.  Wailes,  Bowman,  Mr.  J.  Alder  (conchologist),  and  I 
went  to  Shields  to  botanize  and  entomologize.  We  went  in  a  gig 
(as  it  is  called,  for  it  carried  six  and  a  child),  a  tight  fit.     Crossed 


1834]  JOUENAL  -IN  THE  NORTH.  25 

the  water  to  South  Shields  and  went  to  the  Ballast  Hills.  Gathered 
a  few  plants,  particularly  Melilotus  leucantha,  and  found  a  number 
of  insects.  We  went  along  the  coast  as  far  as  some  very  curious 
rocks,  many  of  them  formed  of  a  mass  of  strata,  broken  in  every 
manner,  and  then  firmly  cemented  together  again.  I  also  saw  the 
well-known  flexible  limestone  in  plenty.    We  came  back  to  Newcastle 

by  steam-boat,  having  seen  at  Eryngium  campestre  in  very 

great  plenty,  although  not  in  flower.  Wailes  recommended  a 
saturated  solution  of  oxalic  acid  to  kill  moths  instantaneously,  by 
inserting  a  quill  point  into  the  insect  after  it  has  been  dipped  in  it. 

Aug.  4.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Winch  and  determined  my  Bath 
Euphorbia  to  be  E.  palustris.  We  walked  into  a  small  valley,  Heaton 
Dean,  near  the  town,  and  Mr.  Winch  pointed  out  to  me  three  or 
four  species  of  Rosa  and  Euhus.  Dined  with  Mr.  Wailes  and  saw 
his  cabinet  of  insects. 

Aitg.  6.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Winch.  He  gave  me  an  original 
specimen  of  Triticum  cristatum,  gathered  by  G.  Don.  At  twelve 
o'clock  left  Newcastle  for  Berwick-upon-Tweed,  and  reached  that 
place  at  nine  p.m.,  passing  through  Morpeth  and  Alnwick.  The 
castle  at  the  latter  is  given  correctly  in  the  vieAvs  of  it,  and  is  a  very 
fine  object  from  the  north  entrance  into  the  town,  that  road  passing 
under  its  walls.  On  the  south  entrance  is  an  old  gateway,  which 
for  convenience  ought  to  come  down,  but  which  it  would  be  a  great 
pity  to  destroy.  The  country  alters  sensibly  as  you  go  north, 
having  a  much  more  dreary  look  near  Berwick  than  near  Newcastle, 
although  the  land  appears  to  be  in  a  high  state  of  cultivation.  I 
particularly  noticed  the  great  size  of  the  fields,  etc.,  and  suppose  that 
the  farms  are  extensive.  Noticed  a  fine  range  of  hills  on  the  left  at 
about  ten  miles  from  Berwick.  The  boats  employed  in  fishing  for 
herrings  were  so  numerous  a  few  miles  from  land  as  to  form  a  dark 
band  of  very  great  length  parallel  to  the  coast. 

Aug.  7.  After  breakfast  called  on  Dr.  G.  Johnston  (one  of  the 
nicest  men  I  have  yet  met  with  among  the  naturalists),  found  there 
Mr.  Brown,  a  botanist  of  the  neighbourhood.  Dr.  Johnston  having 
to  see  some  patients,  Mr.  Brown  and  I  inspected  his  herbarium,  and 
then  walked  some  distance  up  the  Scotch  side  of  the  river,  which  is 
very  wide.  The  bridge  is  of  great  length,  and  increases  in  height 
as  you  approach  the  town,  so  that  the  largest  arch  is  that  which  is 
nearest  but  one  to  the  town.  The  castle,  now  nearly  quite  destroyed, 
is  at  the  upper  corner  of  the  town,  near  the  river.  The  stones  of  it 
were  used  in  the  time  of  Queen  Anne  to  build  the  town  fortifications. 
One  of  the  walls  connecting  it  with  the  town  is  now  used  as  a  cart 
road.  The  fortifications  are  mounds  of  earth  faced  with  stone  and 
having  a  deep  dry  fosse  on  the  outside.  After  dinner  we  went  to 
the  seaside  to  look  for  Aepus  fulvescens,  found  by  Dr.  Johnston.  We 
could  not  meet  with  it.  He  found  it  under  stones  covered  by  each 
tide,  and  could  have  taken  plenty. 


26  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1834 

Aug.  8.  Walked  round  the  sea  walls  of  the  town.  The 
fortifications  are  in  a  very  perfect  state.  Dr.  Johnston  and  I 
looked  again,  in  vain,  for  Aepus  fulvescens,  and  then  went  to  a 
small  pond  and  found  one  of  Hydrop.  jugularis. 

Aug.  9.  We  walked  up  the  river  Tweed  on  the  Scotch  side  as 
far  as  the  junction  of  it  with  the  White  Adder,  then  followed  that 
river  to  a  bridge  and  returned  by  the  road.  We  found  Hydrop. 
jugularis,  Enicocerus,  and  various  specimens  of  Elniis. 

Aug.  10.  The  church  is  a  structure  of  the  date  of  the  Common- 
wealth and  has  no  tower.  The  bell  at  the  town  ball  is  rung  for 
service.  The  vicar,  who  preached  in  the  afternoon,  introduced  his 
sermon  in  that  part  of  the  service  at  which  the  anthem  is  usually 
sung,  and  finished  the  service  afterwards. 

Aug.  11.  Dr.  Johnston  and  I  went  over  the  bridge  and  along 
the  coast  of  North  Durham  for  about  three  miles.  I  found  what 
appears  to  be  a  minute  Staphylinus  in  the  crevices  of  rocks  below 
high-water  mark. 

Aug.  12.  Walked  by  myself  along  the  coast  as  far  as  a  rock 
called  the  Needle's-eye.  I  did  not  find  much,  but  was  greatly 
pleased  by  the  bold  rocky  character  of  the  coast. 

Aug.  13.  We  went  in  a  gig  to  Holy  Island.  It  is  about  fifteen 
miles  from  Berwick,  and  three  miles  of  the  distance  is  over  sands, 
which  are  covered  at  high  water.  The  island  appears  to  be  far 
from  fertile.  The  castle,  a  little  place  planted  upon  a  rock  at  the 
south  end,  is  very  small  and  mounts  six  or  seven  guns.  The  priory 
is  very  fine.  One  arch  is  standing  of  the  Saxon  style,  and  has  a 
very  beautiful  appearance.  The  west  end  terminates  in  a  beautiful 
Saxon  retiring  doorway.  The  priory  is  quite  close  to  the  village. 
In  the  street  is  an  ancient  cross,  quite  perfect.  The  church  is  very 
old  but  neat.     Returned  by  8  p.m. 

Aug.  14.  Gathered  Sisymbrium  Irio  under  the  town  walls  near 
the  gate  leading  to  the  pier.  Diplotaxis  tenuifolia  is  in  great  plenty 
in  the  mounds  of  the  fortifications,  and  also  on  the  outside  of  the 
town  walls. 

Aug.  15.  Found  some  moths  on  the  Senecio  on  the  tops  of  the 
rocks  near  to  the  sea, 

Aug.  16.  Walked  along  the  Edinburgh  road  about  three  miles, 
and  then  turned  to  the  left  on  to  Lamberton  Moor.  After  passing 
over  much  of  it  we  re-entered  the  road  and  followed  it  to  a  burn 
above  Ross  (near  Burnmouth).  Found  in  it  Bosa  villosa,  Epilohium 
angustifolium.  We  then  returned  by  the  coast,  and  before  reaching 
Lambertonshiels  found  on  a  rock  close  to  the  sea  Ligusticum  Scoticum 
and  Asplenium  marinum.  We  then  soon  left  the  sea  and  returned 
by  the  public  road. 


1834]  JOURNAL— SCOTCH  TOUR.  27 

Aug.  18.  Mr.  Maclagan  and  I  went  to  call  on  Mr.  Goode,  an 
excellent  painter  who  resides  in  this  town,  and  saw  a  few  very  fine 
pictures  of  his.  He  was  originally  a  sign  and  house  painter,  and  by 
lis  talents  has  raised  himself  to  a  high  rank  amongst  the  artists  of 
the  day,  and  made  a  comfortable  independence.  After  dinner  we 
went  behind  the  pier  and  found  Helobia  Gillenhallii  under  stones. 

Aug.  19.  Maclagan  and  I  went  this  morning  over  the  bridge 
and  through  some  fields  to  East  Ord.  We  examined  a  ditch  by  the 
way  but  found  nothing.  We  then  descended  a  burn  to  the  Tweed, 
and  after  an  unsuccessful  search  (saw  Rubus  caesius  in  plenty)  crossed 
the  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  White  Adder  (this  is  a  locality  for 
Allium  arenarium),  followed  that  river  as  far  as  the  bridge,  just 
below  which  we  found  Enicocerus  in  very  great  plenty,  and  also 
various  species  of  Elmis.  Rather  nearer  the  mouth  of  the  White 
Adder  we  found  Rosa  mllosa  and  Rosa  caesia  (of  Dr.  Johnston's  Flora), 
also  Mentha  viridis  and  gentilis,  the  latter  in  great  plenty.  I  never 
noticed  so  large  a  quantity  of  Fetasites  vulgaris  in  one  place  as  on 
the  bank  of  that  river  in  a  wet  place ;  there  must  be  many  acres  of 
it.  On  our  return  by  the  turnpike  road  we  saw  Rosa  tomentosa  in 
the  hedge,  and  also  a  Rose  agreeing  nearly  with  R.  caesia  of  Sm. 
Dr.  Johnston  mentioned  a  curious  fact  concerning  Cardainine 
jpratensis.     {See  his  "Flora  of  Berwick.") 

Aug.  20.  Went  through  Spittal  to  Scrammerston,  near  the 
coast,  and  found  in  some  old  lime  quarries  seventy  specimens  of 
Hydroporus  12-punctatus,  and  a  large  number  of  H.  depressus,  besides 
the  usual  species,  such  as  H.  d.  pustulatus.  I  took  a  plume  and 
Maclagan  a  Charaeas  graminis.  This  place  is  about  three-and-a-half 
miles  from  Berwick  Bridge. 

Aug.  21.  Took  some  Charaeas  graminis  on  the  sea-banks.  In  the 
afternoon  went  to  Halidon  Hill,  the  scene  of  the  great  battle.  The 
ground  is  formed  of  two  hills  with  a  bog  in  the  middle,  in  which 
the  Scots  were  defeated.  We  saw  no  insects  except  one  Charaeas 
graminis. 

Aug.  22.     We  went  along  the  turnpike  road  to and  then 

descended  a  burn  very  well  wooded,  and  having  a  large  quantity  of 
Saxifraga  umbrosa  naturalized  in  it,  as  far  as  the  White  Adder,  and 
followed  it  with  few  exceptions  to  Cantis  bridge,  then  returned  by 
the  road.  Found  Colymbetes  maculatus  and  Hydrop.  12-punctatus  in 
the  river. 

Aug.  23.  Took  Cassida  rubiginosa  on  the  thistle  near  the  town. 
'Saw  an  anguis  torquatus,  common  snake,  take  a  frog.  It  swallowed 
it  in  about  a  minute,  and  took  one  of  the  hind  legs  first,  the  head 
being  the  part  that  disappeared  last.  Dr.  Johnston  gave  me  a  copy 
of  his  "  Flora  of  Berwick,"  2  vols.  8vo. 

Aug.  25.  Left  Berwick  at  6  a.m.  and  had  heavy  rain  for  the 
£rst  three  hours  of  the  journey.     Did  not  see  much  of  the  beauties 


28  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON,  [1834 

of  the  country.  The  only  points  of  interest  noticed  before  arriving 
at  Dunbar  were  Peaseburn,  a  deep  wooded  glen  of  great  beauty,  and 
Cockburnspath  tower,  a  ruin  of  which  little  now  remains.  Dunbar 
is  an  old-looking  town,  but  as  the  rain  was  not  quite  over  and  we 
were  quite  wet  I  did  not  see  much  of  it.  The  road  soon  crosses  the 
river  Tyne  and  ascends  it  for  some  miles,  having  a  fine  view  of  the 
Lammermoor  hills  on  the  left.  Just  over  the  river  are  the  ruins  of 
Hailes  Castle,  of  which  very  little  remains,  and  a  curious  rocky  hill 
said  to  be  700  feet  in  height,  quite  insulated,  called  Traprain  Law. 
Another  of  these  hills  is  in  view  to  the  right,  called  North  Berwick 
Law.  .  .  .  Reached  Edinburgh  at  half-past  one  p.m.  .  .  .  Proceeded 
at  four  p.m.  to  Glasgow. 

Aug,  26.  Called  upon  Dr.  Hooker,  and  found  Mr.,  Mrs.,  and 
two  Mr.  Spences  with  him,  also  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Eichardson  and  Mr. 
Green,  an  American  botanist.  We  went  to  see  the  Cathedral ;  I 
need  only  say  that  it  is  quite  spoiled  in  its  appearance  by  being 
divided  into  two  churches,  and  having  the  crypt  more  than  half 
filled  with  earth.  We  also  saw  the  University,  a  fine  old  building, 
and  the  Hunterian  Museum,  well  worth  inspection.  Dined  at  Dr. 
Hooker's. 

Aug.  27.  Went  to  the  Botanic  Garden,  it  is  very  excellent,  and 
has  a  fine  collection  of  plants  (about  12,000).  Dr.  Hooker  gave  me- 
a  number  of  nice  plants.  We  think  that  my  Bath  Euphorbia  is 
puhescens. 

Aug.  28.  Mr.  Spence,  his  two  sons,  and  I  left  Glasgow  at. 
7  a.m,  by  steamer.  On  our  descent  of  the  Clyde  the  banks 
continued  near  together  for  some  miles,  being  built  up  on  each  side, 
but  some  time  before  reaching  Dumbarton  the  river  becomes  a  wide 
and  beautiful  stream.  The  Kilpatrick  Hills  are  the  first  object  of 
any  note,  they  are  on  the  right.  At  the  foot  of  them  are  the  ruins 
of  Dunglass  Castle,  where  the  Roman  Wall  terminated.  The  hills 
terminate  in  the  lofty  basaltic  hill  of  Dunbusk.  Not  far  beyond, 
the  town  of  Dumbarton  appeal's,  and  particularly  the  castle  rock  of 
that  town,  which  stands  boldly  into  the  river.  The  rock  is  basaltic, 
and  rises  to  the  height  of  560  feet.  Here  is  a  fine  view  of  Ben 
Lomond.  Port  Glasgow  and  Greenock  on  the  left,  are  the  next 
places.  Gareloch  opens  on  the  right,  having  Roseneath,  the  seat  of 
the  Duke  of  Argyll,  on  it.  We  soon  turned  to  the  right  into  Loch 
Long,  amidst  scenery  of  the  most  splendid  description,  and  in  a  few 
minutes  entered  Loch  Goil,  between  which  and  Loch  Long  is  the 
mass  of  mountain  called,  on  account  of  its  peculiar  rugged  character,. 
"The  Duke  of  Argyll's  bowling  green."  At  the  head  of  this  Loch 
we  took  coach,  and  crossed  the  mountains  to  St.  Catherine's  ferry, 
two-and-a-half  miles  across  to  Inverary.  (N.B. — This  is  by  far  the 
best  route  to  Inverary).  .  .  .  After  dinner  I  ascended  the  hill  to- 
Duniquaich,  opposite  the  castle,  and  not  finding  the  road,  I  went 
straight  up  through  the  woods,  and  had  a  very  difficult  climb.     The 


1834]  JOUENAL— SCOTCH   TOUR.  29 

top  is  crowned  by  a  very  ugly  tower,  but  the  view  is  splendid, 
taking  in  nearly  the  whole  length  of  Loch  Fyne  and  the  surrounding 
mountains. 

Aug.  29.  Left  Inverary  at  5.15  a.m.  in  a  car  and  breakfasted 
at  Cairndow,  having  rounded  the  head  of  Loch  Fyne  and  passed 
Dunderawe  Castle,  in  ruins.  After  breakfast,  not  being  able  to  get 
a  car,  we  took  a  cart  to  carry  Mr.  Spence  and  our  baggage,  and 
commenced  the  ascent  of  Glen  Kinglas,  a  vale  of  great  beauty, 
gradually  becoming  more  and  more  wild  until  after  crossing  the 
river  Kinlas ;  a  short  but  steep  ascent  brought  us  to  Loch  Eestal, 
a  very  small  lake  on  the  top  of  the  pass.  Just  beyond  this  place  is 
a  stone,  placed  by  the  soldiers  of  General  Wade  after  making  the 
road,  and  inscribed:  "Rest,  and  be  thankful."  We  however  could 
not  take  advantage  of  it  on  account  of  rain,  which  had  commenced 
about  half  way  up  the  ascent  and  had  been  increasing  in  quantity 
all  the  way.  From  this  point  the  road  descended  all  the  way  to 
the  head  of  Loch  Long,  through  the  romantic  glen  of  Glen  Croe,  it 
then  rounds  the  head  of  that  Loch  and  proceeds  along  a  nearly  flat 
country  to  Tarbet.  At  the  head  of  Loch  Long  is  Arroquhar  inn. 
On  reaching  Tarbet  inn,  on  Loch  Lomond,  we  had  some  difficulty 
in  obtaining  accommodation.  Lord  Harrowby  and  Lord  Brougham 
were  expected,  and  arrived  in  the  evening.  ...  I  found  Garnons 
here,  shut  up  by  the  rain.  At  about  10  p.m.  we  started  in  slippers, 
with  a  lantern,  to  find  our  way  to  the  cottage,  the  rain  falling  in 
torrents,  and  having  to  pass  through  a  narrow  footpath,  down  steps, 
over  a  narrow  bridge,  with  a  roaring  burn  flowing  under  it,  and 
through  a  field  of  oats.  At  length  we  reached  our  quarters,  and 
were  glad  to  find  that  they  were  very  neat,  clean,  and  comfortable. 
.  .  .  The  beds  were  built  in  to  the  end  of  the  room,  and  formed  of 
straw,  with  a  thin  mattrass  placed  upon  it,  and  confined  in  its  place 
by  means  of  a  board  fastened  in  front.  We  found  ourselves  very 
comfortable,  and  I  can  say  that  I  never  wish  to  have  a  better  bed. 

Aug.  30.  This  morning  we  looked  about  the  neighbourhood, 
and  determined,  on  account  of  the  uncertainty  of  the  weather,  to 
return  to  Glasgow.  The  steam  packet  came  up  the  Loch,  and  we 
went  on  board  to  see  the  head  of  the  Loch.  Noticed  on  the  right 
near  Inversnaid  a  very  pretty  waterfall,  close  to  the  lake,  and  were 
much  pleased  with  the  whole  of  the  upper  part  of  the  lake ;  there 
are  two  or  three  islands  of  great  beauty,  but  very  small  in  it.  On 
our  descent  of  the  lake,  the  view  of  Ben  Lomond  is  by  far  the  best 
that  I  have  noticed,  and  the  lake  has  a  very  fine  appearance  on 
account  of  the  numerous  islands  with  which  it  is  studded,  causing  a 
different  appearance  almost  every  moment. 

Aug.  3L  Sunday.  Went  to  hear  one  of  the  Scotch  clergy,  and 
was  much  pleased. 

Sept.  2.  Left  Glasgow  at  7  a.m.  and  reached  Lanark  at  10.45  a.m., 
passing  on  the  right  the  castle  of  Bothwell,  not  in  sight,  now  in 


30  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1834 

ruins,  but  having  a  seat  of  Lord  Douglas  close  to  it.  Reached  Both- 
well  Church,  a  fine  old  structure,  and  soon  afterwards  Bothwell 
Bridge,  over  the  Clyde,  the  scene  of  the  battle  between  the  Duke 
of  Monmouth  and  the  Covenanters.  It  is  now  widened.  .  .  .  We 
particularly  noticed  the  very  great  number  of  fruit  trees,  particularly 
plum,  growing  even  in  the  hedges  by  the  road  side,  and  covered 
with  ripe  fruit.  The  coach  stopped  for  a  few  minutes  to  allow  us 
time  to  see  the  Fall  of  Stonebyres.  Here  the  Clyde  descends  by 
three  stages  formed  by  intercepting  rocks,  from  a  height  of  eighty 
feet.  After  breakfast  we  ascended  the  river  to  see  the  great  Falls. 
Upon  entering  the  grounds  of  Lady  M.  Ross,  a  girl  led  the  way, 
and  showed  us  into  a  summer  house,  from  which  there  is  the  first 
and  a  very  fine  view  of  Corra  Linn.  .  .  .  We  then  proceeded  by  a 
most  romantic  path  along  the  edge  of  a  perpendicular-sided  ravine 
in  which  the  river  flows  to  Bonniston  Linn.  Here  a  bridge  has 
been  formed  by  which  the  stranger  passes  over  a  part  of  the  Fall  to 
a  rocky  mound  between  the  two  main  streams,  and  by  a  few  steps 
it  is  possible  to  descend  to  the  brink  of  each  of  the  Falls.  Here  I 
noticed  a  Hieracium  murorum.  On  our  return  I  saw  for  the  first 
time  a  Pyrola  growing,  also  Equisetum  hyemale.  We  now  descended 
into  the  hollow  below  Corra  Linn,  and  found  Saxifraga  oppositifolia, 
Aquilegia  vulgaris,  two  species  of  Hieracium,  Asplenium  viride,  Circora 
alpina,  etc.  We  now  fell  in  with  Mr.  J.  Curtis,  who  was  with  the 
proprietor  (?)  of  the  New  Lanark  cotton  works.  He  offered  to 
show  them  to  us.  The  water  by  which  they  are  put  in  motion  is 
brought  200  yards  through  a  tunnel,  from  the  Clyde.  The  mills 
are  of  enormous  extent,  and  well  worth  inspection.  We  went  all 
over  them,  and  the  school  for  the  children,  supported  by  the 
proprietor  .  .  .  the  whole  is  in  the  most  perfect  state  that  it  is 
possible  to  conceive.  The  town  is  built  upon  a  uniform  plan,  and  has 
a  very  neat  appearance.  About  1000  persons  are  in  constant  employ- 
ment in  the  works.  I  must  not  fox'get  to  mention  that  we  saw  a  cave, 
understood  to  have  been  used  by  Wallace  as  a  place  of  concealment. 

Sept.  3.  To-day  we  went  to  Cartland  Crags,  and  first  admired 
the  bridge  over  the  ravine.  It  consists  of  three  arches,  the  two 
piers  of  which  rise  to  the  height  of  146  feet  above  the  water.  We 
then  descended  by  a  very  steep  path  and  spent  some  hours  in 
examining  the  bottom.  The  whole  place  is  worthy  of  a  minute 
examination.  .  .  .  Started  for  Edinburgh.  Took  up  my  quarters 
at  Dr.  Maclagan's  129,  George  Street,  for  British  Association. 

Sept  6.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Patrick  Neill.  Walked  with 
D.  Don,  Alan  Cunningham,  and  Garnons  about  the  town  and  to  the 
Botanic  Garden,  where  we  met  a  large  party  under  the  superinten- 
dence of  Professor  Graham,  Dined  with  Mr.  P.  Neill  and  met  a 
party  of  eighteen  botanists.  Amongst  them  were  R.  Brown, 
Graham,  Greville,  A.  Cunningham,  W.  Arnott,  Royle,  Mackay  of 
Dublin,  MacNab,  etc. 


1834]  JOUKNAL— BRITISH  ASSOCIATION.  31 

Sept.  7.  Garnons  and  I  went  to  St.  George's  Church  in  the 
morning,  and  to  the  "  High  "  Church  in  the  afternoon. 

Sept.  8.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Leonard  Horner,  52,  Melville 
Street.  Met  Mr.  C.  Lyell,  etc.  Dined  at  the  Hopeton  Rooms 
with  the  members  of  the  Association.  Sedgwick  made  a  short 
speech.  Meeting  at  the  Assembly  Rooms  in  the  evening,  very 
crowded  and  hot.     Sedgwick  made  an  excellent  speech. 

Sept.  9.  Very  wet.  Dr.  Maclagan  had  invited  a  party  to 
breakfast,  but  not  half  of  them  ventured  out.  First  meeting  of 
the  sections.  Ours  was  very  full.  General  meeting  in  the  evening 
as  before. 

Sept.  11.  Breakfast  with  the  College  of  Physicians.  Sections 
and  general  meeting  as  before.     Dined  at  Dr.  Graham's. 

Sept.  13.  Breakfast  at  home,  Henslow  with  us.  Heard  Lord 
Brougham  speak. 

Sept.  14.  After  breakfast  walked  with  Garnons  to  Blackford 
Hill.     The  view  of  Edinburgh  is  most  excellent  from  this  point. 

Sept.  15.  Breakfast  with  Mr.  Walker  Arnott.  D.  Don,  A. 
Cunningham,  Mackay,  Otto  of  Berlin,  and  I  walked  to  Craigleith 
quarry  to  see  the  large  fossil  tree.  It  is  of  immense  size  and  in 
excellent  preservation.  At  3  left  Edinburgh,  and  reached  Berwick 
at  10  o'clock. 

Sept.  16.  Walked  about  Berwick.  Dr.  Johnston  found  Core. 
ohlonga-guttata. 

Sept.  17.  Went  by  coach  at  6  a.m.  to  Twizel  House, 
Northumberland,  the  seat  of  Mr.  Selby,  to  attend  a  meeting  of 
Berwickshire  Naturalists'  Club.  After  breakfast  we  walked  out 
and  descended  a  dene  towards  the  sea.  We  there  found  Rosa 
scabriuscula  and  Mentha  gentilis,  also  Sanguisorba  officinalis.  From 
thence  we  passed  some  most  beautiful  rocks,  but  had  no  time  to 
examine  them  although  they  appeared  most  promising.  Continued 
our  route  to  Bamborough.  The  castle  is  a  most  interesting  object. 
Returned  to  Twizel  House  to  dinner.  Mr.  Jenyns  and  Mr.  Yarrell 
were  of  the  party.     Reached  Berwick  again  at  half-past  nine  p.m. 

Sept.  18.  Dissected  a  shark  and  was  much  struck  by  the  large 
extent  of  its  liver.  The  colon  was  most  curious,  having  a  spiral 
running  down  the  inside. 

Sept.  20.  Took  a  large  number  of  Ealticas,  etc.,  on  a  wall  by 
the  side  of  the  river.  Much  pleased  with  Mr.  Baird,  a  gentleman 
who  has  been  here  for  a  few  days.  He  is  a  good  naturalist  and  the 
author  of  some  papers  in  the  Mag.  Nat.  Hist. 

Sept.  22.  Left  Berwick  at  eight  a.m.,  reached  Newcastle  at 
about  4  p.m.  Nothing  additional  to  say  about  the  road  except 
that  Bamborough   Castle  is  a  fine  object  for  some  miles,  being 


32  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1834 

placed  upon  an  eminence  by  the  sea.  Took  tea  with  Bowman, 
who  gave  me  some  of  his  duplicate  plants. 

Sept.  23.     Left  Newcastle  .  .  .  arrived  at  Manchester. 

Sept.  24.  Left  Manchester  at  five  a.m.,  and  passing  through 
Altrincham,  crossed  the  new  railroad  to  London  at  a  point  between 
the  two  great  viaducts.  A  large  number  of  men  were  just  com- 
mencing the  excavation.  The  next  town  was  Northwich.  The 
road  then  passed  through  Delamere  Forest,  consisting  mostly  of  fir, 
and  reached  Chester  at  eleven  a.m.  I  walked  round  the  walls  of 
Chester,  saw  the  cathedral  and  as  much  of  the  city  as  I  could 
explore  alone,  and  was  very  much  struck  by  various  parts  of  it. 
The  cathedral  is  built  of  red  sandstone.  Eeached  Shrewsbury. 
Called  on  Leigh  ton  in  the  evening. 

Sept  25.     Spent  the  day  with  W.  A.  Leighton. 

Sept.  26.     To  Hereford, 

Sept.  27.  To  Bath,  passing  through  Eoss  and  Monmouth. 
Before  reaching  Monmouth  passed  Goodrich  Castle,  placed  in  a 
very  commanding  situation.  The  road  then  follows  the  course  of 
the  river  Wye  to  Chepstow.  The  river  winds  very  much,  and  is 
everywhere  bounded  by  lofty  wooded  hills.  We  stopped  for  a  few 
minutes  at  Tintern,  long  enough  to  have  a  hasty  sight  of  the  Abbey. 
We  crossed  by  the  old  passage  in  about  ten  minutes  with  a  fair  wind, 
and  I  reached  Bath  at  half -past  seven  p.m.  Noticed  Campanula  patula 
in  plenty  on  bank  by  the  roadside  near  the  river  Wye. 

Oct.  3.     Walked  to  Wyck  and  saw  the  Ulex  nanus  in  full  flower. 

Oct.  7.     Went  to  Hampton  Rocks  with  Mr.  Lockey We 

measured  a  pollard  Elm  in  the  lane  leading  from  Hampton  Church 
to  the  mill  and  found  it  to  be  twenty  feet  ten  inches  in  circumference 
at  about  three  feet  from  the  ground. 

Oct.  14.     Left  Bath  for  London. 

Oct.  16.  A  great  fire  in  the  evening ;  Parliament  Houses  burned 
down. 

Oct.  17.     Arrived  at  Cambridge. 

Oct.  18.  Walked  with  Henslow  to  Madingley  Hall  to  see  a  very 
large  fungus  found  on  one  of  the  trees  there.  The  house  is  a  very 
fine  old  place,  having  a  grand  entrance  hall  supported  by  pillars,  and 
a  large  polished  oak  staircase. 

Oct.  26.  J.  L.  Brown  and  1  went  to  Grantchester.  We  took 
from  under  the  bark  of  an  old  railing  a  large  number  of  Hylesinus 
furcatus. 

Nov.  4.  J.  L.  Brown  and  I  went  to  the  Gogmagog  Hills  but 
found  very  little,  only  a  few  Halticas  and  small  Staphjlinidae,  This 
day  was  the  election  of  a  new  Vice-Chancellor  of  the  University.    The 


1834]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE.  33 

Heads  nominated  Dr.  French  (the  next  in  order)  and  Dr.  Ainslie, 
omitting  Dr.  Lamb,  who  ought  to  have  followed  Dr.  French  (on 
account  of  his  not  being  a  Tory).  The  result  was  that  many  of  us 
voted  for  Dr.  Ainslie  in  order  to  show  our  dislike  to  such  a  trick  to 
deprive  Dr.  Lamb  of  his  turn.     Dr.  French  got  the  election. 

Nov.  5.  Removed  into  new  rooms,  New  Court,  A  15,  lately  held 
by  Bromby,  and  looking  out  over  the  walks. 

Nov.  6.  Dined  at  the  "Eagle"  with  the  members  of  the 
Cambridge  Philosophical  Society.  We  had  a  very  pleasant  party, 
and  did  not  break  up  till  ten  o'clock.  At  the  general  meeting  of 
the  Society,  held  this  day,  I  should  have  been  elected  one  of  the 
council  but  for  the  members  not  liking  to  have  any  more  Johnians 
on  that  body. 

Nov.  14.  Henslow,  Lingwood,  and  I  went  to  the  first  turnpike 
on  the  Wimpole  Road  to  take  the  temperature  of  a  newly-formed 
spring  there.  It  is  one  of  those  made  by  piercing  the  gault. 
Temperature  52°  F.  Henslow  remarked  that  that  is  about  the 
temperature  of  all  similar  springs  near  this  town. 

Nov.  17.  Attended  a  meeting  at  Mr.  Bowstead's  rooms  at  Corpus, 
to  vote  an  address  to  Mr.  Connop  Thirlwall  expressive  of  our  sorrow 
at  his  being  prevented  from  acting  as  tutor,  and  of  our  disapprobation 
of  the  discussion  of  things  not  forming  part  of  the  duties  of  tuition 
being  made  a  cause  for  depriving  a  tutor  of  his  office. 

Nov.  29.  A  meeting  was  called  for  28th  to  take  into  consideration 
the  address  to  Thirlwall.  Laing,  Henslow,  and  I  supposed  that  it 
was  this  day,  and  went,  and  found  that  the  meeting  was  over  and 
the  address,  much  to  our  sorrow,  burnt. 

Dec.  3.  London.  Holmes  and  I  went  to  Mr.  Lambert's  and 
saw  a  cone  of  a  new  species  of  Araucaria,  weight  four  pounds.  It 
has  very  large  strong  spines  to  the  scales. 

Dec.  6.  Henslow,  Laing,  Hey,  Lingwood  and  I  went  by  the 
footway  from  Grantchester  to  Haslingfield,  and  noticed  the  upper 
Green-sand  in  four  different  localities,  viz.,  a  short  time  before 
reaching  the  latter  place  we  passed  over  a  low  ridge  formed  of 
chalk,  and  having  the  sand  apparent  on  each  side  of  it ;  also  on  the 
return  by  Barton  we  saw  the  sand  at  a  short  distance  on  this  side 
of  Haslingfield,  near  to  the  milestone.  The  chalk  also  appearing  at 
the  same  place  we  suppose  it  to  be  a  continuation  of  the  ridge  passed 
on  our  road  to  that  place.  The  sand  appears  in  great  perfection  by 
the  roadside  on  Barton  Common. 

Dec.  n.  Laing  and  I  traced  the  outline  of  the  chalk  from  the 
spring  near  Coton  quite  across  Barton  Common  and  over  the  fields 
by  Grantchester  to  the  footway  from  Cambridge  to  the  latter  place. 
We  saw  the  upper  Green-sand  at  Coton  Spring,  on  Barton  Common 
(as  on  6th),  and  in  Grantchester  Lane,  near  the  road  going  into 

3 


34  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABIN6T0N.  [1834—35 

Little  Grantchester  Lane.  Saw  the  junction  of  the  chalk  and  gault 
on  the  upper  part  of  Barton  Common  but  could  not  ascertain  that 
the  sand  existed  in  that  place. 

Dec.  13.  Laing,  Henslow,  and  I  traced  the  chalk  near  Grant- 
chester and  on  Shelford  Common,  which  was  in  a  very  good  state  for 
that  purpose,  from  the  new  ditches  made  for  the  enclosure  of  the 
common. 

Dec.  22.  Left  Cambridge  for  Bury.  .  .  .  Went  to  look  at  the 
churches ;  both  fine,  but  one  of  them  has  a  modern  window  in  the 
east  end,  placed  within  the  old  arch.  Looked  at  the  Botanic  Garden 
within  the  Abbey  walls.  It  is  of  small  extent  in  number  of  species, 
but  very  nicely  laid  out  with  grass,  etc.,  amongst  the  remains  of  the 
Abbey.  Reached  Norwich  at  9  p.m.  J.  L.  Brown  met  me,  and 
took  me  to  his  father's  house  in  St.  Andrew's  Street. 

Dec.  23.  Walked  about  the  city ;  saw  the  castle  (being  renewed 
in  the  style  of  the  original)  and  the  cathedral ;  it  is  Norman,  having 
the  series  of  arches  in  the  nave.     It  has  a  very  lofty  spire. 

Dec.  24.  Went  to  Household  Heath ;  it  appears  a  nice  botanical 
and  entomological  ground :  dined  at  Mr.  Skipper's,  the  City 
Chamberlain. 

Dec.  27.  Went  along  the  Yarmouth  road  through  Thorpe,  and 
just  beyond  a  toll-gate.  Found  on  the  left-hand  side  a  famous  pit 
of  Crag  formation ;  it  lies  upon  chalk  with  flints,  and  consists  of  a 
mixture  of  sand,  more  or  less  hardened,  clay,  and  two  or  three  beds 
of  shells,  each  about  nine  inches  thick.  The  shells  very  much 
broken  and  very  brittle.     The  men  found  a  horn,  which  I  obtained. 

1835.  Jan.  2.  Went  to  Melton  to  see  Mr.  Soames'  Collection 
of  Birds ;  it  is  nearly  perfect  as  far  as  Britain  is  concerned,  and  the 
specimens  are  very  fine,  and  in  excellent  preservation. 

Jan.  4.  Went  to  church  at  St.  Peter's ;  it  is  the  largest  church 
in  the  county,  and  very  fine. 

Jan.  5.  Took  under  fir  bark  Dromius  meridionalis  (note  that 
D.  agilis  is  not  found  here),  i-notatus,  etc.,  Phalaerus  corticalis.  coccin. 
IS-gvitata. 

Jan.  6.  Went  to  Mousehold  Heath,  and  took  from  under  the 
bark  of  fir  Scymnus  discmdeus,  and  the  other  regular  bark  insects. 

Jan.  7.     Dined  with  Professor  Sedgwick.     Norwich  election. 

"  Dear  Sir, — Will  you  excuse  short  notice  and  come  to  a  family  dinner  with 
me  to-day  at  six  1  You  will  meet  Dr.  Ainger,  an  old  Fellow  of  your  College, 
and  one  or  two  friends.  My  small  party  has  only  been  formed  this  morning. — 
Very  truly  yours,  A.  Sedgwick. 

"  P.S. — If  Mr.  J.  L.  Brown  will  come,  pray  tell  him  I  will  give  him  an 
elastic  dinner,  and  he  may  leave  me  as  soon  as  his  partners  want  him." 

Jan.  8.  Left  Norwich  at  7  a.m.  and  reached  Cambridge  at  about 
1.30  p.m.     Last  day  of  Cambridge  town  election. 


1835]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE,  35 

Jan.  13.  Eowlandson  has  taken  five  specimens  of  Dromius  i-sig- 
natus  for  Power,  from  the  bark  of  willow  trees  at  Grantchester, 

Jan.  15,  16.     Cambridge  county  election. 

Jan.  18.  Walked  with  J.  A.  Power  through  Histon  to  Westwick; 
at  the  farther  side  of  Histon  observed  a  broad  moat  surrounding  a 
square  spot  of  ground,  and  having  much  the  appearance  of  an  old 
fortification.  Near  to  it  is  an  old  mansion  house.  At  Westwick 
we  saw  a  bed  of  sandy  earth,  between  two  beds  of  gravel,  with 
perfect  mussell  shells  of  cockles  in  it,  some  of  them  with  the 
valves  closed ;  the  bed  about  a  foot  thick.  Came  back  through 
Oakington  and  by  the  Huntingdon  road. 

Jan.  21.  Eowlandson  brought  me  three  specimens  of  Dromius 
i-signatus,  taken  at  the  same  place  as  Jan.  13. 

Jan.  22.     A  large  packet  of  plants  arrived  from  Mr.  Borrer. 

Jan.  31.  A  man  brought  me  a  specimen  of  4,-signatus  from 
Fulbourn.     I  have  also  had  two  more  specimens  from  Eowlandson. 

Feb.  3.     I  saw  a  Meloe  for  the  first  time  this  year. 

Feb.  5.  I  undertook  to  look  after  the  Entomological  Collection 
at  the  Philosophical  Society.     Meloes  are  now  frequent. 

Feb.  6.  This  day  I  for  the  first  time  saw  a  body  dissected ;  it 
was  by  Professor  Clark  in  his  lectures. 

Feb.  8.  Mr.  Borrer  called  with  his  eldest  son,  whom  he  had 
brought  up  to  Peterhouse. 

Feb.  9.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Borrer  and  went  to  the  Botanical 
Garden,  etc.,  with  him.  He  mentioned  two  new  species  of  Fedia 
having  been  found  in  England. 

Feb.  10.  Whitear  came  up  from  Walsingham  to  spend  a  few 
days  with  me. 

Feb.  12.  Henslow,  Laing,  Lingwood,  and  J.  L.  Brown  dined  with 
me  to  meet  Whitear. 

Feb.  18.  Attended  a  meeting  at  Professor  Sedgwick's,  to  con- 
sider what  notice  should  be  taken  by  the  Liberal  party  of  the 
University  of  the  interference  and  improper  influence  that  had 
been  used  by  the  Tory  party  at  the  late  election  for  the  town.  It 
was  determined  to  put  out  a  declaration  of  our  abhorrence  of  such 
conduct,  and  three  men  were  appointed  to  draw  one  up  before  next 
Saturday. 

Feb.  21.  Walked  with  Henslow  to  Westwick  by  Histon,  to  see 
the  shells  mentioned  under  Jan.  18.  We  determined  that  they 
were  recent,  having  cinders  and  charred  wood  mixed  with  them. 

Feb.  24.     Dined  with  Sedgwick  in  Hall  and  wined  with  him. 

Feb.  28.  Walked  with  Henslow,  etc.,  to  Madingley,  and  found 
a  good  many  mosses. 


36  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1835 

-  March  5.  First  meeting  of  the  Society  for  Protecting  the  Inde- 
pendence of  the  Town.  A  few  members  of  the  University  attended, 
some  were  admitted  Honorary  Members,  myself  amongst  the 
number. 

March  7.  Broome  and  I  went  to  Girton  and  Histon,  found  a 
few  mosses.  I  tried  for  water  insects  but  found  nothing  whatever. 
Finished  reading  Inglis'  "  Tour  in  Ireland,"  recommended  by  Mr. 
Burke  of  Christ's.  I  like  it  very  much,  it  has  given  me  a  much 
clearer  idea  of  the  state  of  that  Island  than  I  expected. 

March  12.  Meeting  at  the  Town  Hall  for  the  purpose  of  form- 
ing a  Mechanics'  Institute  for  Cambridge,  Henslow  in  the  chair. 

March  15.  This  day  our  Morning  Chapel  was  for  the  first  time 
at  10  o'clock.  {Note. — It  is  to  be  at  that  hour  on  Sundays  for  the 
future.) 

March  16.     Our  declaration  was  published. 

"Cambridge,  March  l^th,  1835. — In  consequence  of  a  very  general 
impression,  that  intimidation  and  persecution  were  employed  by  some 
members  of  the  University  at  the  late  elections  for  this  town,  we,  the 
undersigned  resident  members  of  the  Senate,  deem  it  our  duty  to  make 
a  public  declaration  of  our  sentiments  on  this  subject.  We  look  upon 
the  Elective  Franchise  as  a  sacred  trust,  for  the  conscientious  discharge 
of  which  a  man  is  deeply  responsible;  and  every  species  of  undue 
interference,  directly  or  indirectly,  with  that  trust  (such  as  threatening 
tradesmen  with  loss  of  business,  or  dismissing  dependants,  for  daring 
to  judge  and  act  in  opposition  to  the  political  principles  of  their  em- 
ployers) is,  in  our  opinion,  a  gross  breach  of  public  and  private  morality ; 
being  an  attempt  to  constrain  a  man  to  do  that  which  his  conscience 
disapproves  by  appealing  to  his  fears  and  his  interests.  We  trust  that 
every  friend  of  religion  and  morality,  to  whatever  party  he  may  belong, 
will  agree  with  us  in  condemning  proceedings  so  discreditable,  which, 
by  their  cruel  and  degrading  operation,  tend  to  destroy  the  indepen- 
dence, the  welfare,  and  the  peace  of  mind  of  very  many  of  our  fellow 
countrymen. 

"M.  Davy,  D.D.,  Master  of  Caius;  J.  Lamb,  D.D.,  Master  of  Corpus 
Christi ;  S.  Lee,  D.D.,  Trinity,  Regius  Professor  of  Hebrew  ;  H.  J.  H. 
Bond,  M.D.,  Corpus  Christi;  J.  Gumming,  M.A.,  Trinity,  Professor 
of  Chemistry;  A.  Sedgwick,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity,  Woodwardian 
Professor;  T.  Musgeave,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity,  Lord  Almoner's 
Professor  of  Arabic;  J.  S.  Henslow,  M.A.,  St.  John's,  Professor  of 
Botany;  G.  B.  Aiet,  M.A.,  Trinity,  Professor  of  Astronomy;  T.  S. 
Hughes,  B.D.,  Emmanuel;  J.  Romilly,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity, 
Registrary  of  the  University ;  G.  A.  Beowne,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity; 
J.  BowsTEAD,  M.A.,  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Corpus ;  C.  Thielwall, 
M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity;  E.  Seeocold  Peaece,  M.A.,  Jesus;  Jos. 
Shaw,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Christ's;  G.  W.  Ceawfoed,  M.A.,  Fellow  of 
King's;  H.  Gunning,  M.A.,  Christ's;  H.  Arlett,  M.A.,  Fellow  and 
Tutor  of  Pembroke ;  H.  Calthbop,  Fellow  and  Bursar  of  Corpus ; 
T.  B.  Buecham,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity;  C.  C.  Babington,  M.A., 
St.  John's ;  S.  W.  Waud,  M.A.,  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Magdalene ; 
R.  Dawes,  M. A.,  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Downing ;  P.  Blakiston,  M.A., 


1835]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE.  37 

Emmanuel;  H.  L.  Jones,  MiA.,  Fellow  of  Magdalene;  C.  Lofft, 
M.A.,  Fellow  of  King's;  J.  Ceoft,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Christ's;  E.  W. 
EoTHMAN,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity  ;  J.  Saundees,  M.A.,  Fellow  of 
Sidney;  J.  Peill,  M.A.,  Fellow  and  Dean  of  Queens' ;  W.  D.  Range- 
ley,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Queens' ;  J.  Hind,  M.A.,  late  Fellow  and  Tutor 
of  Sidney;  St.  John  Lucas,  M.A.,  Downing;  Geoege  Thackeeat, 
M.A.,  Fellow  of  King's ;  L.  W.  Sampson,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  King's ; 
G.  Craufoed  Heath,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  King's ;  R.  Sheepshanks, 
M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity;  H.  Battiscombe,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  King's; 
James  Packe,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  King's ;  J.  Heaviside,  M.A.,  Fellow 
and  Tutor  of  Sidney ;  A.  Thubtell,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Caius ;  R.  Mue- 
PHY,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Caius;  J.  Tinklee,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Corpus; 
A.  Fitch,  M.A.,  Christ's;  B.  D.  Walsh,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity; 
J.  Mills,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Pembroke;  G.  Leapingwell,  M.A., 
Corpus ;  R.  Pashley,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity ;  J.  Kemble,  M.A., 
Trinity ;  J.  L.  Camebon,  M.A.,  Trinity." 

March  26.  Collected  water  insects,  took  Hyd.  jugularis,  Hal. 
suhnuhilus ;  finished  my  paper  on  Hal.  ferrugineus  for  the  Entomo- 
logical Society. 

April  1.  Brown  and  I  went  to  the  fens  near  Baitsbite  to  hunt 
for  water  insects.  Took  Halipli  impressus,  obliquus,  ferrugineus, 
parallehis,  suhnuhilus,  etc.,  Colym.  uliginosiis,  etc. 

April  2.  Brown  and  I  went  to  the  Gogs  to  look  for  Chry. 
sanguinolenta,  which  had  been  found  in  plenty  a  few  days  before ; 
took  a  few,  also  Haltica  antennata  in  plenty,  as  well  as  a  number  of 

Aphodii. 

April  6.  Left  Cambridge  at  6  a.m.  for  London.  Attended  a 
meeting  of  the  Entomological  Society  that  evening. 

April  7.  Called  on  Mr.  Hope,  but  did  not  see  him.  Examined 
the  Linnean  Cabinet  to  discover  his  Dytiscus  ferrugineus  for  my  paper 
on  Haliplus  ferr.  It  turned  out  to  be  Hyphidus  ovatus.  Dined  with 
Mr.  Spence,  and  met  for  the  first  time  J.  C.  Loudon,  Esq.,  editor  of 
"Magazine  of  Natural  History."     Linnean  Society  in  the  evening. 

April  8.     Went  to  Mr.  Stephens' and  left  my  paper  on 

Haliplus  ferr.  with  him  for  the  Entomological  Society. 

April  9.  Left  London  for  Bath.  The  hedges  almost  in  leaf, 
quite  green. 

April  11.  Collected  water  beetles  in  the  canal.  .  .  .  Found  in 
Hampton  Wood  Cerasus  avium,  in  flower.  Saw  in  flower,  Paris, 
Cowslip,  Scilla  nutans,  Anemone  nemorosa,  and  found  Viola  imberbis 
on  the  canal  bank,  a  short  distance  beyond  Bathampton. 

April  13.  Lawes  came  to  Bath  from  Biddestone,  and  we  went 
to  a  meeting  of  the  Missionary  Society  at  the  rooms.  Mr.  Baptist 
Noel  spoke  very  well,  and  Mr.  Yates  from  New  Zealand  said  that 
their  exertions  in  that  Island  were  being  crowned  with  success. 
Lawes  dined  with  us,  and  went  home  in  the  evening. 


^8  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1835 

April  15.  Gathered  a  number  of  specimens  of  Oxalis  acetosdla 
at  Charlcombe. 

April  16.  Followed  the  road  from  Batheaston  to  St.  Catherine's 
to  nearly  the  head  of  the  valley,  then  descended  to  the  brook  and 
found  in  plenty,  and  decidedly  wild,  indigenous,  Narcissus  pseudo- 
narcissus  and  Hellehorus  viridis ;  returned  along  the  other  side  of  the 
brook.  I  was  particularly  struck  by  the  very  large  quantity  of 
Allium  ursinum  in  the  lane  and  on  the  banks  of  the  brook,  also 
Anemone  nemorosa  and  Oxalis  acetosella.  I  found  a  Composite,  probably 
JDoronicum,  on  the  brook-side  at  St.  Catherine's. 

April  20.  Saw  in  Warleigh  wood  Euphm'bia  Laihyris,  apparently 
indigenous ;  I  never  saw  it  in  so  truly  wild  a  state  and  such  great 
plenty. 

April  29.  Dined  with  Dr.  Totty  in  Paragon  Buildings ;  met 
Mr.  and  two  Miss  Wrights  from  Nottingham,  very  pleasant  people. 

May  4.  Left  Bath.  In  London,  attended  the  Entomological 
Society  Meeting,  and  heard  my  paper  on  Haliplus  ferrugineus  read. 

May  5.  Linnean  Meeting  this  evening.  Mr.  Hankey  gave  me 
a  specimen  of  Polygonum  dumetorum  found  at  Wimbledon  in  a  wood 
by  the  road-side. 

May  6.  Entomological  Dinner.  Kirby,  Spence,  etc.,  present. 
Mr.  Stanley  (afterwards  Bishop  of  Norwich)  said,  that  the  naturalists 
had  two  Bibles,  other  persons  but  one.  Kirby  said,  that  "  Nature 
must  agree  with  Revelation,  etc.,  we  need  not  fear  apparent  dis- 
crepancies." 

May  8.  The  Botanical  Class  went  with  Henslow  to  Coton ; 
found  rather  a  small  quantity  of  the  Paris.  I  took  a  few  small 
Staphylinidae. 

May  9.  Henslow  and  I  went  up  the  Wimpole  road  to  the  foot 
of  the  hill,  and  observed  the  extent  of  the  chalk  in  that  direction. 

May  11.     Commenced  my  "Manual  of  British  Botany." 

May  18.  Power  and  I  went  to  Horningsea  fen ;  he  took  a  Sesia, 
I  found  plenty  of  Hylesinus  fraxini,  and  a  few  of  Colym.  femoi-alis. 

May  21.  I  took  Hylesinus  crenatus  out  of  a  decaying  ash  tree  at 
Grantcbester. 

May  22.  The  Botanical  Class  went  to  Wood  Ditton.  We  found 
Listera  nidus-avis,  Car  ex  pendula,  etc.,  also  a  white  variety  of  Ajuga 
repens. 

May  26.  Mr.  Borrer  came  to  Cambridge.  I  was  with  him  all 
the  evening. 

May  27.  Mr.  Borrer  and  I  went  to  SwafFham  Prior,  and  Dr. 
Jermyn  went  with  us  to  Reche  fen  and  the  Devil's  Ditch.  We 
found  Roemeria  violac.  (hyhrida),  Cladium,  Carex  stricta,  etc. 


1835]  JOURNAL— HENPIELD.  39 

May  29.  Botanical  Class  went  to  Gamlingay.  I  worked  at 
Entomology  only ;  found  Chry.  rufipes,  Zeugophora  suhspinosa,  Cassida 
sanguinolenta,  etc. 

May  30.  This  morning  I  breakfasted  with  Mr.  Borrer  at  his  son's 
rooms.  He  gave  me  Silene  conica,  Veronica  verna,  Scleranthis  perennis, 
Medicago  minima,  etc.,  found  by  him  in  Suffolk  near  to  Mildenhall. 

June  6.    This  day  the  thermometer  was  77°,  on  the  5th  it  was  57°. 

June  10.  Dinner  to  Professor  Henslow  at  the  "Hoop,"  to 
present  to  him  two  pieces  of  plate  from  the  Cambridge  voters  and 
the  London  reformers.  The  large  room  was  well  filled,  and  the 
evening  went  off  very  well. 

Jime  11.    Left  Cambridge  with  Borrer  for  his  father's  at  Heniield. 

June  12.  Mr.  Borrer  and  I  went  to  Amberley,  passing  through 
Bramber  and  Steyning,  both  small  places,  but  very  pretty,  particularly 
the  former,  at  which  there  is  a  small  part  of  a  castle  remaining.  At 
the  bridge  over  the  Arum  found  Scirpus  carinatus.  On  the  hill  to 
the  south  of  the  place  found  in  the  hedges  Lonicera  Xylosteum.  In 
the  marshes  Fotamogeton  acutifoUus,  etc.  Near  Henfield  Mespilus 
germanica. 

June  13.  "We  went  with  Fanny  Borrer  and  her  cousin  Catherine 
to  St.  Leonard  and  Tilgate  forests,  the  former  is  very  fine :  found 
Melittis  Melissophyllum,  Callitriche  pedunculata  fr.  sessile,  Haberuiria 
brachyglopa,  etc. 

June  15.  We  went  to  Cross-in-Hand,  near  Heathfield,  through 
Lewes.  On  Waldron  Down  found,  in  a  small  stream  below  a  solitary 
tree,  Sibthorpia  Eicropaea,  Phyteuma  spicatum  (?).  Noticed  also  plenty 
of  the  latter  in  fields  to  the  left  of  the  road  beyond  Cross-in-Hand. 
Near  Lewes  saw  Phyteuma  orbiculare,  but  not  in  flower. 

June  16.  Dr.  Broomfield  called,  and  we  went  to  Shoreham,  and 
found  Medicago  denticidata,  Vicia  lutea,  Trifolium  stellatum,  and  several 
grasses  on  the  sandy  shingle  on  the  further  side  of  the  river. 

June  17.  Gathered  plants  in  Henfield  Level,  Fotamogeton  rufes- 
cens,  lucens,  etc.,  Lemna  minor  in  flower,  etc.  To  Totteridge  Green 
and  West  Grinstead  Common ;  found  on  the  first  Chara  pulchella, 
the  latter  Alisma  Damasonium,  and  various  Boses. 

June  18.  On  Henfield  Common,  Gentuncidus  minimus,  Agrostis 
pumida,  Fotamogeton  ohlongus.  After  dinner  went  to  Portslade,  and 
found  Alopecurus  hdhosus,  Galium  erectum  of  English  Botany,  etc. 

June  19.  Went  to  London.  Called  on  Mr.  Forster  at  his  bank ; 
also  on  J.  de  C.  Sowerby ;  examined  the  Linnean  and  Smithian 
Herbaria  about  the  Habenaria  bifolia  Linnean.  Collated  various 
works  on  the  same  subject. 

June  20.  Left  St.  Katharine's  Docks  by  steamboat  for  Southend ; 
Lad  a  very  pleasant  voyage  down  the  river.     This  place  is  just 


40  CHARLES  CARDALE   BABINGTON.  [1836 

two  miles  beyond  the  bounds  of  the  port  of  London,  the  end  of 
which  is  marked  by  an  upright  stone  called  the  Crowstone.  It  is  a 
very  small  place,  but  so  pretty  that  it  is  surprising  it  is  not  more 
frequented.  Met  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Forster  and  Miss  Terry,  also  Mr. 
Borrer,  by  appointment  at  the  Royal  Hotel.  Found  this  evening 
Laduca  Scariola  and  L.  Salicjna,  Medicago  maculata  and  M.  denticulata, 
Vicia  hithynica,  Grepis  biennis,  etc.,  to  the  west  of  the  town. 

June  21.  Sunday.  Went  to  church  at  Southchurch,  about  a  mile- 
and-a-half  off,  then  walked  down  to  the  sea  by  a  footpath,  and  on 
the  shore  found  Coriandrum  sativum. 

June  22.  Took  a  car,  to  botanize.  First  at  Hadleigh  Castle, 
an  old  ruin,  of  which  only  part  of  two  towers  remains  standing  and 
the  foundations  of  the  walls ;  it  is  in  a  fine  situation,  on  the  top  of 
a  low  hill  overlooking  the  fiat  marshes  on  the  banks  of  the  river. 
Found  amongst  the  bushes,  just  below  the  castle,  Lathyrus  hirsutus ; 
within  the  walls  Rosa  micrantha.  By  South  Benfieet,  across  the 
water  to  Canvey  Island.  Found  what  W.  Borrer  says  is  a  new 
Glyceria.  Passed  the  chapel,  built  of  Avood ;  and  not  far  from  the 
south  side  of  the  island,  in  a  marshy  place  by  the  road-side,  found 
Polypo(jon  iTwnspeliensis  in  plenty,  and  in  the  fields  Tragopogon  porri- 
folius.  The  church  at  South  Benfieet  is  curious,  particularly  the 
east  window,  which  is  divided  by  such  large  mullions  as  to  almost 
form  a  number  of  separate  lancet-shaped  windows. 

June  23.  Borrer  and  I  returned  to  London  by  the  coach  through 
Rochford,  Billericay,  Brentwood,  etc.,  and  I  returned  to  Cambridge 
that  evening. 

June  24.  Power  told  me  that  the  number  of  Sturmia  Loeselii  in 
Burwell  Fen  was  enormous. 

June  27.     Returned  to  Henfield. 

Jtme  29.  Went  to  Changtonbury,  a  lofty  chalk  hill  near  to 
Steyning ;  the  view  from  it  is  very  fine,  saw  Chichester  Cathedral 
on  one  side,  and  the  hills  above  Hastings  on  the  other.  Looked  for 
Herminiiim  M&norchis,  but  could  not  find  it.  Found  Pterogonium 
Smithii  in  fruit  on  trees  near  the  hill. 

June  30.  Gathered  Lotus  tenuis  in  plenty  in  fields  near  to  Hen- 
field,  distinguished  at  sight  by  its  long,  prostrate,  much  branched 
stems.  Wrote  the  greater  part  of  my  paper  on  0.  bifolia  Linn., 
which  is  intended  for  the  Linnean  Society;  I  give  it  to  that  Society 
at  the  request  of  Mr.  Edward  Forster. 

July  1.  To  Slinfold.  Found  plenty  of  Euphorbia  corraldides ;  and 
returned  by  Horsham.  Found  in  St.  Leonard's  Forest  Spergula 
subulata,  and  Erythraea  pulchella  on  the  road-side.  G-athered  also  in 
the  hedge  near  Cowfold  a  semi-double  Hose,  mentioned  in  Hooker, 
ed.  3,  under  B.  arvensis. 

July  2.     Went  in  a  large  party  to  see  the  Roman  pavement  at 


1835]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING   IN   SUSSEX,  Etc.  41 

Bignor ;  it  is  in  a  very  fine  state  of  preservation.     Gathered  at  it 
Cre2)is  virens. 

July  3.  To  Shoreham  to  meet  Mr.  Trevelyan,  but  missed  by 
accident.  Went  into  the  church,  a  very  fine  old  Saxon  edifice. 
Crossed  the  suspension  bridge  to  Worthing,  a  nice  town,  found 
Bwpleurum  tenuissimuniy  Botthoellia,  and  on  our  return  Phyteuma 
orhiculare. 

July  4.  Determined  that  all  the  plants  called  Crepis  tedm^um  in 
this  neighbourhood  belong  to  C.  virens ;  a  specimen  of  the  former 
Mr.  Borrer  showed  me  from  France,  not  named,  but  which  could 
not  admit  of  doubt. 

July  7.  Gathered  Carex  strigosa  at  Hurst.  Drew  up  descriptions 
on  three  species  of  Herniaria  from  plants  in  Mr.  Borrer's  garden. 

July  8.     Drew  up  descriptions  of  Grepis  virens,  tectorum,  etc. 

July  9.  Determined  the  Polygonum  marinum  of  Kay  to  be  Poly- 
gonum  maritirmim  Linn.,  i.  e.  a  variety  of  it,  and  the  plant  found  at 
Christchurch,  Hants,  to  be  the  true  Linnean  plant,  now  made  a 
species  under  the  name  of  P.  Eaii. 

July  11.  Went  to  London,  called  on  Mr.  Forster,  and  went  with 
him  to  Woodbridge  in  the  evening. 

July  12.  Mr.  Forster  and  I  went  to  Woodford  Bridge,  and  found 
Villarsia  nymphaedides ;  and  to  Hainhault  Forest,  and  found  in  a 
pond  near  the  Fairholm  Oak  green  Chara  translucens. 

July  1 4.    Arrived  at  James  Gisborne's  at  Barton-under-Needwood. 

July  15.  Found  two  varieties  of  Crepis  virens,  which  are  probably 
the  C.  stricta  and  C.  pinnatifida  of  continental  authors. 

July  16.     Went  to  Lushpool,  found  a  Chara,  ^vdhahlj  pulchella. 

July  17.  Went  to  Forest  Church,  and  found  0.  Chlorantha  in 
the  wood  near  it. 

Jtdy  20.  Determined  that  the  same  plant  of  Zannichellia palv^tris 
has  anthers  with  two,  three,  or  four  cells. 

July  23.     Left  Barton,  and  saw  Mr.  Borrer  at  Birmingham. 

July  24.     Dined  with  Leighton  at  Shrewsbury. 

July  25.  Mr.  Borrer,  William  Borrer,  and  I  went  to  Llangollen; 
we  ascended  the  Eagle  crags,  did  not  find  much,  but  a  most  beautiful 
view. 

July  26.  Walked  by  the  canal  side,  and  then  along  the  road  to 
Valle  Crucis  Abbey.     Gathered  Rumex  pratensis  by  the  canal. 

July  27.  Ascended  Castle  Dinas  Bran  in  the  morning,  and 
gathered  Pyrus  Aria  intermedia  on  the  wall :  the  walls  are  very  thick, 
and  it  must  have  been  a  very  formidable  fortification.     It  is  well 

worth  a  visit By  coach  to  Bangor,  saw  Mr.  Eoberts  the 

botanist. 


42  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1835 

July  28.  By  coach  to  Carnarvon  and  Llanberis.  Ascended  to 
Twll  Dft,  and  found  very  little. 

July  29.  Mr.  Roberts  again  joined  us,  and  we  botanized  in 
Clogwyn-du'-r-arddu ;  the  Arahis  petraea  in  the  greatest  perfection. 
Then  ascended  to  the  top,  and  found  a  few  specimens  Grymnost. 
Griffithianum. 

July  30.  We  went  in  a  car  to  the  head  of  the  Pass,  and  then 
walked  to  Clogwyn-y-Garnedd,  but  not  having  taken  the  right  road, 
we  coasted  the  lakes  in  the  hollow  of  the  mountain,  and  ascended 
from  them.  Did  not  find  the  Woodsia,  for  which  we  went.  Returned 
to  the  head  of  the  Pass  by  the  true  path  under  Crib  Coch.  Slept 
at  Capel  Curig. 

Jtdy  31.  To  Beddgelert.  Ascended  Dinas  Emrys,  found  on  it 
Eriophorum  gracile  and  Carum  verticillatum  in  plenty.  Returned  to 
Capel  Curig. 

Aug.  1.  To  Llyn  Idwal.  Found  Chara  gracilis  of  Wilson ;  it 
appears  to  be  a  variety  of  flexilis ;  and  below  the  fall  of  the  Ogwen 
gathered  Hieracium  strictum  (?). 

Aug.  2.     Sunday.     At  Bangor. 

Atbg.  3.  Mr.  Borrer  and  I  went  to  Beaumaris  and  Mona  Inn, 
from  thence  to  Llyn  Mealog,  and  found  Callitriche  autumnalis,  Elatine 
hexandra,  Scirpus  Savii,  etc.     Returned  to  Mona. 

Aug.  4.  To  Llyn  Coron.  Could  not  find  the  Elatine.  Saw 
Fiola  Curtisii,  Erythraea  litoralis,  Viola  flavicorius,  etc. ;  the  three  last 
also  at  Malltraeth  Sands.  To  Newborough.  Met  with  a  young 
man  of  the  name  of  Horatio  Davies  there,  and  a  gentleman's  servant, 
who  were  both  of  them  botanists.  Found  on  the  sands  near  to 
Llanddwyn  Abbey  Polygonum  Baii  (one  specimen),  at  the  Abbey 
Crithmum  maritimum,  Euphorbia  Paralias,  and  E.  Portlandica,  Lavatera 
arborea,  Scirpus  Savii  by  a  spring  on  the  road  from  Newborough. 
Returned  to  Bangor. 

Aug.  5.  Gathered  Bosa  Wilsoni.  Went  to  Holyhead.  Parted 
from  Mr.  Borrer. 

Aug.  6.  To  the  South  Stack  Lighthouse ;  the  contorted  rocks 
there  are  very  curious.  Found  Scirpus  Savii  in  several  places  in  the 
island.  Gathered  Erythraea  latifolia,  Helianthemum  guttatum,  Lotus 
corniadatus  (various),  Gentiana  campestris,  Chara  pulchella,  etc.  Left 
for  Dublin  at  11  p.m.  by  the  steam  packet.  Rough  voyage,  slept 
well. 

Aug.  7.  Went  to  the  College,  and  got  my  ticket  for  the  British 
Association  Meeting.  Called  on  Mr.  J.  T.  Mackay  at  the  College 
Botanical  Garden.  He  introduced  me  to  the  Rev.  Mr.  Maclean  and 
Rev.  Mr.  Todd,  Fellows  of  Trinity  College ;  and  they  gave  me  rooms 
in  the  College,  No.  xxiv.,  two  stairs,  door  to  right.  Dined  with 
Mackay. 


1835]  JOTIRNAL— BRITISH  ASSOCIATION  IN  DUBLIN.  43 

Aug.  8.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Todd.  .  .  .  Dined  in  Hall.  .  .  . 
In  the  evening  went  to  a  party  given  by  the  College  of  Physicians ; 
did  not  break  up  till  late  :  a  lecture,  and  then  supper. 

Aug.  9.  Sunday.  Went  to  Christchurch ;  a  modernized  church, 
spoiled  by  being  so. 

Aug.  11.  Dined  in  the  gardens  of  the  Zoological  Society;  the 
public  admitted  in  the  evening,  when  8000  people  were  present. 

Aug.  13.  Went  with  Mackay  and  others  by  the  railroad  to  Kings- 
town, and  by  car  to  Killiney  Hill ;  on  the  sands  near  which  found 

Polygonum  intermedium,  etc. 

Aug.  14.  Breakfasted  at  the  Dublin  Society's  Botanical  Garden, 
•Glasnevin;  at  12  noon  started  sixteen  in  company,  for  Howth  Hill. 
At  Baldoyle  we  saw  Viola  Curtisii,  Carex  distans,  Blysmus  rufus, 
Statice  spath.,  etc.  Howth  Hill  is  very  fine,  and  gives  a  beautiful 
view  of  Dublin  Bay. 

Aug.  15.  Last  day  of  the  Meeting.  Trinity  College  dined  300 
in  the  Examination  Hall :  the  dinner  most  splendid.  Before  dinner 
the  Lord  Lieutenant  (Lord  Mulgrave)  knighted  Professor  Hamilton 
in  the  College  Library. 

Aug.  19.  Mr.  Maclean,  Mr.  Mackay,  Mr.  Cullagh,  and  I  went 
by  the  canal  to  Lexlip ;  saw  Mr.  Cavendish's  place  there,  and  found 
on  ivy  Orohanche  minor.  There  is  a  very  pretty  waterfall  there, 
•called  the  Salmon  leap.     Returned  by  Lucan  and  Palmerstown. 

Aug.  20.  Left  Dublin  by  coach  at  8.30  a.m.  for  Birr  or  Parsons- 
town.  After  passing  Naas,  at  Kildare,  saw  the  first  of  the  celebrated 
Round  Towers  ;  it  is,  if  I  do  not  mistake,  one  of  the  finest  in  Ireland  ; 
near  it  are  the  remains  of  an  old  monastic  building,  in  much  greater 
•decay  than  the  Tower.  Passed  the  following  towns  :  Monasterevan, 
Portarlington,  Mount  Mellick.  {Note. — All  the  places  mentioned 
above  show  evident  marks  of  not  being  in  a  prosperous  state.) 
Reached  Birr  at  about  6.15  p.m.,  and  proceeded  in  a  car  to  Portumna. 

Aug.  21.  Mr.  Ball  and  his  son  came  to  meet  the  Lord  Lieutenant 
(Lord  Mulgrave),  who  took  lunch  at  the  castle.  After  he  was  gone, 
J.  Ball  and  I  went  to  the  castle,  Lady  Clanricarde  wishing  us  to 
dine  and  sleep  there. 

Aug.  22.  We  walked  in  the  morning  to  a  spot  some  distance 
down  the  lake  to  have  a  view  of  Lough  Dearg.  It  is  very  fine  from 
thence,  i.  e.  from  a  hill  covered  by  a  long  plantation.  Saw  Gentiana 
^campestris  and  G.  Amarella,  Char  a  hispida,  Juniperus  communis,  etc. 
Started  for  Loughrea. 

Aug.  23.  Sunday.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Daly,  of  Mount 
Pleasant;  and  after  church  went  with  Charles  Burke  to  Marble 
Jlill. 


44  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1835 

Aug.  24.  Lady  Burke  and  Charles  Burke  having  gone  to  Galway 
to  meet  Lord  Mulgrave,  we  walked  round  the  neighbourhood  of 
Marble  Hill,  particularly  near  to  a  lake,  but  found  little. 

A%i(j.  25.  Started  at  7  a.m.  for  Galway.  The  country  particularly 
remarkable  for  the  quantity  of  stones  with  which  it  is  covered ;  it 
has  a  very  dreary  aspect.  Galway  is  a  large  old  town,  with  many 
curious  houses  of  great  antiquity.  In  the  fish  market  we  noticed 
a  great  quantity  of  sea-bream,  split  and  dried.  From  the  bridge 
saw  a  number  of  fine  salmon,  at  the  bottom  of  the  river,  on  their 
way  to  Lough  Corrib.  Started  by  the  mail  car  for  Oughterard ; 
the  car  was  the  most  rough  conveyance  I  ever  was  upon.  Oughterard 
is  a  very  pretty  place,  having  a  small  waterfall  close  to  it.  Found 
Utricularia  media  in  a  bog  beyond  the  town.  In  the  evening  called 
upon  Dr.  Kirwan,  the  parish  priest  of  this  place.  He  is  a  very  nice 
gentleman-like  person.  ...  he  gave  us  much  useful  information. 

Aug.  26.  After  breakfast  crossed  the  river,  and  found  in  the 
bog  Rhyncliospora  fusca  in  plenty,  B.  alba  formed,  Avith  Eleoclmns 
paniciflcn-a,  nearly  the  whole  of  the  vegetation  of  the  bogs.  Droseiu 
longifolia,  anglica,  and  rotundifolia  were  common.  *  Menziesia  dabeocia 
in  plenty  on  the  hills.  After  passing  a  part  of  the  rocky  mountain 
land,  we  found  at  a  lake  Eriocaulon  septangulare  in  plenty.  Returned 
by  the  river,  and  then  through  a  cornfield,  in  which  we  found  Fedia 
carinata.  In  the  evening  we  went  to  a  castle,  curiously  situated 
upon  a  natural  bridge  over  a  small  river ;  the  architecture  was- 
singular,  and  the  whole  in  good  preservation.  The  country  was 
most  interesting,  on  account  of  its  being  limestone,  full  of  caverns 
in  horizontal  strata,  and  forming  natural  bridges  in  many  places. 

Aug.  27.     Found  an  Aspidium,  perhaps  cristatum,  in  the  bog. 

Aiig.  28.  Started  by  car  for  Maam,  or  Lough  Corrib  Head 
Hotel,  at  9  a.m.,  and  found  by  the  way  Eriocaulon  septangidare  in  a 
lake.  The  country  is  quite  full  of  lakes,  and  flat,  being  enclosed 
between  two  ranges  of  lofty  mountains.  After  following  the 
Ballanahinch  road  for  eight  miles,  we  turned  off  to  the  left  for  four 
miles  between  two  lofty  mountains,  and  at  the  head  of  Lough 
Corrib  is  situated  the  small  inn.  Soon  after  our  arrival  we  went 
up  the  mountain  behind  the  house,  and  found  Sazifraga  umbrosa  /? 
punctata :  there  was  a  fine  view  from  the  top.  .  .  .  the  top  is  great 
part  of  it  occupied  by  a  bog. 

Aug.  29.  We  went  up  the  mountain  opposite  to  the  inn,  on  the 
right  of  the  Galway  road  :  the  hill  is  called  Shanfolagh,  and  is  very 
easy  of  access.  From  the  top  I  counted  175  lakes,  most  of  them  in 
Connemara,  which  is  divided  from  Joyce's  country  by  this  hill,  and 
the  others  of  its  range ;  descended  by  a  recess  on  the  north  side, 
and  saw  plenty  of  Saxifraga  umbrosa,  S.  stellaris,  Hymenopliyllum 
Wilsoni  in  one  place ;  on  the  top  Juniperus  nana.  In  the  evening 
we  went  along  the  road  towards  the  Killeries,  until  we  came  to  the 


1835]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING   IN   IRELAND.  45 

second  brook  running  from  the  mountains ;  ascended  it  for  a  short 
distance,  and  found  near  to  a  small  waterfall  Sazifraga  Geum  in 
plenty. 

Aug.  30.  Being  Sunday  we  did  not  go  far  from  home,  but 
walked  down  the  Cong  road  to  the  upper  part  of  Lough  Corrib. 

Attg.  31.  Started  this  morning  in  a  taxed  cart  to  make  a  tour 
of  Connemara.  We  ascended  the  river  that  runs  by  the  Maam  inn 
until  we  passed  over  the  watershed,  between  Lough  Corrib  and  the 
Killery,  then  descended  to  the  head  of  that  bay.  The  country  is 
one  mass  of  mountains  the  whole  distance,  but  well  covered  with 
grass,  and  feeding  a  large  number  of  sheep  and  cattle.  Lenane,  at 
the  head  of  Killery  harbour,  is  a  very  poor  place ;  on  the  shore  we 
saw  the  usual  sea  plants,  such  as  Glaux,  Statice,  Armeria,  Plantago 
Coronopus,  Aster  tripoliwm,  etc.  The  harbour  is  very  narrow,  more 
than  seven  miles  in  length,  and  bounded  by  very  lofty  mountains. 
We  proceeded  over  a  new  road  formed  through  an  extensive  bog 
till  we  reached  the  north  side  of  the  "  Twelve  Pins  "  of  Benbuola, 
then  skirting  a  lake,  we  left  the  Clifden  road  and  turned  north  to 
Tully,  a  very  poor  place,  and  searched  the  sea-side  there  for  Arabis 
ciliata.  Did  not  find  it.  Gladium  Mariscus,  Spartium  scoparium  in 
plenty,  and  Arundo  arenaria. 

Sept  1.  Started  before  breakfast,  and  fell  in  with  a  party  who 
were  on  their  way  to  Clifden  Fair.  We  noticed  by  the  way  that 
Ulex  Europaeus  became  more  and  more  scarce,  and  Ulex  imnus 
extremely  plentiful.  Clifden  is  a  very  neat  town,  situated  upon  a 
deep  estuary.  After  breakfast  we  walked  about  the  town,  and  then 
proceeded  to  Eoundstone  by  the  inland  road.  For  the  first  mile 
the  road  passed  the  head  of  a  number  of  small  inlets  of  the  sea,  and 
turning  inland  passed  over  about  five  miles  of  the  most  barren 
country  that  we  saw  in  the  districts ;  it  consists  of  bog  upon  a 
stratum  of  Hornblende  slate,  protruding  in  numerous  places,  the 
number  of  small  lakes  being  quite  astonishing.  The  vegetation 
consists  solely  of  the  following  plants  :  Schoenus  nigriains,  Molinia 
caerulea,  common ;  Eriophorum  angustifolium,  Ulex  nanus,  Rhynchospmu 
alba,  far  from  common,  the  two  mentioned  above  nearly  forming 
the  whole  herbage  of  the  country.  The  other  plants  noticed  were 
Potentilla  tormentilla,  Myrica  gale,  Calluna  vulgaris,  Erica  tetralix,  rare ; 
Erica  cineria,  Narthecium  ossifragum,  Drosera  anglica,  and  rotundifolia, 
very  rare.  At  Eoundstone  we  found  Mr.  William  MacCalla,  the 
son  of  the  hotel-keeper,  who  showed  us  Arbutus  in  situ,  and  took 
us  to  the  station  of  Erica  mediterranea  in  Glan  Iska  on  Urrisbeg 
mountain  ;  it  extends  in  very  large  quantities  down  a  boggy  valley. 
He  also  showed  a  station  for  Adiantum  Capillus-Veneris  on  a  rock 
facing  south-west  on  the  bank  of  Lough  Bulard.  The  specimens 
are  small,  but  in  fructification.  In  the  evening  he  showed  us  his 
collections  of  shells,  etc. 


46  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1835 

Sept,  2.  This  morning  we  went  to  see  some  plants  in  Roundstone 
and  Burtaby  Bays.  In  the  first  found  on  Illan  Glas  an  Allium  not 
made  out  {Allium  Babingtonii  Bo7r.),  and  in  the  latter  on  a  rocky  island 
near  to  its  head,  called  Cruigneit,  Inula  Helenium  in  plenty.  Started 
for  Maam.  MacCalla,  Lingwood,  and  I  crossed  the  bogs  for  two  or 
three  miles  to  Craigha  Moira,  a  low  mass  of  rock  by  the  side  of  the 
road  to  Clifden,  on  which  he  showed  us  a  new  Heath  nearly  allied 
to  E.  tetralix.  We  then  rejoined  our  car,  and  proceeded  by  Ballana- 
hincb,  a  large  house  in  a  fine  situation,  but  much  in  want  of  trees 

about  it,  to  Mr.  S 's  inn.     Soon  after  leaving  that  place  we 

struck  into  the  track  that  leads  over  the  mountains  to  Maam.  .  .  . 
we  were  detained  upon  the  top  of  the  Pass  until  it  was  too  dark  to 
find  our  way  across  the  bog  in  a  direct  line,  so  we  followed  the 
track  to  left,  and  at  length  got  to  a  small  hamlet,  divided  from  the 
Lenane  road  by  a  bog  and  the  river.  Here  we  asked  directions, 
but  from  the  people  not  understanding  English,  got  very  bad  ones, 
and  soon  found  ourselves  in  a  bog,  through  which  we  could  not 
pass,  and  all  three  got  in  up  to  our  waists.  Then  returned  to  the 
house,  and  obtained  a  guide,  who  took  us  again  into  the  bog,  and 
through  it  by  walking  down  a  ditch  of  running  water,  we  then 
forded  the  river,  and  got  to  Maam  at  10  p.m. 

Sept.  3.  Left  Maam  in  company  with  Professor  Daubeny,  of 
Oxford,  and  arrived  that  evening  at  Galway. 

Sept.  4.  By  coach  to  Limerick,  through  Gort,  Ennis,  Clare,  and 
Burratty.  The  latter  part  of  the  country  is  very  fine  and  rich, 
said  to  be  the  best  in  Ireland ;  the  early  part  curiously  covered 
with  detached  blocks  of  limestone,  as  near  Galway. 

Sept.  5.  Travelled  by  one  of  Bianconi's  cars  to  Killarney ;  the 
country  very  uninteresting,  the  town  very  bad. 

Sept.  6.  Went  with  two  gentlemen  in  a  car  to  the  Gap  of 
Dunloe,  and  then  by  the  lakes  to  the  town.  The  Gap  is  a  fine 
mountain  pass,  and  the  lakes  are  full  of  interest  and  beauty.  We 
saw  on  the  islands  the  Arbutus  Unedo,  truly  wild,  and  in  plenty. 

Sept.  7.  Went  to  Mucross  Abbey.  It  is  in  good  preservation, 
and  well  worthy  of  inspection.  Proceeded  to  Turk  waterfall.  Found 
Trichomanes  brevisetum.  Proceeded  the  same  evening  to  Kenmare 
by  car. 

Sept.  8.  Walked  out  with  Dr.  Taylor,  of  Dunkerron  ;  he  showed 
us  in  his  plantations  a  plant  of  Finus  Lambertianus,  ten  feet  high, 
and  in  great  beauty,  also  Araucaria  imbricata,  in  his  garden,  four 
feet  high  in  the  open  air.  Dined  with  him.  He  gave  me  a  number 
of  plants. 

Sept.  9.  With  Dr.  Taylor.  He  showed  me  at  Blackwater  Bridge 
a  number  of  Cryptogamous  plants. 


1835]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE.  47 

Sept.  10.  Left  Kenmare  by  mail  car  at  4.30  a.m.,  and  took  the 
mail  at  Killarney  for  Cork. 

Sept.  11,  Walked  about  Cork:  a  fine,  clean,  well-built  town. 
Started  by  the  mail  for  Dublin ;  passing  through  Clonmell,  Kilkenny, 
Carlow,  Naas.  The  early  part  of  the  road  of  the  country  is  in  a 
high  state  of  cultivation. 

Sept.  13.  Arrived  at  Holyhead;  proceeded  by  the  mail  at 
4.15  a.m.,  and  reached  Shrewsbury  at  1.  Called  on  Leighton,  and 
took  up  my  quarters  at  his  house. 

Sept.  14.  "Went  to  Bomere,  and  saw  plenty  of  Scheuckzeria 
palustris  in  leaf,    Utricularia  minor,  etc. 

Sept.  21.     To  Cambridge. 

Sept.  28.  Went  with  J.  A.  Power  to  Dr.  Jermyn's,  at  Swaffham 
Prior.     He  gave  me  some  mosses,  etc. 

Sept.  29.  Dr.  Jermyn  and  I  went  to  near  Bury  to  look  for 
Herniaria  glabra,  but  could  not  find  it.  Saw  plenty  of  Carduus 
crises,  but  no  C.  acanthaides. 

Oct.  6.     Examined  plants  at  the  Linnean  Society. 

Oct.  11.  J.  Ball  called  upon  me.  He  came  up  for  the  first  time 
the  evening  before. 

Oct.  12.     Put  him  into  College  (Christ's). 

Oct.  18,  19.  The  comet  was  seen  peculiarly  well  both  these 
nights;  it  appeared  to  have  a  tail  of  the  length  of  a  yard,  which 
must  have  been  very  extensive. 

Nov.  6.  Meeting  of  the  Philosophical  Society.  I  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  Council.  Dined  with  the  Society  at  the  "Eagle." 
Sixteen  members  present. 

Nov.  12.  Finished  my  paper  on  "  Certain  imperfectly  understood 
British  Plants  "  for  the  Linnean  Society.  I  was  elected  an  honorary 
member  of  the  Shropshire  and  North  Wales  Natural  History  Society. 

Nov.  17.  Dined  with  Professor  Sedgwick,  and  was  proposed  as 
a  Fellow  of  the  Geological  Society. 

Nov.  27.  Went  to  London  to  complete  paper  for  the  Linnean 
Society,  as  it  still  wanted  some  alteration.  Went  in  the  evening  to 
Mr.  E.  Forster's,  at  Woodford. 

Dec.  1.     Part  of  my  paper  was  read  at  the  Linnean  Society. 

Dec.  5.  Henslow  and  I  went  to  hunt  for  Green-sand  near 
Haslingfield. 

Dec.  21.  Left  Cambridge  for  Christmas,  to  spend  a  short  time 
with  my  friend  Holmes  at  St.  Margaret's,  Southelmham. 


48  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1835—36 

Dec.  23.  We  went  to  see  an  old  ecclesiastical  building,  called 
"The  Minster."  It  is  in  so  decayed  a  state  that  I  could  make 
nothing  of  it. 

Dec.  25.  Christinas  Day.  The  churches  of  St.  Margaret's  and 
St.  Peter's  are  small,  but  neat,  and  have  originally  been  in  a  correct 
style  of  architecture.     They  have  been  much  injured  by  repairs. 

Dec.  28.  Dined  at  Gaudy  Hall  with  W.  Holmes  and  his  mother. 
....  There  is  a  large  quantity  of  fine  timber  near  to  the  house, 
having  apparently  a  very  large  number  of  lichens  upon  them. 

1836.  Jan.  8.  Went  to  Flixton  Hall,  the  seat  of  Mr.  Adair. 
It  is  a  very  fine  old  place,  both  externally  and  internally. 

Jan.  12.     Cambridge. 

Jan.  23.     Degree  day.     Lingwood  took  his  degree. 

Feb.  1.    Dined  with  Lingwood,  his  farewell  dinner  at  the  "Eagle." 

Feb.  3.     He  left  Cambridge. 

Feb.  4.  Election  of  Public  Orator  in  the  place  of  Mr.  Tatham. 
Mr.  Berkeley,  Author  of  "  British  Fungi,"  called  upon  me  for  the 
first  time. 

Feb.  12.  Received  a  corrected  proof  of  my  paper  on  Connemara 
to  appear  in  the  next  number  of  "  Loudon's  Magazine ; "  it  was 
enclosed  in  a  "  frank  "  from  L.  W.  Dillwyn,  the  naturalist. 

March  5.  Walked  to  Cherry  Hinton  and  Shelford.  The  Helle- 
borus  foetidus  just  in  flower,  and  H.  viridis  also.  Saw  Primrose  in 
flower,  Veronica  hederifolia  also. 

March  18.  Walked  to  Fulbourn  and  found  Helleborus  foetidus 
in  perfection,  Tussilago  Farfara,  Veronica  agrestis,  Viola  odorata, 
Ranunculus  Ficaria,  and  Nut  just  out. 

March  23.  Left  Cambridge  for  Bath.  In  the  evening  went  to 
a  meeting  of  the  Geological  Society,  and  was  admitted  a  member  by 
the  President. 

March  24.  Showed  the  Geological  Museum  to  J.  Ball.  Called 
with  him  upon  Lingwood.  Dined  with  Ball  and  his  father  (the 
new  Member  for  Clonmell)  at  the  Burlington  Hotel. 

April  1.  Good  Friday.  (Bath),  a  heavy  fall  of  snow  which 
partially  melted  as  it  fell,  made  the  streets  almost  impassable. 

April  19.  Left  Bath  for  Cambridge.  I  had  a  pleasant  journey 
on  account  of  meeting  on  the  coach  Mr.  W.  F.  Beadon,  who  was  up 
at  the  same  time  with  me  as  an  undergraduate.  Went  to  Linnean 
meeting. 

April  20.  Breakfasted  with  J.  Forbes  Royle,  and  undertook  to 
examine  and  describe  his  East  Indian  Polygoneae.  Went  to  Stephens' 
in  the  evening.     April  21.     Cambridge. 


1836]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE.  -  49 

April  22.  A  very  fine  Aurora  Borealis  this  evening ;  I  saw  it 
from  the  Clare  Hall  bridge. 

April  27.  Election  of  Public  Orator.  Crick  has  a  majority  of 
forty-one  over  Thorp. 

May  6.  St.  John's  Feast.  The  Eev.  M.  Prickett  dined  with 
me  in  Hall. 

May  10.     Henslow  found  Ranunculus  parviflorus  at  Bourn. 

May  11.  The  election  of  an  Architect  for  the  new  Library, 
The  three  who  had  sent  in  plans  were  Wilkins,  Rickman,  and 
Cockerell.     The  numbers  were  R.  9 ;   W.  0;    C.  60. 

May  15.  An  eclipse  of  the  sun,  nearly  annular;  the  day  very 
fine. 

May  19.     Walked  to  the  Cogs,  but  found  nothing.     The  plants 

usually  in  full  flower  did  not  show  themselves  at  all This 

evening  attended  a  Geological  Lecture  by  Sedgwick,  to  the  Mechanics' 
Institute,  in  the  great  room  at  the  Red  Lion.  He  lectured  for  two 
hours. 

May  20.  Botanical  party  to  Gamlingay;  started  at  8  o'clock, 
reached  that  place  at  11.  Worked  at  Entomology  till  3.45,  and  took 
numerous  specimens  of  Aphanisticus  pusillus,  Cassida  sanguinolenta, 
and  Ghrysomela  fufipes. 

May  28.  Henslow  and  I  walked  to  Cherry  Hinton  and  Fulbourn ; 
at  the  latter  place  we  found  Arenaria  tenuifolia  in  flower  on  the 
churchyard  wall.  In  a  pit  there  plenty  of  Hippuris,  and  Equisetum 
limosum,  and  palustre. 

June  7.  Went  with  Lowe  to  Haslingfield ;  we  found  Eanunadus 
hirsut'iis  on  Barton  Common,  near  to  the  town,  E.  parviflorus  by  the 
road  side  (left  hand)  at  about  half-a-mile  from  Haslingfield,  Lemna 
gibha  just  beyond  Barton,  and  Lonicera  caprifolium  near  the  foot  road 
to  Haslingfield,  not  far  from  that  place  in  a  small  thicket.  2  p.m. 
Whitear  came ;  he  and  Laing  dined  with  me,  and  Holmes  came  in 
unexpectedly. 

June  10.  Whitear  and  I  went  to  London.  I  worked  at  the 
Indian  Herbarium  at  the  Linnean. 

June  11.  We  inspected  the  plans  for  the  New  Houses  of  Parlia- 
ment.    Returned  to  Cambridge. 

June  15.  We  went  to  SwafFham  with  Henslow  to  go  into  the 
fens  below  Reche.  Found  Liparis  Loeselii  in  plenty,  also  Chara 
hyali'aa  and  numerous  other  plants. 

June  17.     Left  Cambridge  for  the  summer. 

June  20.  Left  Birmingham,  and  passing  through  Tamworth,  at 
which  is  a  fine  old  but  inhabited  castle,  and  Ashby-de-la-Zouch, 
reached  Thringstone.     M,  D.  Babington's  house  is  very  well  placed, 

4 


50  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1836 

having  a  full  view  of  the  Charnwood  Forest  Hills.  Churchill 
Babington  and  I  walked  as  far  as  the  nearer  part  of  the  forest,  and 
he  showed  me  Alyssum  calycinum  growing  in  a  field  of  clover,  and 
Medicago  lupulina.     Mr.  A.  Bloxam  dined  at  my  cousin's. 

June  21.  A  wet  day.  I  fished  in  the  hot  water  from  a  steam 
engine  of  a  coal  mine,  and  found  plenty  of  Hydroperus  geminus. 

June  23.  We  went  to  Grace  Dieu  and  hunted  some  water,  but 
with  bad  success.  Also  botanized  in  a  fine  wood  in  which  grows 
Pulmonaria  officinalis  (did  not  find  it)  and  Hieracium  paludosum,  etc. 
At  Grace  Dieu  are  the  ruins  of  a  small  abbey ;  only  a  few  walls 
remain. 

June  24.  We  walked  to  the  old  reservoir  of  the  canal.  It  is 
now  nearly  dry,  being  only  a  rather  wet  bog.  About  twenty-five 
years  since  the  lofty  bank  burst,  and  it  has  never  been  repaired. 
Saw  near  to  its  mouth  Nasturtium,  and  not  far  down  the  stream,  on 
rubbish  from  the  old  bank,  Moenchia  ereda,  etc. 

June  27.     To  Shrewsbury. — June  29.     By  coach  to  Bangor. 

June  30.  By  coach  to  Conway,  and  car  to  Llandudno.  Found 
Helianthemum  canum  on  the  rocks  above  the  village;  Cotoneaster 
vulgaris  on  rocks  above  a  house  called  "  Tyn-y-Coed " ;  on  the 
sands  Taraxicum  levigatum. 

July  1.  Went  to  the  Little  Orme's  Head  and  found  Sedum 
Forsterianum  (1)  on  the  eastern  side ;  in  corn  near  the  same  spot 
Fedia  auricula ;  in  a  wet  field  between  the  two  Heads  plenty  of 
Lathyrus  palustris ;  and  on  the  sea-side  towards  Conway  Convolvulus 
Soldanella. 

July  2.  To  Holyhead,  and  passed  over  by  the  packet  to  Dublin, 
sailing  at  11.15.     Arrived  at  Kingstown  at  6.5  a.m. 

July  5.  As  it  was  Trinity  College  Commemoration  I  went  to 
be  admitted  to  my  M.A.  degree. 

Jtdy  6.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Mackay,  and  were  joined  by  a 
gentleman  from  Potsdam  of  the  name  of  Hecht.  He  proved  a  very 
pleasant  man  and  was  an  agreeable  companion  for  the  day's  trip  to 
Powerscourt.  We  went  by  Donnybrook,  Dundrum,  Killgobbin, 
and  Enniskerry.  The  gardens  and  grounds  of  Powerscourt  are 
very  fine.  .  .  The  waterfall  was  nearly  dry,  but  the  amphitheatre 
of  wooded  hills  about  it  is  quite  worth  a  visit.  By  the  fall  I 
gathered  Aspidium  Thelypteris,  and  on  a  bank  on  the  right  hand 
side  of  the  stream  Aspidium  dumetorum.  We  afterwards  obtained 
A.  angidare.     Ee turned  by  Bray  to  Dublin. 

Jidy  8.  Started,  in  company  with  Mr.  Mackay  and  Mr.  Whitla, 
for  a  trip  in  the  co.  Wicklow.  We  went  by  Enniskerry,  near  which 
we  found  a  variety  of  the  Crataegus  oxyacantha  with  the  petals  red 
and  permanent  upon  the  fruit,  also  plenty  of  Epipactis  palustris. 
Near  Powerscourt  saw  Aspidium  angulare  and  Hypericum  calycinum. 


1836]  JOURNAL  -BOTANIZING   IN   IRELAND.  51 

Passed  through  the  Glen  of  the  Downs,  a  fine  wooded  ravine  in  the 
mountains.  Near  the  little  town  of  Newtownmountkennedy,  saw 
Rosa  micrantha.  We  reached  Mr.  Nuttall's  place  at  about  6.  Near 
to  Mr.  Nuttall's  house  gathered  very  fine  specimens  of  Botrychimn 
Lunaria.  This  is  a  small  house  (Tittour,  or  more  correctly,  Tithewes) 
in  the  mountains,  round  which  that  gentleman  has  planted  extensively 
with  numerous  species  of  fir  and  other  trees. 

July  9.  "We  went  to-day,  in  company  with  Mr.  and  Miss  Nuttall, 
to  Glendalough.  Near  a  church  called  Derralossary  found  Bosa 
scrabiuscula  of  Fl.  Hibern.,  and  in  a  bog  near  Anamoe  Pinguicula 
lusitanica.  The  ruins  at  Glendalough  are  churches  and  a  Round 
Tower.  The  churches  are  of  the  plain  semicircular  arch  .  .  .  the 
earliest  style  of  Christian  building.  They  are  formed  of  stones 
squared  and  carved  for  some  older  building.  Not  so  the  Tower. 
I  went  to  the  waterfall  at  the  upper  end  of  the  glen,  but  found  no 
plants  of  interest.  (N.B. — It  deserves  to  be  well  examined.)  In 
a  boggy  spot  at  the  lower  end  of  the  lake,  on  the  left  hand  side  of 
the  river,  we  found  a  Malaxis  paludosa. 

July  10.  Left  Mr.  Nuttall's  after  gathering  Botrychium  Lunaria 
and  Holcus  mollis.  We  proceeded  by  Luggalow,  a  mountain  hollow 
in  which  Mr.  Latouche  has  a  house,  and  has  well  covered  the  sides 
with  wood  so  as  to  make  a  beautiful  spot.  On  the  mountain  above 
it  we  found  Eriopliorum  polystachion.  Lough  Bray  is  a  bare  lake  with 
a  gentleman's  house  on  its  bank.  Had  a  glorious  view  of  Dublin 
from  the  hills  as  we  descended  by  the  military  road. 

July  11.  Dined  with  Mackay.  In  the  Botanic  Garden  noticed 
two  forms  of  Dryas  odopetala. 

July  12.     Went  to  Killiney  and  found  plenty  of  Polygonum  Baii. 

July  13.     Went  with  Mackay  to  the  Glasnevin  Botanic  Garden. 

July  14.  Left  Dublin  by  the  Westport  mail  at  7.45  p.m.  Was 
fortunate  in  having  a  pleasant  companion,  the  Rev.  G.  R.  Gildea, 
of  Killmaiii,  near  Hollymount  (Roundfort),  Mayo.  We  left  the 
Galway  coach  at  Ballinasloe  (where  there  is  a  good  inn)  and  passed 
through  Tuam,  a  very  poor  place,  and  Castlebar,  also  a  poor 
place.  Between  Tuam  and  Castlebar  the  view  of  the  mountains  is 
very  fine.  The  view  also  just  before  entering  Westport  is  well 
worthy  of  notice.  In  the  evening  I  walked  down  to  the  quay, 
about  a  mile,  and  was  much  pleased  with  the  grand  outline  of 
Croagh  Patrick.  The  quay  is  small  but  convenient.  Lord  Sligo's 
park  is  good  and  the  house  a  fine  one. 

July  16.  Walked  through  the  park,  and  along  the  right  side  of 
the  estuary,  not  keeping  close  to  the  water  for  some  miles.  The 
land  is  curiously  intersected  by  the  sea,  and  forms  a  multitude  of 
small  peninsulas  and  islands,  all  of  them  cultivated.  Mr.  Chamber- 
lain, of  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  came  in ;  he  is  a  pleasant  man. 


52  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1836 

On  July  16,  at  Westport,  found  the  following :  Scrophularia 
nodosa,  Sonchus  oleraceus,  Sonchus  asper,  Circaea  lutetiana,  Veronica 
agrestis,   V.  polita. 

In  a  bog  near  the  sea :  Plantago  maritima,  Triglochin  mariti- 
mum,  Linum  catharticum,  Glaux  maritima,  Spergula  nodosa,  Samolus 
Vahrandi,  Eumex  Hydrolapathum,  Anagallis  tenella,  Carduus  pratensis, 
Hanunadus  hederaceus,  Hypericum  humifusum,  Phalaris  anmdinacea. 

In  crossing  the  bogs  towards  Nephin  I  noticed  the  following 
plants  on  the  mountain  :  Rhyncospora  alba,  Solidago  camhrica,  Drosera 
anglica,  Saxifraga  umbrosa  /3,  Drosera  rotundifolia,  Vaccinium  Vitis-idaea^ 
Schoenus  nigricans,  Empetrum  nigrum,  Gnaphalium  rectum,  Melampyrum 
sylvaticum,  Peplis  poiiula. 

At  Lough  Olunon  the  following  plants  :  Carduus  pratensis,  Erio- 
phorum  angustifolium,  Erica  tetralix.  Erica  cineria,  Potentilla  comarum, 
Myrica  gale.  Lobelia  Dortmanna,  Habenaria  chlorantha,  Polypodium 
vulgar e,  Blechnum  boreale,  Hieracium  paludosum,  Hypericum  pulchrum. 

At  Glen  Island :  Polygonum  persicaria,  Chrysanthemum  leucan- 
themum,  Eaphanus  Eaphanistrum,  Pedicular  is  palustris,  Aspidium  dila- 
tatum,  Var.  concavum,  Athyrium  Filix-femina. 

The  natural  woods  under  Nephin  consist  of  holly,  Pyrus  aucu- 
paria,  Quercus  robur,  alder,  birch,  and  hazel.  In  them  found  Carex 
extensa,  and  Valeriana  officinalis.  Mr.  Daly  holds  two  farms,  one  of 
them  consisting  of  about  sixty  acres  (mostly  bog),  rent  £12. 

July  17.  Sunday.  Mr.  Chamberlain  and  I  went  to  church,  and 
to  prayers  in  the  schoolroom  in  the  evening. 

July  18.  Started  for  the  Mullet  in  a  car.  The  early  part  of 
the  road  far  from  interesting.  But  soon  after,  we  entered  the 
mountains,  and  reached  a  small  place  called  Glen  Island,  near 
which  I  examined  some  rocks,  and  found  the  reversed  variety  of 
Aspidium  dilatatum,  and  a  curious  form  of  Athyrium  Filix-femina. 
The  rest  of  the  road  to  Tom  Daly's,  at  which  we  stopped  in  a  small 
house  kept  by  Mr.  T.  Daly,  was  finely  mountainous,  passing  under 
the  end  of  Nephin  mountain,  and  close  to  some  natural  woods,  the 
only  ones  I  have  seen  in  Ireland. 

July  19.  Proceeded  to  Bellmullet.  Soon  after  leaving  Daly's 
the  road  enters  upon  a  very  extensive  bog.  The  view  of  the 
mountains  now  opens  on  both  sides ;  on  the  right  Nephin,  a  large, 
gradually  rounded  hill,  occupies  nearly  the  whole  attention,  and  on 
the  left  appear  the  fine  hills  called  Nephin  Beg  and  Cursleive,  on 
which  yet  remain  a  few  wild  red  deer.  This  bog  would  most  of  it 
admit  of  cultivation,  as  is  shown  by  numerous  spots  of  reclaimed 
land,  dispersed  at  long  intervals  over  its  surface.  Near  to  Daly's 
the  subsoil  is  a  loose  sandstone,  and  limestone  is  near  at  hand. 
After  some  miles  we  reached  a  fine  river,  the  Owenmore,  at  a  place 
called  Bealacorrig,  crossed  by  a  bridge  of  four  arches,  which  is  placed 
at  a  point  where  three  rivers  join,  two  coming  from  the  northern 


1836]  JOURNAL— EXCUKSION  TO  BELLMULLET.  53 

hills  and  bogs,  and  the  other  from  the  mountains  near  to  Cursleive. 
This  is  the  boundary  between  Tirawly  and  Erris.  Soon  after  crossing 
this  river,  the  road  descends  into  a  glen,  through  which  the  Owen- 
more  flows.  The  hills  bounding  it  are  moderately  high  and  rather 
steep,  but  want  trees  to  give  them  beauty.  If  planted,  I  do  not 
suppose  that  it  would  be  surpassed  by  any  vale  in  the  kingdom. 
At  the  end  of  Glenco  is  the  very  poor  place  named  Bangor,  consisting 
of  a  few  cabins,  and  two  moderately  good  houses,  one  of  them  an 
inn.  Here  opens  a  fine  view  of  the  mountains  of  Achill  towards 
the  south-west.  Another  rather  extensive  bog  now  occurs,  bounded 
to  the  north  by  Lough  Garrowmore.  At  the  termination  of  the  bog 
is  a  curious  pass  into  Glen  Castle ;  the  road  is  cut  out  of  the  rock 
on  one  side,  and  a  river  occupies  the  whole  space  at  the  bottom. 
The  valley  gradually  widens  until  it  terminates  in  an  open  undulating 
country,  which  extends  on  all  sides,  as  far  as  the  sea.  Far  to  the 
north  is  soon  seen  Ben  Wee,  a  sea  cliff  quite  perpendicular,  proved 
by  a  late  measurement  of  the  coast-guards'  officers  to  be  1100  feet 
high.  At  the  distance  of  two  or  three  miles  from  the  end  of  Glen 
Castle,  the  summit  of  a  hill  commands  a  view  north  of  Broad  Haven, 
and  south  of  Black  Sod  Bay,  terminated  in  that  direction  by  the 
lofty  mountains  Slievemore  and  Saddlehead  in  Achill.  From  the 
same  point  the  whole  Mullet  is  seen  stretching  north  and  south, 
and  strongly  marked  by  its  numerous  white  sand  hills ;  the  church 
of  Binghamstown  also  is  a  very  conspicuous  object. 

July  20.  Bellmullet :  this  is  a  nice  little  town,  consisting  of 
three  streets  proceeding  from  the  angles  of  a  small  square  or 
market  place.  The  fourth  street  is  not  built.  Many  of  the  houses 
are  good,  and  the  whole  place  wears  a  flourishing  appearance.  The 
isthmus  is  so  narrow  that  the  houses  extend  from  one  bay  to  the 
other.  I  walked  out  after  breakfast  towards  the  northern  part  of 
the  Mullet ;  it  is  rather  high,  and  all  bog.  I  noticed  in  the  bogs 
Schoenus  nigricans,  Drosera  rotundifolia,  Helosciadium  7iudosum  in 
ditches.  In  a  few  cultivated  spots  Carduus  pratensis,  Senecio  viscosus, 
and  amongst  flax  Camelina  sativa.  I  then  returned  towards  the 
Binghamstown  road,  and  saw  Osmunda  regalis,  Myosotis  repens,  and 
Oenanthe  crocata.  I  then  crossed  the  sand  hills  towards  the  sea, 
and  followed  the  coast  of  the  Atlantic  for  some  miles.  The  plants 
Scirpus  Savii,  Arenaria  peplo'ides,  Glaux  maritima,  Flantago  coronopus 
very  small.  Spergtda  nodosa,  Anthyllis  vulneraria,  and  in  wetter 
places  Orchis  latifolia  and  maciolata.  Also  Fapaver  duhium.  On 
reaching  a  large  lake,  called  Cross  Lake,  I  turned  inland,  and  in  a 
lane  on  the  way  to  Drumshea  found  plenty  of  Callitriche  pedunculata. 
Passed  through  Binghamstown  ;  this  place  is  quite  a  failure,  as  most 
of  the  buildings  are  without  roofs.  Soon  after  passing  the  town  I 
found  Rumex  pratensis  in  a  ditch  by  the  road-side.  I  saw  in  the 
pastures  plenty  of  Lathyrus  pratensis  and  Vicia  cracca.  (N.B. — On 
the  coast  were  numbers  of  a  purple  Medusa,  about  one-and-a-half 


64  CHARLES  CAEDALE  BABINGTON.  [1836 

inch  long  and  one  inch  broad,  having  a  vertical  sail-like  transparent 
membrane  placed  diagonally  above,  and  numerous  short  tentaculae 
proceeding  from  the  central  part  beneath.) 

July  21.  Took  my  car  as  far  as  Bingham  Castle.  The  latter 
part  of  the  road  is  loose  sand.  The  castle  is  low  and  extensive ;  it 
has  a  good  appearance,  and  is  well  situated.  Two  towers  with  low 
wings  terminating  in  small  towers.  Leaving  the  car  I  walked  to 
the  end  of  the  Mullet.  A  large  portion  of  its  surface  is  occupied 
by  drifting  sand.  The  extremity  is  formed  of  low  hills  of  granite, 
from  which  is  a  glorious  view  of  the  Erris  mountains  and  those  of 
Achill,  which  is  but  few  miles  distant. 

July  22.  Left  the  Mullet  this  morning,  and  spent  half-an-hour 
in  Glen  Castle,  where  I  noticed  Hypericum  Androsoemum  and  Scirpus 
Savii,  also  some  plants  of  Athyrium  Filix-femina,  fully  five  feet  in 
height.  I  also  took  one  specimen  of  Carabus  clathratus.  Breakfasted 
at  Bangor,  and  then  walked  nearly  the  whole  length  of  Glenco. 
Saw  the  following  plants :  Habenaria  Chlorantha,  Potentilla  comarum, 
Myosotis  repens,  Carex  ovalis,  Myosotis  caespitosa,  and  Hypericum  quad- 
rangulum.  Stopped  that  night  at  Daly's,  under  Ben  Corrough ; 
seventeen  miles  from  the  Mullet,  and  twenty-six  from  Westport. 

July  23.  Left  Daly's,  and  proceeded  along  the  former  route  as 
far  as  the  end  of  Lough  Beltra,  then  turned  to  the  right,  and  reached 
Newport  by  a  bad  road.  This  is  a  very  poor  place,  having  been 
ruined  by  Westport.  .  .  .  Eeached  Westport. 

July  24.     Sunday.     At  church,  as  on  the  17th, 

July  26.  Went  to  Delphi.  The  road  is  fine,  near  the  middle  it 
ascends  a  mountain  pass,  being  carried  along  the  side  of  the  moun- 
tain by  cutting  away  the  rock.  Lough  Dhu  is  finely  situated,  but 
the  best  view  is  from  below  the  lower  lake,  from  thence  the 
mountains  are  very  grand. 

July  28.  Crossed  the  Killery  at  Bunderrough,  and  walked  to 
Maam.  .  .  .  Gathered  between  Delphi  and  Bunderrough,  and  also 
near  Lenane,  Eriophorum  polystachion  in  the  bogs.  Was  informed  at 
Delphi  that  two  kinds  of  bog  deal  are  found  near  to  that  place  :  (1) 
twisted  in  the  stem,  burns  with  a  clear  flame,  is  used  for  torches, 
and  is  called  Corchep  by  the  people  ;  (2)  is  not  twisted  and  is  used 
for  timber  much  more  than  the  other,  does  not  burn  so  clearly, 
nor  has  it  the  same  fine  scent.  Mr.  Browne  of  Delphi  says  that  the 
cones  are  often  found ;  he  has  promised  to  look  out  for  them,  and 
keep  some  for  me. 

July  29.  Very  stormy.  Took  a  few  water  insects  and  gathered 
Myosotis  repens. 

July  30.  Took  a  car  as  far  as  Steely's,  and  then  walked  on  to 
Roundstone.  I  followed  the  new  road  which  passes  close  under  the 
"  Pins,"  and  behind  the  house  at  Ballanahinch.     This  is  a  far  more 


1836]  JOURNAL— STILL  IN  IRELAND.  55 

interesting  line  than  the  other.  On  the  lake  behind  the  house  is 
an  odd  looking  old  building,  said  to  have  been  used  by  the  late 
Mr.  Martin  as  a  prison.  By  the  side  of  the  Ballanahinch  river  I 
found  Rhjnchospora  fusca.  In  the  evening  Mr.  MacCalla  and  I  went 
to  some  sands  called  Gusteen,  and  found  upon  granite  rocks  Arabis 
ciliata. 

July  31.  Sunday.  I  was  much  pleased  with  the  curate,  Mr.  R. 
Browne,  who  lives  in  the  hotel. 

Aug.  1.  Searched  Cushtrower  Bay  for  Atriplex  pedunculata  but 
could  not  find  any.  Walked  about  Urrisbeg  but  found  no  new 
plants. 

Aug.  2.     I  went  to  Craig  Moira  and  got  Erica  Mackaina. 

Aug.  3.     Mr.  Clowes  and  I  walked  to  Maam. 

Aug.  4.  Mr.  Clowes  and  I  went  over  Maamhaen,  and  then 
turning  to  the  right  passed  Lough  Ina,  going  close  under  the  Maam 
Turk  range.  The  "  Pins  "  have  a  very  fine  appearance  from  this 
route.  Indeed  no  part  of  Connemara  surpasses  it  in  grandeur.  We 
turned  again  to  the  right,  and  passed  over  the  elevated  pass  of  Maam 
Turk,  returning  home  down  Glan-na-Glask.  This  route  is  well 
worth  a  visit,  from  the  fine  mountain  valleys  of  Maam  Turk.  The 
land  is  moderately  dry,  and  appears  to  offer  good  pasture  for  sheep. 
This  took  us  seven  hours. 

Aug.  5.  Passed  over  the  mountain  behind  the  house  and  looked 
for  Adiantum  Capillus-Veneris,  did  not  find  it.  Gathered  Eriophorum 
gracile  (?)  Went  along  the  top  of  the  mountain  as  far  as  the  old  road 
to  Cong,  and  returned  by  it.  There  is  a  small  lake  on  the  mountain 
containing  plenty  of  Dortmanna  palustris.     Mr.  Clowes  left. 

Aug.  6.  Went  as  far  as  Drumsna,  a  wooded  hill  dividing  the 
upper  part  of  Lough  Corrib,  and  forming  the  narrow  part  of  that 
lake.  Found  Hymenophyllum  tunlnidgense,  Eubus  idaeus,  Hieracium 
wnbellatum,  and  Scolopendrium  indgare.  The  view  from  the  top  of  the 
hill  is  very  fine,  taking  in  a  large  portion  of  Lough  Corrib.  The 
hill  is  limestone,  the  same  as  that  at  Castle-na-Careg,  and  also  the 
hill  between  the  rivers  at  Maam. 

Aug.  7.  Walked  along  the  ridge  between  the  rivers  at  Maam, 
and  then  examined  the  fine  rocks  upon  the  small  mountain  beyond. 
The  ridge  is  limestone,  the  same  as  Drumsna,  and  the  hill  is  the 
same.  These  three  points  are  in  one  line,  and  continuing  it,  it 
passes  under  the  northern  end  of  Maam  Turk,  where  I  noticed 
limestone  a  few  days  since. 

Aug.  8.  After  breakfast  started  for  Tully ;  went  over  Maam- 
haen, and  followed  the  same  road  as  on  the  4th,  but  at  the  point 
where  we  then  turned  up  to  Maam  Turk,  I  followed  the  road  which 
led  me  to  Kylemore.  The  views  of  the  "  Pins,"  and  of  Maam  Turk, 
and  Mullshea  were  very  fine,  and  varying  at  every  few  yards.    Soon 


56  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1836 

after  reaching  the  new  road  at  Kylemore,  I  turned  into  the  old  road 
to  Tully,  which  place  I  reached  at  3.50,  having  left  Maam  at  10.20. 
After  dinner  I  went  as  far  as  the  old  castle  at  Renvyle,  and  then 
examined  the  coast.  I  found  the  hairy  variety  of  Solanum  Dulcamara 
mentioned  in  "Flora  Hibernica."  There  are  several  large  plants  of 
it  upon  the  gravelly  beach  close  to  the  house  at  Renvyle.  Did  not 
find  Arahis  ciliata.     The  castle  quite  a  ruin. 

Aug.  9.  Walked  back  to  Maam  by  the  coast  road.  It  is  very 
fine,  having  the  glorious  bay  and  islands  on  one  side,  and  the  moun- 
tains upon  the  other.  Colonel  Thompson  has  built  a  nice  house  at 
the  head  of  the  little  Killery,  called  Saltrach.  Beyond  his  house 
the  road  passes  over  a  fine  pass  called  Maam-in-Urrough.  This  is 
good  on  account  of  the  sea  view  at  both  sides.  I  then  continued 
along  the  Killery,  by  J.  Joyce's,  to  Maam. 

Aug.  10.  This  day  I  found  Bhynchospora  fusca,  Utricularia 
intermedia,  Eriocaulon,  and  Drosera  anglica  near  to  the  road  to 
Oughterard. 

Aug.  11.  Went  up  the  mountain  behind  the  house.  Found 
no  plants,  but  had  a  grand  view  of  Lough  Mask  and  Lough  Corrib. 

Aug.  12.  Left  Connemara  by  way  of  Cong.  The  road  to  that 
place  is  very  grand  ;  in  one  place  it  passes  over  a  hill  commanding 
both  lakes.  Cong  is  a  poor  place,  with  the  ruins  of  a  fine  old  abbey. 
In  the  river  below  the  mills  I  found  Callitriche  autumnalis  in  plenty. 
Reached  the  Rev.  G.  R.  Gildea's  in  the  afternoon. 

Aug.  13.  This  day  went  by  Balinrobe,  a  neat  town,  to  Lough 
Mask,  and  examined  several  islands  in  it,  but  found  no  plants  of 

interest.     We  crossed  the  lake  to .    The  lake  is  very  beautiful, 

far  superior  to  Lough  Corrib. 

Aug.  15.  Went  to  Headford.  Mr.  St.  George's  house  is  one  of 
the  nicest  places  in  Ireland.  He  has  built  his  new  house  on  the  top 
of  an  old  castellated  building  so  as  to  raise  it  a  good  many  feet  from 
the  ground.  The  grounds  and  whole  place  are  in  the  best  order. 
We  then  visited  Ross  Abbey,  one-and-a-half  miles  from  Headford. 
The  ruins  are  extensive  and  very  interesting.  .  .  . 

Aug.  17.  Arrived  in  Dublin  ....  sailed  for  Liverpool ;  met 
Cartmell  of  Christ's,  and  we  travelled  together  by  the  "  Hibernian  " 
to  Cheltenham. 

Aug.  19.     Reached  Bristol  (for  British  Association). 

Aug.  20.  Attended  the  general  committee  in  the  Chapter  Room 
of  the  Cathedral. 

Aug.  21.  Sunday.  Went  to  the  Cathedral.  Dined  with  Ling- 
wood  and  Cartmell. 

Aug.  22.  The  sections  of  the  British  Association  commenced. 
Lingwood  and  I  walked  down  the  river  as  far  as  Sea  Mills.     We 


1836]  JOURNAL— BRISTOL   AND   BATH.  57 

found  there  Lotus  tenuis,  Rotthoellia  incurvata,  Allium  carinatum,  and 
Lepidium  ruderale.  We  then  turned  inland  to  Stoke  Bishop.  On 
our  way  we  gathered  Centaurea  nigrescens  and  Allium  oleraceum. 

Aug.  24.  Botanized  on  St.  Vincent's  rocks  and  gathered  Veronica 
hyhrida. 

Aug.  26.  To-day  we  went  upon  a  botanical  excursion.  We 
started  from  Miller's  garden  and  examined  the  rocks,  finding 
Helianthemiim  tomentosum,  Veronica  hybrida,  Trinia  glaherrima,  Petro- 
selinum  sativum,  etc.  We  also  noticed  a  Ulex  Avhich  appears  to  be 
new.  Mr.  Forbes  said  that  it  exactly  resembles  U.  provincialis  of 
the  south  of  France.  We  proceeded  down  the  river  to  Sea  Mills 
and  then  turned  inland,  and  were  most  hospitably  received  by 
Mrs.  Fisher  at  Hillside,  not  far  from  Blaize  Castle.  After  seeing 
the  fine  wooded  vale  under  the  castle  we  returned  home. 

Aug.  27.  Saw  the  first  stone  laid  of  the  suspension  bridge  over 
the  Avon  at  Clifton.     Breakfasted  with  the  trustees  of  it. 

Aug.  29.  Walked  out  by  the  river  side  and  through  part  of 
Leigh  woods.     Took  tea  in  the  evening  with  Forbes. 

Aug.  30.  We  met  at  Mr.  Miller's  garden  for  a  botanical  party. 
Crossing  the  river  we  ascended  to  the  lioman  camp,  and  then  kept 
along  the  upper  part  of  the  hills  for  some  distance,  finding  in  the 
woods  a  form  of  Euphrasia  apparently  not  noticed  by  English 
authors,  perhaps  E.  nemoralis.  Followed  the  river  to  Pill,  near 
which  we  saAv  a  very  fine  and  old  tree  of  Tilia  Parviflora.  Mr. 
Bright,  a  gentleman  who  has  a  fine  place  there,  gave  us  refresh- 
ments. Saw  several  beautiful  trees  in  his  grounds,  particularly  a 
magnolia  of  large  size.  Below  Pill  we  observed  two  fine  yew  trees 
in  a  churchyard  and  gathered  Senecio  barbariaefolius.  (?)  We  soon 
reached  Portishead,  near  which  I  gathered  Althaea  officinalis. 

Aug.  31.     Left  Bristol  and  reached  Bath. 

Sept.  3.  Went  to  Farleigh  Down,  and  found  Solanum  dulcamara 
var.  hirsuta.     Called  on  my  way  back  upon  Mr.  Fowler. 

Sept.  7.  Went  to  Bristol  by  the  coach  and  then  walked  back  in 
order  to  see  the  works  for  the  Great  Western  Railway.  Followed 
the  line  of  it  from  Brislington  to  Saltford,  and  was  much  pleased 
with  the  beauty  of  the  country  by  the  side  of  the  river.  In  a  wood 
about  a  mile  west  of  Keynsham,  close  to  the  river,  and  exactly  on 
the  line  of  the  railroad,  I  found  plenty  of  Polygonum  dumetorum,  and 
in  a  ditch  crossed  by  the  footpath  from  Corston  to  Newton  Bridge 
I  saw  Zannichellia. 

Sept.  10.  Went  to  Coombe  Down  and  found  there  (naturalized) 
Centranthus  ruber. 

Sept.  14.  Went  to  Keynsham  and  gathered  another  stock  of 
Polygonum  dumetorum,  then  crossed  the  river  and  walked  by  the 
fields,  passing  the  end   of   the   Gloucestershire   coal   railroad,   to 


58  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1836 

Bitton,  intending  to  call  upon  Mr.  Ellacombe,  but  he  was  not  at 
home.  I  found  near  Kelston,  by  the  roadside,  plenty  of  Senecio 
barbariaefolius. 

Sept.  15.  Bath  Horticultural  Society  Show  for  Dahlias.  The 
day  was  fine,  and  more  than  3000  people  were  in  Sydney  Gardens. 
Dined  at  the  White  Hart  in  the  evening.  We  were  a  party  of 
about  fifty.     The  whole  went  off  very  well. 

Sept.  20.     Left  Bath  for  Southampton Walked  out  and 

found  a  Spartina  on  the  mud  of  the  river  Itchen,  which  is  apparently 
new.  Walked  up  the  river  and  along  the  Portswood  Road  as  far  as 
the  first  bridge,  near  which  I  noticed  Senecio  barbariaefolius  and  Atropa 
Belladonna. 

Sept.  21.  Went  through  the  New  Forest  to  Lymington  and 
Christchurch.  At  the  latter  place  went  to  Muddiford  and  crossed 
the  river,  finding  on  both  sides  Polygonum  Eaii,  and  on  the  west 
side  F.  maritimum.  On  the  top  of  Hengistbury  Hill  I  gathered  a 
very  hairy  variety  of  Calluna  vulgaris  and  Ulez  nanus.  Followed 
the  coast  for  some  distance  and  then  turned  inland  nearly  to  Ifod 
Bridge,  and  returned  to  Christchurch  by  a  ferry  just  below  the 
town.  After  dinner  went  to  see  the  church,  which  is  a  fine  old 
building  in  good  preservation,  the  interior  most  of  it  early  Norman, 
with  some  parts  in  the  Pointed  style.  The  exterior  is  far  less 
perfect.  Near  the  church  are  small  remains  of  a  castle  of  but 
little  interest,  except  a  Norman  building  (perhaps  a  chapel)  close 
to  the  river. 

Sept.  22.  To  Muddiford,  and  then  along  the  coast  towards  the 
east.  After  following  it  for  some  distance  I  turned  inland  and 
found  plenty  of  Pulicaria  vulgaris  by  the  side  of  the  road  to 
Lyndhurst,  about  two  miles  from  Christchurch,  and  by  the  side 
of  a  common  1  noticed  Scirpus  Savii. 

Sept.  23.     Went  again  to  the  station  for  Polygonum  maritimum. 

Sept.  24.  Returned  to  Southampton  and  took  up  my  quarters 
at  Dr.  Broomfield's  ;  he  showed  me  both  species  of  Spartina  growing 
in  the  Itchen,  and  Convallaria  multijlora  in  Netley  woods. 

Sept.  27.     Reached  Henfield. 

Sept.  28.  Mr.  Borrer  and  I  went  into  Henfield  Level  and  found 
Polygonum  minus. 

Oct.  4.  Went  with  William  Borrer  to  the  forest,  to  a  place  called 
Miles'  Race  (a  long  avenue  of  Pinus  Sjlvestris),  at  the  farther  end 
of  which  I  found  Pyrola  media. 

Oct.  5.  With.  Mr.  Borrer  to  Shoreham,  and  nearly  as  far  as 
Worthing.  At  Compting,  by  the  north  side  of  the  road,  we  gathered 
Cuscuta  Europaea,  and  in  a  field  opposite  to  the  large  house  at 
Offington,  by  Broadwater,   we  found   a  few  plants  of    Verbascum 


1836—37]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE.  59 

phlomaides.      I  then  examined  the  shores  of  the  Shoreham  river, 
between  the  bridges,  but  did  not  find  much. 

Oct.  6.     Wet  day.     Examined  the  flowers  of  Cuscuta  Europaea. 

Oct.  7,  8,  9.     Continued  wet  weather. 

Oct.  1 2.  To  London  by  the  Horsham  road ;  it  is  very  pretty  the 
whole  way,  and  passes  through  Dorking  and  Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Oct.  14.  Went  with  Professor  Don  to  Chelsea  to  hunt  for  the 
Cyperus  fuscus ;  we  did  not  find  it  on  account  of  the  rain  and  lateness 
of  the  season.  It  grows  in  a  very  shallow  drain,  coming  up  at  right 
angles  to  the  footpath  from  Walham  Green  to  Pomona  Terrace. 
Close  to  the  bridge,  on  entering  the  field,  we  found  Polygonum 
Braunii.     Dined  with  Mr.  Forster  at  Woodford. 

Oct.  15.     Eeached  Cambridge. 

Oct.  17.  Dined  at  Henslow's  to  meet  Darwin,  who  was  just 
returned  from  his  voyage  round  the  world. 

Oct.  18.  Walked  to  Baitsbite  and  gathered  Polygonum  Braunii^ 
and  laxum,  Lythrum  HyssopifoUa,  and  Bumez  maritimus. 

Oct.  20.  Went  with  Power  and  Borrer  to  Dr.  Jermyn's,  and 
returned  to  Cambridge  the  next  day. 

Nov.  9.     Finished  my  paper  upon  the  East  Indian  Polygona. 

Nov.  14.  Went  with  Prickett  to  the  Observatory  and  saw  some 
•of  the  spots  on  the  sun. 

Nov.  19.  This  day  Mr.  Simeon  was  buried  in  King's  College 
Chapel.     He  died  last  Sunday  the  13th  inst. 

Nov.  22.     Dinner  of  the  Philosophical  Society  at  the  "  Eagle." 

Nov.  29.  A  tremendous  gale  of  wind,  four  trees  were  destroyed 
in  the  College  walks  ;  it  went  off  suddenly,  and  was  then  quite  calm 
afterwards. 

Dec.  23.  Went  to  R.  M.  Lingwood's,  Highlands,  near  Uckfield, 
Sussex. 

Dec.  24.  This  morning  the  snow  lay  heavy  upon  the  ground, 
and  it  continued  most  part  of  the  next  day  25th  and  26th.  It  also 
snowed  upon  the  29th,  30th,  31st,  and  Jan.  1st.  We  were  quite 
snowed  up,  and  so  I  could  not  see  much  of  the  country. 

1837.  Jan.  5.  Lingwood  and  I  went  to  Lewes  and  called  upon 
Mr.  J.  Woods ;  we  also  went  to  see  the  place  where  the  snow  had 
fallen  from  the  cliffs  and  destroyed  five  houses.  Eight  persons  were 
killed  by  the  fall. 

Jan.  17.  Left  Highlands  and  arrived  in  London.  Went  to  the 
Linnean  in  the  evening. 

Jan.  18.  Saw  Mr.  James  Sowerby  on  the  subject  of  his  "Supple- 
ment to  English  Botany."     Geological  Society's  meeting. 


60  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1837 

Jan.  19.  In  the  evening  I  attended  by  invitation  a  meeting  of 
the  Entomological  Club,  held  at  Mr.  Bennet's,  Cannon  Street. 

Jan.  20.  Went  to  Deptford  to  see  the  collection  belonging  to 
the  Entomological  Club  at  Mr.  Norman's.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

Jan.  21.     Degree  day. 

Jan.  24.  Mr.  Alexander  Murray  called  upon  me  and  inspected 
my  insects. 

Jan.  25.  Was  taken  with  the  prevalent  influenza,  and  did  not 
leave  my  rooms  until  Sunday,  29th. 

Feb.  22.  A  quarterly  meeting  of  the  Cambridge  Reform  Society. 
I  made  my  first  public  speech  upon  the  Irish  Corporation  Reform 
Bill. 

Feb.  23.  Mr.  G.  T.  Rudd  called  and  looked  through  my  collec- 
tion of  insects. 

Feb.  27.  Breakfasted  (with  Stokes  of  Caius)  with  Smith  of  that 
College,  in  order  to  draw  up  a  plan  for  a  Natural  History  Society  in 
the  place  of  Professor  Henslow's  Friday  evening  parties,  which  he 
was  obliged  to  give  up  at  the  beginning  of  this  term. 

March  11.  We  held  a  meeting  to-day,  at  J.  J.  Smith's  rooms,, 
to  complete  the  formation  of  our  Society  in  the  place  of  Henslow's 
Friday  evening  parties.  (N.B. — Professor  Henslow's  Friday  parties 
commenced  on  February  15th,  1828,  and  were  continued  regularly 
during  full  term  until  the  end  of  the  year  1836.) 

Cycle  of  the  Puiy  Club,  1837— Rev.  W.  H.  Stokes,  Mr.  Haslehurst, 
Mr.  J.  A.  Power,  Rev.  Jos.  Power,  Mr.  Ball,  Mr.  Babington,  Rev. 
W.  P.  Baily,  Rev.  W.  L.  P.  Garnons,  Rev.  J.  J.  Smith,  Mr.  Borrer, 
Mr.  Howson,  Mr.  Paget,  Professor  Hen  slow. 

April  22.  Went  with  Henslow  to  the  Gograagog  Hills,  and 
gathered  Anemone  Pulsatilla  (just  in  flower)  and  a  few  other  plants, 
such  as  Viola  hirta,  a  small  variety.  Owing  to  the  very  cold  season 
very  few  plants  are  in  flower.  There  has  been  snow  several  days 
in  each  week,  up  to  about  the  18th  inst. 

April  28.  Walked  with  Bullock  to  Haslingfield,  by  way  of 
Grantchester,  and  returned  by  Harston,  Hauxton,  and  Trumpington. 
It  was  a  most  beautiful  day.  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Harston  is  nearly  the  prettiest  part  of  the  county. 

April  29.  Went  with  Ball  to  Grantchester,  and  gathered  in  a 
shrubbery  near  to  the  mill  Laniium  purpureum  with  white  flowers. 
We  also  found  Fetasites  vulgaris  at  Paradise,  just  come  into  flower. 

May  2.  Went  with  Baber  and  Stevens  to  Cherry  Hinton,  and 
gathered  Viola  odorata,  fl.  alb.,  Viola  hirta,  and  V.  canina. 

May  4.     Dined  at  Trinity,  in  Hall,  with  Prickett. 


1837]  a  OURNAL— SUFFOLK.  61 

May  5.  Went  by  the  coach  to  A.  Holmes',  at  St.  Margaret's, 
Southelmham. 

May  6.  Holmes  and  I  went  to  Halesworth  (a  small  place),  and 
walked  to  Bramfield  to  look  for  Cyclamen.  We  could  see  no  trace 
of  it,  but  gathered  Lamium  incisum  at  that  place. 

May  7.  Sunday.  Holmes  showed  me  at  St.  Peter's  plenty  of 
the  Aconitum  napellus.  It  grows  on  the  bank  of  two  ditches,  at 
right  angles  to  each  other,  which  form  two  sides  of  a  square  space 
in  a  field  a  short  distance  above  the  church,  and  upon  the  opposite 
side  of  the  road. 

May  9.  We  went  by  Flixton  Church,  and  returned  by  Homers- 
field.  In  a  pit  near  the  latter  place  we  noticed  plenty  of  Myosotis 
versicolor,  and  near  Flixton  Hall  Lamium  incisum. 

May  10.  Whitear  and  I  walked  to  Harleston  by  the  foot  road 
to  Redenhall.  We  noticed  by  the  side  of  the  brook  plenty  of  Allium 
ursinum.  Returned  by  Mendham  Long  Lane,  and  saw  plenty  of 
Crocus  vernus  (of  course  out  of  flower)  in  a  field  on  the  right  of  the 
lane  near  to  Harleston.  We  also  observed  a  single  specimen  of 
Fritillaria  Meleagris  in  a  field  called  the  Seven  Acres  on  the  left  of 
the  lane. 

May  11.  This  day  William  Holmes  Whitear  was  christened  in 
St.  Margaret's  Church. 

May  12.  We  went  to  Southwold,  a  small  watering  place  on  the 
Suffolk  coast,  and  noticed  by  the  way  plenty  of  Primus  insititia,  and 
near  to  Henham  Hall  a  profusion  of  Teesdalia  nudicaulis.  At  South- 
wold we  gathered  on  the  sands  Ficia  lathyro'ides,  Cochlearia  anglica, 
and  danica,  a  variety  of  Viola  canina  with  very  strong  roots,  and 
Cerastium  semidecandrum  with  a  4-partite  structure.  {Note. — They 
bring  salt-rock  from  Cheshire  to  this  place  to  be  dissolved  in  sea- 
water,  and  then  crystallized). 

May  13.  I  went  to  spend  a  few  days  with  Whitear  at  Harleston. 
We  gathered  in  the  wood  at  Gaudy  Hall  Viola  hirtafl.  alb. 

May  15.  We  walked  by  Shotford  Bridge  to  Shotford  gravel  pit. 
Hippuris  in  plenty  near  the  bridge.  In  the  pit  Myosotis  versicolor, 
Carlina,  Teesdalia  nudicaulis,  Lactuca  virosa,  Vicia  angustifolia,  and 
lathyro'ides,  Thlaspi  arvense.  Holmes  brought  from  a  field  at  St. 
Margaret's  Fritillaria,  both  coloured  and  white. 

May  16.  I  returned  to  Cambridge  in  company  with  the  Revs. 
Kirby,  Cautley,  and  T.  Chevallier. 

May  17.     The  Ray  Club  met  at  my  rooms. 

May  24.  We  made  a  small  party  to  botanize  near  Linton. 
Found  near  Abington  several  specimens  of  Ophrys  aranifera.  Orchis 
mascula  was  still  in  flower,  and  0.  morio  in  perfection.  The  "  Bee  " 
and  "Man"  orchises  were  only  just  showing  above  the  ground. 


62  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON,  [1837 

0.  latifolia  nearly  out.  This  evening  there  was  a  display  of  fire- 
works in  King's  walks ;  it  being  the  birthday  of  the  Princess 
Victoria,  who  politically  comes  of  age  this  day. 

May  27.  Went  with  Ball  to  Haslingfield,  Gathered  Eiccia 
natans,  Ranunculus  parviflorus,  Orchis  morio  and  mascula,  Medicago 
maculata  and  Zannichellia  palustris. 

May  29.  Went  with  Baber  to  Madingley.  Lamium  Galeobdolon 
was  just  come  into  flower.  We  noticed  Cerastium  arvense  in  flower, 
and  Arenaria  tenuifolia  just  come  up,  in  the  gravel  pit  near  to  the 
Observatory.    Leontodon palustre  was  in  flower  in  Madingley  chalk  pit. 

May  31.  Power,  Ball,  and  I  went  by  the  coach  to  Fordham,  for 
the  purpose  of  botanizing  at  Mildenhall.  We  intended  to  take  up 
our  quarters  with  the  Kev.  Charles  Howes,  a  Fellow  of  Clare  Hall, 
and  Power  had  written  to  him  to  inform  him  of  our  intention.  He, 
however,  was  from  home,  and  did  not  receive  the  note.  It  then 
turned  out  that  there  was  only  one  bed  to  be  had  at  the  inn.  We 
were,  however,  relieved  from  our  difiiculties  by  the  kindness  of  the 
farmers.  I  slept  at  Mr.  Seaber's,  and  Power  at  Mr.  Dennis'  house. 
Mr.  Seaber  is  a  man  of  extensive  information,  and  an  antiquary. 

June  1.  We  started  at  a  little  after  6  a.m.  and  walked  by 
Freckingham  and  Worlington  to  Mildenhall.  In  a  field  on  the 
right  hand  between  those  places  we  found  Medicago  minima,  and 
Power  said  that  he  had  found  Silene  otites  at  that  place.  In  some 
sand  pits  at  Worlington  we  saw  the  above  plants,  and  Ficia  lathy- 
roides  and  Erigeron  acre.  We  breakfasted  at  Mildenhall,  and  then 
followed  the  Eriswell  road  until  we  reached  a  dry  heath ;  we  here 
gathered  the  Medicago,  Silene,  and  Vicia,  and  also  Scleranthus  perennis 
and  Veronica  verna.  Further  on  along  the  same  road,  and  just 
beyond  a  clump  of  trees,  a  grassy  lane  turns  ofi"  to  the  right,  by 
following  which,  and  keeping  to  the  right  of  marshes,  there  is 
plenty  of  Artemisia  campestris  to  be  met  with.  After  examining 
these  places,  we  crossed  the  enclosed  land  towards  the  west,  until 
we  reached  the  Holywell  Eow  road,  at  a  spot  where  there  is  a  fir 
wood  on  the  west  side  and  a  pit  upon  the  east.  In  that  wood,  but 
rather  nearer  to  Mildenhall,  we  found  a  very  great  quantity  of 
Veronica  verna  and  Artemisia  campestris.  Then  returning  to  the 
town,  we  went  towards  Barton  Mills  to  look  for  Veronica  triphyllos, 
but  did  not  find  it.  Returning  home  by  a  road,  from  the  great 
road  to  Newmarket  direct  to  Worlington,  we  found  on  the  field 
side  of  the  hedge  of  the  first  enclosure  on  the  left  hand  side  a  Sedum, 
supposed  to  be  S.  glaucum.  We  did  not  reach  Fordham  again  until 
7  p.m. 

June  2.     We  returned  to  Cambridge  by  the  coach. 

June  6.  Started  at  8.30  this  morning  for  Marston  to  visit  Tyle- 
cote.  I  left  the  Oxford  coach  at  Millbrook,  about  two-and-a-half 
miles  from  Marston.     Met  there  Bullock,  Mr.  Lawson,  of  Moseley, 


1837]  JOUKNAL— LEICESTERSHIRE.  63 

near  Birmingham,  Mr,  Walford,  from  London,  and  Mr,  Greene,  of 
that  neighbourhood, 

June  7,  We  went  to  Ampthill,  and  saw  some  peculiarly  fine  old 
oaks  in  the  park.  Both  Quercus  rohur  and  Q.  sessiliflora  grow  in 
Ampthill  Park,  and  are  of  a  very  great  age,  I  noticed  Fapaver 
Argemone  in  cornfields  near  to  Marston, 

June  10,     I  reached  Yoxall  Lodge,     I  noticed  near  the  Lodge 

Genista  anglica,  Viola  flavicornis,  Orchis  morio,  and  Myosotis  versicolor, 
all  of  them  in  plenty. 

June  IL  Sunday.  Went  to  church  at  Walton-on-Trent,  where 
my  uncle  Gisborne  preached  two  sermons  in  order  to  collect  some 
money  for  the  new  organ  in  that  church, 

June  13.  I  gathered  Larbrea  uliginosa,  Arenaria  trinervis,  Myosotis 
sylvatica,  Cardamine  amara. 

June  14.  Went  by  the  Forest  Church,  descended  the  hill 
through  the  wood,  and  returned  home  by  Wood  Mills.  Found 
near  to  the  latter  place  Moenchia  ereda. 

June  17.  Left  the  Lodge  and  went  to  Thringstone  to  visit 
M.  D.  Babington. 

June  18,     Sunday.     Went  in  the  evening  to  Osgathorpe  Church. 

June  19,     Went  to  Grace  Dieu  and  gathered  Trifolium  striatum. 

June  20,  We  went  upon  the  Forest  of  Charnwood  nearly  to 
the  new  monastery.  Gathered  Carex  pilulifera  and  a  curious  state 
of  Banwiculus  hederaceus  floating  upon  deep  water  and  very  much 
lengthened  out,     Mr,  A,  Bloxam  dined  at  Thringstone, 

June  21,     Went  to  Grace  Dieu  wood Near  the  forest 

gathered  Alyssum  calycinum.  In  an  old  road  below  the  parsonage 
at  Thringstone  we  found  Habenaria  viridis  in  plenty,  I  also  noticed 
it  near  Grace  Dieu  wood, 

June  22.  Went  to  the  Leicester  and  Swannington  Railway  at 
the  latter  place,  and  ascended  the  inclined  plane,  and  walked  along 
the  road  nearly  as  far  as  Coalville,  Returned  by  the  fields  and 
gathered  Sinapis  arvensis  var.  retro,  hirsuta  in  a  cornfield, 

June  23.  Walked  by  Pegg's  Green  Coalpit  to  Cloud- Wood, 
near  Breedon.  This  is  a  large  wood,  and  deserving  of  more 
attention  than  we  were  able  to  give  it.  We  found,  in  a  little 
brook  which  passes  under  the  tramway  at  a  very  short  distance 
from  the  Cloud-Wood  lime  works,  a  Hygrotus  very  much  like 
fluviatilis,  and  Haliplus  elevatus.  In  a  field  near  we  gathered  in 
plenty  Bromus  racemosus,  and  on  the  banks  of  the  tramway  a  Glyceria 
allied  to  distans,  and  perhaps  only  a  variety  of  that  plant. 

June  24.  Walked  to  the  old  reservoir  and  gathered  Carex 
pallescens. 


64  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1837 

June  26.  Walked  over  Charnwood  Forest  to  Rothley  Temple 
with  Churchill.  We  found  in  a  brook  near  to  the  Forest  Church 
Henicocerus  viridioeneus  (1)  and  Elmis  parallelepipedus. 

June  27.  Went  almost  to  Cossington.  Gathered  Ranunculus 
circinatus  and  Potamogeton  zosterifolius  in  the  river  Soar. 

Jwie  30.  Left  Rothley  Temple  for  Cambridge.  At  Stamford  I 
met  Mr.  M.  Berkeley,  who  showed  me  Eriophorum  pubescens  and 
polystachion  growing  in  a  swampy  place  close  to  the  second  milestone 
on  the  Cambridge  road. 

July  5.  Power  and  I  went  to  Baitsbite  and  gathered  Potamogeton 
zosterifolius  and  Galium  eredum. 

July  10.     To  London. 

July  11.     Walked  through  Battersea  fields  and  found  Eumez 

pratensis. 

July  12.  Walked  to  Primrose  Hill  and  round  the  end  of  the 
Birmingham  railroad.    I  gathered  an  Atriplex,  probably  microsperma. 

July  14,  Left  town  for  Southampton,  where  I  met  Bullock  and 
Lingwood  and  his  wife. 

July  15.  Lingwood  and  I  botanized  close  to  the  town,  and  down 
the  river  as  far  as  Netley  Abbey.  We  found  Bromus  secalinus  and 
Silene  anglica  in  corn.  The  Spartina  alterniflora  was  far  from  being 
in  flower.     Sailed  in  the  evening  by  the  "  Camilla  "  for  Jersey. 

July  16.  Arrived  at  St.  Heliers  at  about  10  a.m.  We  walked 
round  the  hill  upon  which  Fort  Regent  is  placed  and  gathered 

Erodium  moschatum,  Cynosurus  echinatus,  etc. 

July  17.  We,  that  is  Mr.  Lingwood  and  I,  got  into  lodgings  .  . 
and  in  the  evening  walked  along  the  coast  of  St.  Aubin  Bay,  and 
found  Herniaria  glabra  and  ciliata,  Allium  sphaerocephalum,  Eehivm 
violaceum,  Matthiola  sinuata,  etc. 

July  18.  We  walked  by  Longueville  to  Cronville  to  the  sandy 
shore  of  Glronville  Bay,  and  returned  by  St.  Clements  and  Pontac. 
We  gathered  at  Longueville  and  St.  Clements  the  Cyperus  longusa, 
and  near  to  the  latter  place  Briza  minor. 

July  20.  We  went  in  a  car  to  St.  Brelade  Church,  and  then 
walked  along  the  road  towards  Petit  Port  as  far  as  a  small  cluster 
of  houses.  We  then  turned  towards  the  north-west  over  a  boggy 
meadow  to  the  Quenvais.  We  there  found,  amongst  others,  Examm 
Jiliformis,  Juncus  capitatus,  Centuncidtos  minimus,  Aira  canescens,  Statice 
plantaginea,  and  Trichonema  Columnae.  We  followed  the  coast  of 
St.  Ouen  Ba}'^  as  far  as  Petit  Port,  and  gathered,  on  the  tops  of  the 
hills  on  both  sides  of  the  latter  place,  Helianthemum  guttatum  in  the 
greatest  plenty.  Crossing  the  Point  (La  Corbiere)  we  followed  the 
rocky  cliff's  as  far  as  St.  Brelade,  then  returned  along  the  road, 
calling  upon  W.  Christy,  jun.,  at  La  Haule.     He  showed  us  Lotu,s 


1837]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING  IN  JERSEY.  66 

angustissimus  (?)  on  the  hill  behind  that  house.  (N.B. — Helianthemum 
guttatum  is  in  plenty  all  along  the  hills  near  the  coast,  and  Statice 
plantaginea  at  Petit  Port  and  St.  Brelade's  Bay.)  We  crossed  the 
sands  home. 

July  21.  This  day  we  walked  along  the  bay  as  far  as  the  first 
Martello  Tower,  then  turned  inland,  and  crossing  the  Canton  du 
Mont-Cochon,  we  ascended  the  St.  Laurence  Valley  for  some 
distance.  We  returned  by  the  sands.  We  gathered  Sinapis 
Cheiranthus  in  plenty  in  the  first  little  ravine  to  the  west  of  the 
town,  and  noticed  Lotus  angustissimus  in  several  places,  also  Sibthorpia 
Eurqpaea  in  St.  Laurence  Valley. 

July  22.  Bullock  walked  with  us  to  La  Hongue  Bie,  from 
whence  we  had  a  splendid  view  over  the  whole  island.  We  found 
close  to  the  town,  on  the  road  to  St.  Saviours,  Mercurialis  ambigua. 

July  23.  Sunday.  We  walked  in  the  evening  to  the  Grave 
d'Azette,  and  I  gathered  Bromus  maximus  to  send  to  Sowerby. 

July  24.  We  went  to  La  Haule,  and  were  then  joined  by 
W.  Christy,  who  accompanied  us  to  the  Quenvais,  etc.  We  went 
up  the  lane  by  La  Haule,  and  found  Lotus  angustissimus  and  Asplenium 
lanceolatum.  On  the  Quenvais  in  a  gravel  pit,  we  found  Dianthis 
prolifer,  Bupleurum  odontites,  etc.  We  then  crossed  the  Quenvais  to 
the  south  end  of  St.  Ouen  Bay,  there  we  gathered  Gnaphalium  luteo- 
album  and  Polygonum  Raii.  Following  the  sands  near  to  the  third 
Martello,  we  found  Euphorbia  peplis,  and  at  St.  Ouen's  Pond  Scirpus 
tenuiflorus,  Neottia  aestivalis,  and  Orchis  laxiflora{1)  Returning  home 
by  St,  Peters  after  passing  a  mill,  we  ascended  a  hill,  and  found 
near  to  its  summit  a  Linaria,  much  too  far  advanced  to  be  decided, 
but  probably  Pelisseriana.  On  our  return  home  we  gathered  Sinapis 
Cheiranthus  and  Allium  sphaerocephalum  to  send  to  Sowerby. 

July  25.  I  gathered  Mercurialis  ambigua,  and  sent  it  to  Sowerby 
this  morning  together  with  Scirpus  tenuifolius,  Neottia  aestivalis,  Sinapis 
Cheiranthus,  and  Allium  sphaerocephalum.  We  went  to  Elizabeth 
Castle  in  the  evening,  and  gathered  upon  the  hermitage  Daucus 
maritimus  and  Lavatera  arborea. 

July  26.  We  walked  to  the  marshes  to  the  east  of  Fort  Regent, 
but  did  not  find  much.     Saw  Mercurialis  ambigua  near  Longueville. 

July  27.  We  went  in  a  car  by  Grouville  to  Mount  Orgueil 
Castle.  We  walked  along  the  sands  of  Grouville  Bay  from  Grou- 
ville Castle  to  the  Point.  Gathered  two  or  three  grasses  at  Gorey, 
and  plenty  of  Mercurialis  ambigua  in  the  court  of  the  castle,  which 
is  now  neglected.  In  the  older  part  is  a  room  which  had  not  been 
known  to  exist  until  a  few  years  since ;  it  is  now  filled  by  stalactites. 
A  Lamium  closely  resembling  intermedium  grows  in  the  castle. 
From  thence  we  walked  along  the  shore  of  Anne  Port  and  St, 
Catherine's  Bay.  The  shores  are  high  and  rocky.  We  gathered 
Brachypodium  sylvaticum,  Vicia  angustvfolia,  Scilla  autumnalis  {"}),  and 

5 


66  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1837 

Erythraea  litoralis.  Dined  at  the  little  hamlet  of  St.  Catherine,  and 
went  in  the  car  by  St.  Martin's  Church  to  Boulay  Bay,  and  by 
Trinity  Church  home. 

Aug.  1.  A  very  wet  day,  but  in  the  evening  we  got  as  far  as 
the  centre  of  the  bay,  and  gathered  the  Allium  sphaerocephalum  and 
Sinapis  Cheiranthus. 

Aug.  2.  Walked  over  the  sands  and  up  St.  Peter's  Valley, 
which  is  very  pretty.  We  followed  the  valley  as  far  as  the  mill,  at 
which  it  forks,  and  then  went  up  the  right-hand  fork.  After  that 
we  crossed  the  country  to  St.  Laurence  Church.  Part  of  this 
building  is  very  old,  Norman ;  the  rest,  of  the  Tudor  age.  It  is  a 
large  church.  We  continued  across  the  country  to  the  Canton  du 
Mort  al'  Abbe,  and  returned  by  the  road. 

Aug.  3.  Went  in  a  car  to  the  Greve  de  Lecq  by  St.  Mary's 
Church.  The  valley  descending  to  this  little  bay  is  very  pretty, 
being  bounded  by  steep  hills  covered  with  Heath,  Gorse,  and  Fern, 
with  a  few  trees  in  the  hollows.  The  bay  itself  is  very  small,  but 
is  enclosed  by  steep  craggy  rocks,  which  give  it  great  beauty.  But 
the  most  beautiful  spot  is  a  small  cove,  called  Les  Demies,  round 
the  eastern  point  of  Greve  de  Lecq.  It  is  quite  shut  in  by  lofty 
precipices,  with  several  towering  pointed  rocks  rising  from  its 
bottom  to  a  great  height.  At  Greve  de  Lecq  we  found  Spergula 
subulata  and  a  Hieracium,  of  which  I  have  not  been  able  to  deter- 
mine the  name.  From  this  place  we  followed  the  coast,  which  is 
lofty  and  very  rocky,  as  far  as  St.  John's  Church,  and  then  returned 
by  the  road  home. 

Aug.  4.  We  went  to  a  rock  in  front  of  Fort  Regent,  just  over 
the  landing  place,  and  gathered  numerous  specimens  of  Scilla  autum- 
nalis,  and  several  Atriplices,  and  Statice  spathulata. 

Aug.  5.  Went  in  a  car  up  St.  Peter's  Valley  to  St.  Ouen's 
Church.  Lingwood  and  I  then  walked  to  St.  Ouen's  Pond  and 
along  the  coast  to  Grosnez  Cape.  The  rocks  here  are  the  grandest 
that  I  have  noticed  in  the  island.  On  the  north  side  of  the  old 
castle  there  is  a  very  deep,  narrow  crevice  in  the  hill,  the  sides  of 
which  are  several  hundred  feet  in  height,  and  quite  perpendicular. 
We  gathered  the  Cowslip  on  the  slopes  of  the  rocks  near  to  the  sea, 
and  also  Aspleniuni  marinum.  We  then  walked  along  the  sea-slopes 
of  the  hills  to  Plemont  Point  and  the  Greve  de  Lecq,  and  returned 
home  in  the  car. 

Aug.  7.  Called  upon  Mr.  B.  Saunders  of  the  Caesarean  Nursery, 
who  showed  us  a  list  that  he  had  formed  of  the  native  plants  of  the 
island,  and  allowed  us  to  extract  those  names  which  did  not  occur 
in  our  list. 

Aug.  8.  We  went  in  a  car  to  Gorey,  and  then  walked  round 
Anne  Port  to  La  Crete  guard-house ;  on  the  slope  below  which  we 
gathered  Hypericum  linariifolium  (?)  in  great  plenty.     We  returned 


1837]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING  IN   GUERNSEY.  67 

across  the  country  by  La  Hongue  Bie  and  St.  Saviour's  Valley.     In 
the  valley  we  gathered  Stachys  amhigua. 

Aug.  9.  .  .  .  Just  before  descending  into  the  valley  between 
the  Quenvais  and  La  Haule  we  gathered  Sinapis  incana. 

Aug.  11.  Left  Jersey  for  Guernsey.  St.  Peter's  Port  is  much 
better  situated  than  St.  Heliers,  having  far  better  streets  and  very 
steep  flights  of  steps.  We  walked  out  in  the  evening  and  gathered 
a  good  many  plants. 

Aug.  12.  Walked  about  the  town.  In  the  evening  we  crossed 
the  Island  to  Long  Port,  and  noticed  there  Folygomim  Eaii,  Convol- 
vulus Soldanella,  Matthiola  incana,  etc.  We  followed  the  sandy  coast 
for  a  short  distance  towards  Saline  Bay,  and  returned  by  La  For- 
faiture  and  Friquer.    Close  to  Long  Port  gathered  Lepidium  latifolium. 

Aug.  14.  This  day  we  followed  the  bay  towards  the  north, 
then  crossed  the  island  to  Vale  Church,  passing  over  the  Braye  du 
Valle  (a  marshy  district),  rounded  the  greater  part  of  that  end  of 
the  island,  and  returned  by  St.  Sampson's  Church.  On  a  slope 
above  G-rand  Havre  at  a  short  distance  beyond  Vale  Church  we 
found  Lagurus  ovatus,  a  little  further  on  Polygonum  Eaii  and  mariti- 
mum.  At  about  half-way  to  Mont  Guet  we  found  a  leguminous 
plant,  which  appears  to  be  Arthrolobium  ebradeatum. 

Aug.  15.  Went  through  St.  Andrews,  and  through  various 
lanes  to  the  mill  in  Bay  d'Icart.  The  lower  part  of  this  valley  is 
fine  and  mountainous  in  character.  We  then  followed  the  coast, 
which  is  very  high  and  grand,  having  numerous  deep,  rocky  inlets, 
by  Point  d'Icart,  and  Petit  Port  to  the  Doyle  Monument,  and 
thence  home. 

A%ig.  17.  We  walked  by  Les  Landec,  Friquer,  etc.,  to  Saline 
Bay.  We  crossed  a  number  of  low  marshy  meadows  in  the  early 
part  of  our  walk,  and  found  several  plants.  From  Saline  Bay  we 
followed  the  coast  Grand  Havre,  on  the  western  side  of  which  we 
found  plenty  of  Lotus  hispidus.  We  then  went  to  the  station  of 
Arthrolobium  ebradeatum,  i.e.  a  little  hollow  rather  less  than  half- 
way from  Vale  Church  towards  Mont  Guet.  After  this  we  returned 
home  by  the  Braye  du  Valle  and  St.  Sampson's  Church. 

Attg.  19.  Walked  round  below  the  Fort,  and  gathered  Atriplex 
erecta  and  Orobanche  barbata. 

Aug.  20.     Sunday.     Met  P.  le  Neve  Foster  at  the  church. 

Aug.  21.  Went  to  Herm.  We  walked  all  round  the  island, 
and  gathered  192  species  of  plants,  including  Polygonum  maritimum, 
Euphorbia  peplis,  Atriplex  rosea,  etc.  The  island  consists  of  little 
more  than  one  ridge  of  hill  and  a  large  sandy  flat  at  the  north  end. 

Aug.  22.  Gathered  an  Atriplex,  probably  undescribed,  which  I 
have  named  stricta,  in  a  potato  field  below  the  foot-road  from  the 
beach  to  Fort  George. 


68  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1837 

Aug.  23.  We  went  across  the  island  to  Long  Port,  then  followed 
the  coast  by  Grand  Cobo  to  Vazon  Bay ;  in  the  sandy  fields,  near  to 
the  centre  of  which  we  found  Centaurea  Isnardi,  and  in  some  marshes, 
covered  with  tall  reeds,  we  gathered  Pyrola  rotundifolia  and  Carex 
punctata.     Returned  home  by  St.  Andrews. 

Aug.  24,  Went  to  the  salt  marshes  by  St.  Sampsons,  and 
gathered  a  Zannichellia,  probably  pedunculata. 

Aug.  25.  Walked  through  the  cultivated  part  of  the  interior 
of  the  island,  and  gathered  but  few  plants.  We  saw  Gnaphalium 
hdeo-album  in  several  spots  on  the  Braye  du  Valle. 

Aug.  26.  We  went  with  Christy  and  a  friend  to  St.  Sampsons 
and  Vale,  and  gathered  the  ArthroloUum  ebradeatum  in  its  station. 
We  also  found  Euphorbia  pepUs  in  great  plenty  on  the  sands  of 
Grand  Havre,  at  some  distance  beyond  Vale  Church. 

Aug.  30.  Christy  and  I  walked  to  Vazon  Bay  to  gather  Cen- 
taurea Isnardi.     I  dined  with  him. 

Aug.  31.  Sailed  for  England  at  5  p.m.,  and  reached  Southampton 
at  5  a.m. 

Sept,  1.  I  gathered  Spartina  alterniflora,  and  then  proceeded  to 
London. 

Sept.  2.  Called  upon  James  Sowerby,  and  gathered  for  "  English 
Botany  "  Polygonum  laxum  near  to  his  house.  Reached  Cambridge  in 
the  evening. 

Sept.  4.  The  specimens  of  Artemisia  campestris  brought  by  us 
from  Mildenhall  in  June  last  are  in  flower  in  the  Clare  Hall  garden. 

Sept.  7.  Left  Cambridge  at  7.30  a.m.,  reached  Birmingham  at 
6.30  p.m. 

Sept.  8.     Proceeded  to  Liverpool Took  lodgings  for  the 

week  of  the  meeting  of  the  British  Association. 

Sept.  9.  I  have  been  appointed  one  of  the  secretaries  of  the 
Natural  History  Section,  in  conjunction  with  L.  Jenyns  and  Mr. 
Swainson.  I  ought  to  have  gone  to  a  party  at  the  Mayor's  this 
evening,  but  was  too  much  tired. 

Sept.  14.  The  Committee  of  the  Natural  History  Section  went 
to  Knowsley  to  see  the  Earl  of  Derby's  collection  of  living  animals ; 
it  is  a  most  splendid  collection. 

Sept.  15.     Last  meeting  of  the  Natural  History  Section. 

Sept.  17.  Sunday.  Went  with  Bullock  to  hear  Mr.  MacNeile  at 
St.  Jude's  Church. 

Sept.  18.  Professor  Graham,  Ball,  and  I  went  to  the  Cheshire 
side  of  the  Mersey,  and  followed  the  river  bank  as  far  as  New 
Brighton.  We  gathered  the  Polygala,  described  by  Forbes  in  the 
Report  of  the  Botanical  Society  of  Edinburgh;  also  Brassica  monensis 


1837—38]  JOURNAL— VARIOUS  ENGAGEMENTS.  69 

and  Equisetum  variegatum  near  to  the  latter  place.  Dr.  Agardh,  the 
younger,  of  Lund  (with  whom  I  had  become  acquainted  at  the 
meeting),  was  to  have  accompanied  us,  but  was  prevented  by  the  wet. 

Sept.  19.  Left  Liverpool  by  the  railroad,  and  leaving  it  at 
Whitmore,  proceeded  by  coach  to  Shrewsbury.  Spent  the  after- 
noon with  Leighton. 

Sept.  20.  Leighton  and  I  went  to  Haughmond  Abbey  and 
studied  the  Eubi. 

Sept.  21.     Left  Shrewsbury  and  proceeded  to  Coventry. 
Sept.  22.     Reached  Cambridge. 

Oct.  7.  Went  to  Dr.  Jermyn's,  at  his  new  house  at  Long  Stanton, 
and  remained  there  till  Monday. 

Oct.  14.  Breakfasted  with  Sylvester  to  meet  Mr.  Rothschild,  a 
son  of  the  late  banker  in  London,  a  Jew,  who  wishes  to  enter  at 
the  University. 

Nov.  2.  The  first  stone  of  the  Fitzwilliam  Museum  was  laid. 
We  mustered  in  the  Senate  House,  and  went  in  form  to  the  place. 
The  Vice-Chancellor,  Dr.  Ainslie  of  Pembroke  College,  laid  the 
stone,  and  made  a  short  speech  in  English.  Mr.  Crick,  the  Public 
Orator,  made  a  long  Latin  one.  An  immense  number  of  persons 
attended. 

Nov.  6.  Went  to  London,  and  attended  a  meeting  of  the 
Entomological  Society. 

Nov.  7.  Linnean  Society  meeting.  Dined  with  the  Linnean 
Club. 

Nov.  17.     Anniversary  Dinner  of  the  Philosophical  Society. 

Dec.  7.  At  a  meeting  of  the  "  Society  for  protecting  the  inde- 
pendence of  the  Town,"  I  obtained  a  Petition  to  be  ordered  from 
this  Town  in  favour  of  Irish  Corporation  Reform. 

Dec.  9.  Elected  a  member  of  "  Hendeka,"  a  debating  society  at 
Christ's. 

Dec.  19.  Went  to  London;  dined  with  Linnean  Club,  and 
attended  the  meeting.      Left  a  paper  on  Cuscuta  for  the  Society. 

Dec.  20.     Went  to  Bath. 

1838.  Jan.  1.  Thomas  Fortune  and  I  walked  to  Twerton  to 
see  what  progress  had  been  made  with  the  railroad.  We  found 
that  the  Turnpike  road  had  been  turned  so  as  to  run  much  nearer 
to  the  river,  and  that  the  railroad  was  to  be  carried  close  to  it,  so 
as  not  to  cross  it. 

Jan.  9.  The  thermometer  to-day  at  11.30  a.m.  is  24°,  and 
small  snow  falling  in  beautiful  star-shaped  crystals. 

Jan.  12.     Thermometer  last  night  down  to  16°. 


70  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1838 

Jan.  17.  Lingwood  and  I  went  to  Cambridge. 

Jan.  18.  Thermometer  9°  in  the  night. 

Jan.  20.  Degree  day.     Thomas  Lingwood  took  his  degree. 

Jan.  21.  Sunday.     Thermometer  in  night  at  8°. 

Feb.  5.  The  frost  has  continued  since  the  2nd  of  January,  and 
the  Cam  was  frozen  over  when  I  returned.  It  was  cleared  of  ice 
on  the  9th  of  February. 

Feb.  15.  Dined  with  the  Vice-Chancellor,  Worsley  of  Downing 
College. 

Feb.  17.  (On  Feb.  10)  I  introduced  the  question  of  the  Ballot 
to  the  "Hendeka,"  and  the  debate  was  adjourned  to  the  next 
Saturday,   17th,  and  then  carried  in  the  affirmative. 

March  1.     At  an  evening  party  at  Professor  Clark's. 

March  7.  The  Ray  Club  met  at  my  rooms ;  there  was  a  full 
meeting,  although  all  the  members  did  not  attend.  About  twenty- 
one  persons,  including  Sedgwick  and  Miller. 

March  16.  Whig  Dinner  at  the  Bull  Inn.  Eighteen  present, 
including  Sedgwick,  Smart  Hughes,  etc. 

March  28.  Smith  of  Caius  and  I  went  to  see  the  Old  Chapel 
near  the  Paper  Mill  Turnpike  Gate.  It  has  been  used  at  some 
former  time  as  a  house,  and  floors  have  been  put  in,  most  of  which 
have  now  given  way.  There  are  several  interesting  remains  of 
Norman  architecture  still  remaining  in  it. 

March  29.     Went  to  Mr.  E.  Forster's  at  Woodford. 

March  31.  Mr.  Forster  and  I  went  to  Loridge's  Nursery  at 
Hackney,  and  saw  his  fine  houses,  and  also  his  collection  of  humming 
birds.     He  has  170  species,  of  which  60  are  in  no  other  collection. 

April  2.  Went  to  Mr.  Evans,  M.P.,  at  Park  House,  Kensington 
Gore.  Churchill  Babington  and  I  went  to  the  Linnean  Museum, 
and  to  a  meeting  of  the  Entomological  Society  in  the  evening. 

April  5.  Churchill  and  I  went  to  Mr.  Hope's,  and  I  compared 
my  collection  of  Darwin's  Dytiscidae  with  his  cabinet. 

April  6.  I  went  to  West  wood's  to  get  him  to  make  drawings 
of  my  three  new  genera  of  Dytiscidae  from  America. 

April  7.     Left  London,  and  arrived  at  Lingwood's  in  Sussex. 

April  9.  Went  into  Buxted  Park,  and  gathered  a  few  Lichens 
for  Churchill  Babington. 

April  14.  Went  to  Walrond  Down,  and  found  a  small  fish 
called  Petromyzon  Planeri. 

April  20.     Left  Lingwood's. 

April  21.     Reached  Mr.  Borrer's  before  breakfast. 


1838]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE   AND   JERSEY.  71 

April  27.  Saw  Capt.  Holman,  the  blind  traveller,  at  the  Linnean. 
JReached  Cambridge. 

April  28,  Anniversary  meeting  of  the  Ray  Club  at  J.  J.  Smith's 
rooms  at  Caius.     I  was  appointed  Secretary  to  the  Club. 

April  30.  Supper  with  the  Rev.  W.  Whewell  after  the 
Philosophical  meeting. 

May  2.  Dined  with  the  Cambridge  Florists'  Society  at  the 
■"Hoop." 

May  3.  Went  to  the  Gogmagog  Hills  with  Henslow.  We 
.gathered  Anemone  Pulsatilla  and  Fiola  hirta.  var. 

May  11.  Walked  with  Henslow's  class  to  Coton,  and  took  tea 
at  his  house  in  the  evening.  (Note. — Charles  Darwin  was  on  a 
;short  visit  to  him.) 

May  19.  Dined  with  the  Rev.  Dr.  Graham,  Master  of  Christ's, 
as  President  of  the  Philosophical  Society. 

May  24.  Attended  a  meeting  of  the  Town  Reform  Association 
-at  the  "Hoop,"  and  said  a  few  words  to  them.  The  large  room 
was  quite  full. 

May  29.  Botanical  expedition  to  Gamlingay.  {Note. — There 
have  been  eleven  of  these  parties,  including  the  present,  and  I 
have  been  at  ten  of  them.) 

June  1.  Sailed  (from  Southampton)  for  Jersey,  where  we  arrived 
«,t  12  noon. 

June  2.     Walked  out  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  town. 

June  5.  Went  by  La  Haule  to  the  Quenvais  and  St.  Ouen's 
Pond,  where  I  gathered  Orchis  laxiflora,  then  by  the  water-mill 
(gathering  Linaria  Felisseriana  on  the  hill  side)  to  St.  Peters,  and 
home  by  the  marsh,  in  which  I  found  Ranunculus  ophioglossifolius. 

June  6.  Went  before  breakfast  to  St.  Peter's  Marsh  to  gather 
B.  ophioglossifolius  for  Sowerby.  Sent  it  off  that  day  together  with 
Orchis  laxiflora,  Linaria  Felisseriana,  Polygala  oxycantha,  and  Festuca 
.sabulicola  for  him  to  draw  for  "Eng.  Bot.  Suppl."  Walked  to 
St.  Saviour's  Valley. 

June  7.  To  St.  Brelade  and  found  Hypochaeris  Balbisii,  and  to 
the  Quenvais.  Met  with  very  few  specimens  of  Juncus  capitatus 
•and  several  of  Bupleurum  odontites. 

June  11.  Went  to  Gorey,  St.  Catherine's  Bay,  and  along  the 
-coast  by  La  Coupe,  Havre  de  Rozel,  and  Boulay  Bay.  Near  Rozel 
Harbour  I  found,  growing  upon  Spartium  scopariitm,  Orobanche  rapum^ 
which  is  perhaps  0.  nuijor  of  Smith.  Found  on  the  hill  above  Mont 
Orgueil  Castle  Trifoliuni  subterraneum,  and  there,  and  at  La  Coupe, 
Tr%folium  ornithopodioides.  The  valley  descending  to  Boulay  Bay  is 
wooded,  and  very  pretty.     There  is  a  small  fishing  harbour. 


72  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1838 

June  12.  Wet.  It  clearing  up  in  the  afternoon,  I  walked  out 
near  the  town,  and  found  Orobanche  minor  in  a  field  on  the  top  of 
the  hill  near  the  first  tower ;  also  in  the  same  field  0.  caernlea  not 
quite  come  into  flower. 

June  13.  Went  by  St.  Aubins  to  the  centre  of  St.  Brelade's 
Bay,  then  followed  the  coast  by  Port  la  Fret,  Portelet  Bay,  and 
Noirmont  Point  back  to  St.  Aubins.  Hypericum  linariifolium  in 
great  plenty  on  all  the  dry  hill-tops  of  this  coast.  Gathered  a 
curious  state  of  Callitriche  pedunculata  in  a  pond  near  Noirmont 
Point.  On  my  return  home  I  found,  near  St.  Peter's  Marsh,  on 
the  waste  land  by  the  road  side,  a  Eanuncuhis  which  appears  to  be 
new,  and  which  I  have  named  E.  caespitosus. 

June  14.  Wet.  In  the  evening  went  as  far  as  St.  Peter's 
Marsh,  and  determined  (from  riper  fruit)  that  my  supposed  new 
Ranunculus  was  only  B.  hirsutus.  Found  E.  parviflorus  on  the  bank 
near  the  windmill. 

June  16.  Went  to  the  marshes  near  the  Greve  d'Azette,  and 
round  by  Longueville  home.  Gathered  several  plants  which  I  had 
not  noticed  before  in  the  island. 

June  19.  Went  up  St.  Peter's  Valley  to  the  station  for  Linaria 
Pelisseriana,  and  across  the  sands  to  St.  Ouen's  Bay,  returning  by 
the  St.  Peter's  Barracks.  Saw  plenty  of  Hypericum  linariifolium  in 
several  places,  particularly  St.  Peter's  Valley. 

June  20.  A  very  wet  morning,  and  therefore  remained  at  home 
and  did  much  work. 

June  21.  Went  up  St.  Saviour's  Valley  and  gathered  MespUus 
germanica  there. 

June  22.  To  Guernsey.  Took  up  my  quarters  again  at 
Mr.  Pulsford's,  18,  Haviland  Street. 

June  23.  Went  by  St.  Sampsons  and  the  Braye  du  Valle  to 
Vale  Church.  Found,  on  a  rocky  hillock  south  of  the  fishpond, 
Silene  5-vulnera  in  plenty. 

June  24.  Sunday.  Met  Mr.  W.  Lukis  at  church,  and  went  with 
him  to  his  father's  house,  to  whom  he  introduced  me.  I  walked 
after  dinner  to  the  Fort  and  gathered  Orobanche  barbata  at  the 
Clarence  Battery,  growing  upon  ivy. 

June  25.  W.  Lukis  and  I  went  to  Vazon  Bay  and  found  plenty 
of  Potamogeton  plantagineus  in  the  Grand  Mare.  We  returned  by 
Grand  Cobo.  Dined  with  Mr.  Lukis  and  spent  a  very  pleasant 
evening  looking  at  his  large  collection  of  Celts,  and  other  Druidical 
remains,  and  also  his  Natural  History  collections. 

June  26.  Walked  to  St.  Martins  and  Jerbourg  Point,  returning 
round  the  coast  by  Termain  Bay  and  the  Artillery  Barracks.  On  a 
nearly  inaccessible  cliff"  a  little  to  the  south  of  the  latter,  there  is  an 
Allium,  probably  Ampeloprasum,  in  great  plenty. 


1838]  JOURNAL  -BOTANIZING  IN  GUERNSEY,  Etc.  73 

June  27.  "Went  to  Vale  and  gathered  Arthrolohium  ehradeatum, 
Bupleurum  odontites,  etc.  Examined  a  large  Druidical  altar  on  the 
common  near  to  L'Ancresse  Bay.  Then  went  to  the  end  of  that 
part  of  the  island  and  found  Callitriche  pedunculata  near  Paradis,  and 
by  the  roadside  at  Bordeau  Havre. 

June  28.  Coronation  Day  of  Queen  Victoria.  Saw  a  review 
of  the  island  militia  in  the  morning,  and  a  very  long  procession  of 
Sunday  school  children,  also  a  display  of  fireworks  from  Castle 
Cornett  in  the  evening. 

June  29.  Went  to  Long  Port  through  the  fields,  and  then  by 
Grand  Koques,  and  Les  Martins  and  Duvaux  home.  In  the  evening 
there  was  a  partial  illumination  of  the  town,  and  a  great  crowd  in 
the  streets,  which  were  scarcely  passable  on  account  of  fireworks. 

July  2.  Went  by  St.  Andrews  and  St.  Peters  to  Rocquaine, 
then  along  the  bay  to  Le  Rec  Barracks,  near  which  I  examined  a 
Druidical  altar,  and  afterwards  another  near  Caqueran,  the  latter 
partly  fallen  down.  Found  several  interesting  plants  in  the  salt 
marsh  at  Le  Rec,  viz.,  Hoi'deum  maritimum,  Atriplex  litm'alis,  etc. 
Returned  by  the  main  road  from  Richmond  Barracks  and  found  at 
Mount  Saint  Cynosums  echinatus.  At  Rocquaine  I  found  Pyrethrum 
maritimum. 

July  3.     Dined  with  Mr.  Lukis. 

July  4.  Went  with  Mr.  Lukis,  two  of  his  sons,  and  Mr.  T. 
Harvey  to  the  Druids'  altar  at  L'Ancresse.  I  examined  the  western 
part  of  the  Vale  parish,  and  they  excavated  at  the  altar.  Had  our 
dinner  on  the  spot  and  did  not  return  until  the  evening. 

July  5.  Met  E.  Collings  from  Bath,  and  went  to  St.  Sampsons 
with  him. 

July  6.  Went  round  the  southern  point  of  the  Grand  Havre, 
and  then  joined  Lukis  and  Harvey  at  the  Druids'  altar,  and  worked 
with  them.     Dined  with  Mr.  Armstrong. 

July  7.  Went  to  Paradis  and  saw  the  altar  there.  We  after- 
wards dined  a  large  party  within  it. 

July  IL  Went  with  Mr.  Vachell  to  see  a  cave  at  Porteval. 
Dined  with  him  afterwards. 

July  12.  Went  to  Alderney.  The  island  has  a  very  fine  appear- 
ance as  you  approach  it Walked  out  upon  the  Blaye  before 

dinner,  and  afterwards  examined  Grosnez  Point,  Craby  Bay,  and 
part  of  Platte  Saline  Bay.  The  island  is  mostly  high  and  without 
any  enclosures,  the  land  being  held  in  small  patches,  only  divided 
by  an  imaginary  line,  or  in  a  few  spots  pointed  out  by  stones. 
Although  much  exposed,  it  is  very  fertile.  Nearly  all  the  houses 
are  collected  into  the  town  of  St.  Anne. 

July  13.  Went  round  Braye  Bay,  where  I  gathered  Diotis  mari- 
tima,  Brassica  Ckeiranthus,  and  Sinapis  incana;  Corbelet's  Bay,  rounded 


74  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1838 

Quenard's  Point,  finding  in  several  spots  (particularly  between  the 
Hermit  Rock  and  Corbelet's  Bay)  Ononis  redinata ;  Longy  Bay,  and 
round  the  sea  slope  of  the  hill  of  Essen  Castle.  On  this  latter  place 
I  noticed  Arthrolohium  ebradeatum. 

July  14.  Went  to  Roque  Tracy  (north-west  point  of  island), 
round  Giffoine,  by  Tres  Veaux  and  the  south  coast,  until  I  met  the 
entrance  point  of  my  yesterday's  course.  Found  Arthrolohium  again 
in  plenty,  and  also  Lotus  angustissimus  on  the  slopes  between  Baye 
de  I'Emauve  and  Valine  du  Patte  Cott6e. 

July  15.  Sunday.  After  church  walked  to  the  south  coast  near 
I'Elat,  and  along  it  to  the  Chaise  a  I'Emauve,  a  curious  natural  seat 
with  a  roof  in  the  face  of  the  cliffs,  accompanied  by  Mr.  Radford, 
and  the  judge,  John  Gaudion,  Esq. 

July  16.  Went  to  the  higher  parts  of  Maunez  and  Essen  Castle, 
which  consists  of  little  more  than  the  external  walls  of  an  old  forti- 
fication. In  the  evening  took  a  walk  with  the  Judge,  spent  the 
evening  at  his  house. 

July  17.  Examined  the  Blaye  and  part  of  the  south  coast,  and 
in  the  evening  went  with  the  Rev.  M.  Lys,  the  clergyman  of  the 
island,  to  see  a  cave  in  the  cliffs  of  Hannaine  (at  the  west  of  the 
island),  but  could  not  get  down  to  it  on  account  of  the  tide  being 
too  high. 

July  18.  Re-examined  the  hill  near  Essen  Castle  and  the  eastern 
part  of  the  island,  gathering  for  Sowerby,  Lotus  hispidus,  and  angus- 
tissimus, Arthrolohium  ehradeatum,  Ononis  redinata,  Sinapis  incana,  and 
pratense{1),  the  latter  upon  the  Bute  Barracks  Hill  near  the  town. 

July  19.  Returned  to  Guernsey  from  Alderney.  {Note. — I 
gathered  in  Alderney  330  plants,  exclusive  of  several  as  yet 
undetermined.) 

July  21.  Went  with  the  Lukis'  and  Mr.  Armstrong  to  Jethou, 
where  I  gathered  about  115  plants,  and  on  the  little  island  of 
Crevichou  twenty-three  species. 

July  23.  Went  along  the  cliffs  under  the  foot,  and  gathered  a 
specimen  of  the  Allium  that  grows  there,  but  have  not  been  able  to 
determine  it  satisfactorily.  Also  found  Calamagrostis  Epigcjos  on 
the  same  cliff.  Dined  with  Mr.  George  Radford,  and  met  Miss 
Dumbleton,  a  relative  of  Dr.  Stanley,  Bishop  of  Norwich. 

July  26.  Sunday.  Examined  the  marshes  to  the  north  of  the 
road  behind  Ivy  Castle,  and  gathered  what  appeared  to  be  the 
Myriophyllum  alterniflorum  of  De  Candolle. 

Jidy  27.  Went  to  the  Fort  and  descended  to  the  Allium  there 
which  appears  most  like  Ampeloprasum,  but  usually  has  bulbs  in  the 
head  of  flowers.  It  is  in  great  quantity  on  the  steep  face  of  the 
cliff  at  a  few  hundred  yards  beyond  the  Artillery  Barracks. 


1838]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING  IN   SARK,  75 

J^dy  28.  Walked  about  near  to  the  town,  and  found  Lepidium 
draba  on  the  hedge  bank  opposite  to  the  brick  kiln  near  the  Rohais 
road.  Dined  with  Mr.  Lukis,  and  met  Dr.  Franklyn  of  Alderney, 
and  Mr.  H.  0.  Carr6,  a  botanist,  and  one  of  the  jurats  of  the 
island. 

July  30.  Went  with  John  and  William  Lukis  to  Sark.  We 
had  a  rough  passage,  but  arrived  there  in  less  than  two  hours. 
Walked  to  Little  Sark  in  the  evening.  .  .  I  slept  at  a  little  cottage 
in  a  field.  .  .  .  There  are  some  curious  old  tombstones  in  the  bury- 
ing ground,  but  we  had  not  time  to  ascertain  their  age. 

Jidy  3L  Examined  Little  Sark.  The  Coup6e  is  not  more  than 
six  feet  in  width  at  two  places,  and  full  200  feet  high.  The  mines 
are  advancing  fast,  and  form  a  very  curious  feature  in  the  island. 
Mr.  Le  Pelley,  the  proprietor  of  the  island,  and  Mr.  Cachemaille 
the  clergyman  (a  Swiss),  went  with  us  to-day. 

Aug.  1.  This  day  I  went  along  the  coast,  from  the  Couple  to 
Baker's  Valley,  which  I  ascended. 

Aug.  2.  I  went  along  the  hills  near  the  coast  commencing  from 
the  Coup6e  by  Havre  Gosselin  and  Brechon,  but  was  stopped  by 
rain,  and  returned  home.  In  the  afternoon  although  it  rained  hard, 
and  was  a  thick  fog,  we  went  to  the  Point  Chateau,  where  there  has 
been  an  old  fortification,  and  after  dinner  to  the  Port  des  Moulins, 
and  had  a  long  scramble  amongst  the  rocks,  which  are  very  lofty  and 
grand  in  this  north-western  part  of  the  island.  William  Lukis 
shewed  me  the  rock  upon  which  his  father  discovered  the  tracks 
made  by  a  limpet.     See  Loudon's  "  Mag.  of  Nat.  Hist." 

Aug.  3.  I  examined  part  of  the  north  and  north-east  of  the 
island,  also  the  southern  part  of  Little  Sark.  After  dinner  we  went 
to  some  caves  in  the  point  of  land  extending  towards  Brecqhou  Isle. 
We  had  some  difficulty  in  descending,  and  getting  up  again,  but 
were  well  repaid  by  the  grandeur  of  the  rocks  and  caves.  The  way 
-down  is  on  the  north  side  of  the  promontory. 

Aug.  4.  Left  the  island,  and  returned  to  Guernsey.  I  gathered 
252  plants  in  Sark. 

Atig.  8,     Left  Guernsey  and  proceeded  to  London. 

Aug.  10.  Walked  to  Woodford,  and  dined  with  Mr.  Forster, 
with  whom  were  Mr.  Borrer  and  his  son  Dawson. 

Aug.  IL  Called  on  Sowerby  with  Borrer.  Reached  Cambridge 
in  the  evening. 

Aug.  16.  Went  to  London,  and  left  it  at  10.30  p.m.  by  the 
"  Ocean  "  steamer  from  Blackwall  to  Newcastle. 

Aug.  17.  We  had  a  pleasant  party  on  board,  and  fine  weather 
until  the  evening,  when  it  began  to  blow  rather  hard. 


76  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [183a 

Aug.  18.  We  had  a  rough  night,  but  it  was  finer  in  the  morn- 
ing, so  that  I  saw  the  whole  of  the  coast  from  Beachy  Head  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Tees.  Reached  Newcastle-on-Tyne  at  about  2.30  p.m. 
(British  Association).     Lodgings  with  Lingwood. 

Aug.  20.  First  day  of  the  meeting.  After  the  meeting  of  the 
Section,  Lingwood  and  I  walked  up  the  side  of  the  Tyne,  and 
gathered  Senecio  viscosus. 

Aug.  22.     I  breakfasted  with  Mr.  Alder  the  Conchologist. 

Aug.  23.     Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Robertson  the  Botanist. 

Aug.  28.  Left  Newcastle  by  coach  with  a  large  party  of 
Naturalists,  viz.  Sir  W.  Jardine,  Selby,  Thompson  of  Belfast, 
Jenyns,  Graham,  Greville :  they  were  all  going  to  stop  with  Mr.. 
Selby,  at  Twizel  House.  I  came  on  to  Berwick,  to  visit  Dr. 
Johnston,  with  whom  I  found  Philip  Maclagan. 

Aug.  29.  We  did  not  go  far  from  the  town  during  the  remainder 
of  the  week,  but  employed  ourselves  in  examining  Dr.  Johnston's 
herbarium. 

Sept.  3.  Mr.  Selby,  Dr.  Greville,  Mr.  Thompson,  and  Mr,  Jenyns. 
came  to  spend  the  day.  We  made  a  party,  by  water,  up  the  Tweed, 
as  far  as  the  Chain  Bridge,  and  spent  a  very  pleasant  day. 

Sept.  4.  Dr.  Johnston,  P.  Maclagan,  and  the  whole  family,  went 
with  me  to  Holy  Island,  Unfortunately  the  day  turned  out  very 
wet,  or  we  should  have  met  the  gentlemen  from  Twizel  on  the 
island.  We,  however,  walked  about  in  the  rain,  and  gathered 
A  triplex  rosea  and  stricta,  and  Chenopodium  botrydides  (1)  We  also- 
saw  Erythraea  litoralis. 

Sept.  5,  6,  7.  Continued  wet  weather  during  all  these  days  :  on 
Thursday  I  had  intended  to  have  gone  to  Mr.  Selby's,  but  was. 
prevented  by  the  wet.  Mr.  Thompson  of  Belfast  arrived  at  Dr. 
Johnston's  on  that  day,  and  left  on  Friday. 

Sept.  10.     Left  Berwick  .  .  ,  reached  Edinburgh. 

Sept.  11.  Called  upon  Dr.  Douglas  Maclagan.  Walked  round 
Arthur's  Seat,  then  to  Leith,  and  along  the  coast  by  Newhaven  for 
several  miles.  Gathered  A  triplex  stricta  and  rosea,  also  Lamium  inter- 
medium. 

Sept.  12.  Breakfasted  with  Maclagan,  and  met  Dr.  Balfour  and 
Mr.  Brand.  Went  with  Dr.  Graham  to  the  Botanical  Garden,  and 
tasted  the  fruit  of  Passiflora  alata,  but  found  it  very  bad  eating. 
Dined  with  Dr.  Graham, 

Sept.  13.     Breakfasted  with  Dr.  Balfour Dined  with  Dr. 

Graham. 

Sept.  14.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Campbell,  and  then  walked  to 
the  ruined  chapel  under  Arthur's  Seat  ...  to  Glasgow. 


1838]  J OTJRNAL— EDINBURGH  AND  BATH.  77 

Sept.  15.  Called  at  Hooker's,  he  was  not  at  home,  but  I  found 
W.  Hooker.  Left  Glasgow,  and  reached  Sir  William  Jardine's 
Lodge  at  1L30  p.m.,  having  then  a  walk  of  half-a-mile  to  Jardine 
Hall. 

Sept.  16.  Sunday.  Went  to  Applegarth  Church.  Mr.  Selby  of 
Twizel  and  Mr.  Bigge  of  Newcastle  at  the  house. 

Sept.  17.  We  crossed  the  Annan,  and  walked  over  a  large 
extent  of  young  woods  and  some  bog  land.  Saw  in  a  quarry  of 
new  red  sandstone  some  of  the  marks  of  the  footsteps  of  extinct 
animals.     At  least  three  species  were  to  be  distinguished. 

Sept.  18.  In  a  moss  near  the  hall  we  saw  a  greater  quantity  of 
the  fruit  of  Oxycoccus  palustris  than  I  had  ever  noticed  before.  We 
then  went  over  a  number  of  wet  fields  full  of  the  common  Folygona, 
and  in  one  plenty  of  Galeopsis  versicolor.  We  also  examined  a  very 
wet  bog  near  the  gate  on  the  Glasgow  road. 

Sept.  1 9.  Went  to  a  beautiful  glen  near  to  Mr.  Johnston's  house 
at  Eae  Hills,  and  then  crossed  to  Lockwood,  the  old  castle  of  that 
family.     Here  are  some  very  fine  old  oak  trees. 

Sept.  20.     Walked  over  some  hills  beyond  the  Glasgow  road. 

Sept.  21.     Did  not  go  far  from  home. 

Sept.  22.  Worked  with  Mr.  A.  Goldie  (the  tutor)  at  the  excava- 
tion of  the  dungeon  in  the  old  castle.  We  sunk  about  eight  feet, 
and  found  nothing  of  interest.  This  is  the  place  noticed  by  Sir 
Walter  Scott  in  the  "Minstrelsy"  as  Spedlin's  Castle. 

Sept.  23.  Sunday.  Applegarth  Church.  Started  by  the  mail 
at  11.45  p.m.  for  the  South. 

Sept.  25.     Reached  Bath. 

Oct.  3.     Dined  with  Mr.  Fowler. 

Oct.  8.  Went  with  Broome  to  pay  him  a  visit  of  a  few  days  at 
Eudloe  Cottage. 

Oct.  9.  Broome  and  I  walked  up  the  valley  by  Slaughterford 
and  Ford  to  Castlecombe,  and  returned  by  West  Yatton  and  Biddle- 
stone.  Noticed  Atropa  at  Slaughterford,  and  Sambucus  ebulus  between 
that  place  and  Ford. 

Oct.  10.  We  went  to  Chippenham,  and  joined  Dr,  Alexander ; 
then  went  to  Sandy  Lane,  and  botanized  in  Shy  Park  and  Bowood. 
Returned  by  Bowdon,  Laycock,  and  Corsham. 

Oct.  11.  Went  to  Box  Quarries,  and  gathered  Folypodium  cal- 
careum. 

Oct.  13.     There  was  a  little  snow  to-day. 

Oct.  15.  Walked  with  Mr.  Flower  to  Wyck,  and  gathered  a  few 
Ruhi.     He  shewed  me  the  station  of  Gagea  lutea. 


78  CHARLES  CARDALE   BABINGTON.  [1838—39 

Oct.  18.  Went  to  the  Dundas  Aqueduct  and  Midford  Castle  in 
search  after  RuU. 

Oct  22.  Left  Bath,  and  travelled  from  Maidenhead  by  the 
Great  Western  Eailway. 

Oct.  23.  In  London ;  saw  Professor  Don,  etc.,  at  the  Adelaide 
Gallery  ;  met  Mr.  W.  W.  Sanders,  who  promised  me  a  free  admission 
to  that  Institution.  He  introduced  me  to  Mr.  Bradley,  their  head 
man,  and  brother-in-law  to  the  Rev.  M.  Berkeley.  Reached  Cam- 
bridge in  the  evening. 

Nov.  17.  Annual  Dinner  of  the  Philosophical  Society.  This 
evening  I  introduced  the  subject  of  *'  Transportation "  and  "  Peni- 
tentaries  "  to  the  "  Hendeka." 

N<yv.  18.  Went  with  Bullock  to  Great  Wilbraham,  where  he 
did  the  duty ;  afterwards  we  went  to  Mr.  Teverson's  house  to  tea,  etc. 

Dec.  5.     Meeting  of  the  Ray  Club  at  my  rooms. 

Dec.  6.  Lukis  and  I  went  to  the  Gogs  to  examine  a  tumulus  in 
Lord  Godolphin's  plantation.  It  is  a  very  large  one.  We  returned 
by  the  Roman  Road  and  Cherry  Hinton,  and  amused  ourselves  with 
hunting  for  fossils  in  the  heaps  of  flints. 

Dee.  25.  Went  to  Dr.  Jermyn's  at  Long  Stanton  to  spend  the 
Christmas  Day,  and  returned  the  next  day. 

1839.  Jan.  5.  Went  to  Henfield  to  Mr.  Borrer's,  by  way  of 
Dorking  and  Horsham. 

Jan.  7.  Determined  a  number  of  Buhi  for  my  Supplement  to 
the  "  Flora  Bathoniensis  "  and  "  Primitiae  Florae  Sarnicae." 

Jan.  18.  Left  Henfield.  Mr.  Borrer  conveyed  me  as  far  as 
Lewes,  where  we  called  on  Mr.  Woods,  and  then  Lingwood  took 
me  on  to  his  house  at  Frarafield.     Ball  was  visiting  him. 

Jan.  19.  Cambridge  Degree  Day.  Ball  would  have  taken  his 
degree,  if  a  Protestant. 

Jan.  26.     Went  to  the  station  of  Isnardia,  near  Buxted. 

Jan.  30.  Went  to  Maresfield ;  and  passing  Woods'  Nursery, 
turned  down  at  the  first  gate,  following  the  path  as  far  as  the 
brook,  then  crossing  a  foot-bridge,  and  turning  to  the  right,  at 
about  fifty  yards,  we  found  Stellaria  umhrosa  on  steep  banks  near 
the  brook ;  came  back  through  the  woods  and  by  Buxted. 

Feb.  6.     I  returned  to  Cambridge. 

Feb.  25.  Entered  Churchill  Babington  at  St.  John's  College, 
under  the  Rev.  John  Hymers. 

April  3.  Put  my  "  Primitiae  Florae  Sarnicae  "  in  the  hands  of 
Messrs.  Metcalfe  and  Palmer  to  print;  it  extends  to  ninety-three 
foolscap  pages  of  manuscript. 


1839]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE  AND  BATH.  79 

April  13.  Dined  with  Joseph  Power  with  the  other  members  of 
the  Eay  Club. 

April  20.     Ee-elected  President  of  the  "  Hendeka." 

April  22.  Meeting  of  the  Philosophical  Society.  I  had  a  party 
of  the  members  and  others  at  my  rooms  afterwards. 

April  25.  Went  with  Henslow  to  the  hills,  and  got  Anemone 
Pulsatilla. 

April  30.     Dr.  James  Wood,  Master  of  St.  John's,  died. 

May  7.     He  was  buried  in  the  College  Chapel. 

May  9.  Mr.  Blunt  was  elected  Lady  Margaret  Professor  of 
Divinity ;  many  of  the  non-resident  members  of  St.  John's  came  up 
on  this  occasion. 

May  18.  Botanical  party  to  Gamlingay,  Mr.  Eix  of  St.  Neots 
joined  us.  .  .  .  In  the  evening  attended  a  supper  given  by  the 
"  Hendeka  "  Society  to  Ball,  upon  occasion  of  his  leaving  the  Univer- 
sity.    It  went  off  very  well. 

May  24.  Went  to  London,  and  attended  the  Anniversary  and 
Dinner  of  the  Linnean  Society,  went  to  a  soiree  at  the  Bishop  of 
Norwich  (Stanley),  the  President. 

June  8.  Corrected  the  last  proof  of  my  "Primitiae  Florae 
Sarnicae." 

June  12.  My  "Primitiae  Florae  Sarnicae"  came  out. 

June  13.  Left  Cambridge  for  the  summer.  ...  To  Bath. 

June  29.  Went  to  Box  Quarries  to  botanize.  They  had  just 
commenced  the  railroad  between  Bathford  and  Box.  By  the  road 
side  near  Shockerwick,  I  gathered  a  Valeriana,  probably  samhucifolia. 

July  1.  Went  with  Mr.  T.  B.  Flower  to  Bristol,  and  then  walked 
to  Shirehampton,  where  we  called  upon  a  Mr.  Smith,  a  schoolmaster, 
who  pointed  out  to  us  the  fields  in  which  Drummond  found  the 
Trifolium  resupinatum.  They  were  then  an  open  common,  but  now 
cultivated  and  enclosed,  and  lie  between  Penpole  Point  and  the 
mouth  of  the  river  Avon.  After  a  careful  examination,  I  am  now 
of  opinion  that  the  plant  is  lost.  On  our  return  to  Bristol  we 
gathered  on  St.  Vincent's  Rocks  Bronms  diandrus  and  Trinia  glaher- 
rima,  the  latter  grows  upon  the  rocks  east  of  the  Clifton  footpath. 

July  2.  We  went  to  Cheddar,  and  spent  the  day  upon  the  cliffs 
there,  gathering  plenty  of  Dianthus  caesius. 

July  3.  Walked  back  to  Bath  by  way  of  Compton  Martin,  Chew 
Magna,  Stanton  Drew,  where  the  circle  of  Druidical  stones  is  still 
very  perfect.  (There  is  an  inner  and  outer  circle,  and  apparently 
also  a  cromlech).     Pensford,  Compton  Dando,  and  Corston. 

July  8.  Left  Bath,  and  met  Mr.  Borrer  at  Salisbury.  .  .  .  We 
arrived  at  Exeter  at  8  a.m. 


so  CHARLES  CARDALE   BABINGTON.  [1839 

July  9.  Went  to  Haldon  Hill  to  look  for  Elyna  carycim,  but 
did  not  find  it.  Found  Eriophorum  pubescens  at  the  bottom  of  a  wet 
hollow  below  the  road.  In  the  woody  ravine,  on  the  way  to  Chud- 
leigh,  grows  Stellaria  umbrosa,  Potamogeton  oblongus  in  plenty,  and 
also  Callitriche  platycarpa.  Went  in  the  evening  to  Okehampton  (a 
poor  little  place),  but  the  castle  (in  ruins)  is  very  fine. 

July  10.  To  Launceston,  through  a  very  fine  country,  having 
fine  views  of  the  moor.  The  church  is  interesting,  built  of  granite, 
and  each  stone  carved;  an  inscription  (each  letter  upon  a  single 
stone),  runs  round  near  the  base.  The  castle  is  very  fine.  Pro- 
ceeded to  Camelford,  and  found  the  town  full  of  lawyers,  so  went  to 
Trevenna  near  Tintagel. 

July  11.  Hunted  up  Scutellaria  hastifolia,  supposed  to  be  found 
here  by  Mr.  Borrer.  Found  Callitriche  pedunculata  and  platycarpa ; 
then  to  the  sea-cliffs  between  Tintagel  Church  and  the  Castle,  and 
iound  an  Allium  in  great  plenty,  supposed  to  be  ^.  sibiricum.  The 
castle  is  interesting,  many  walls  standing,  although  much  has  fallen 
down  with  the  cliffs.  Found  Pyrethrum  maritimum  and  Daucus  near 
Carota,  perhaps  gingidium.  Returned  to  Camelford,  and  gathered 
by  the  river  Senecio  erraticus. 

July  12.  The  morning  being  fine  we  started  (in  a  chaise)  to 
ascend  Rough  Tor,  a  very  lofty  hill  of  granite  near  Camelford.  .  .  . 
The  hill  is  a  fine  one,  and  has  a  Logan  on  its  top,  which  we  did 
not  find.  Gathered  both  Hymenophyllum  tunbridgense  and  Wilsoni, 
and  Mr.  Borrer  found  many  good  Lichens  and  Mosses. 

July  13.  To  Mitchell  and  Cubert,  to  see  the  old  Church  of 
Peranzabuloe,  which  is  very  small  and  has  one  little  window  on  the 
south  side  of  the  altar.  The  arched  doorway  is  destroyed.  Another 
church  has  been  removed  on  account  of  the  sands  since  this  one  was 
deserted.  The  sandhills  are  very  extensive,  but  produced  nothing 
of  importance.  On  our  onward  road  near  Peran's  Well,  we  found 
Cicendia  filiformis,  and  on  a  hill  above  it,  three  varieties  of  Euphrasia 
officinalis  which  look  very  different,  but  vary;  also  Gnccphalium 
dioicum.  The  country  most  uninteresting,  being  everywhere  covered 
with  the  barren  rubbish  from  the  mines.  Through  Redruth  and 
Camborne  to  Hayle  (a  rising  place),  and  Penzance;  having  fine 
views  of  the  river  and  port  near  St.  Ives,  and  the  bay  and  Mount 
of  St.  Michael's  near  Penzance.     Reached  Sancreed  by  9  p.m. 

July  14.  Sunday.  At  the  parsonage  of  Sancreed,  the  living  of 
the  Rev.  H.  Comyn,  who  kindly  received  us  during  our  stay  in  this 
part  of  the  country.  On  the  summit  of  a  hill  behind  the  church  is, 
what  appears  to  me  to  be  a  large  cromlech,  and  below  it,  on  the  hill- 
side, is  a  small  double  circle  of  Druidical  stones. 

July  15.  Mr.  Comyn  drove  us  to  Penzance,  and  we  called  upon 
the  Rev.  H.  Penneck,  who  showed  to  us  (in  some  orchards  at 
Larriggan,  between  Penzance  and  Newlyn),  Oxalis  stricta.     We  do 


1839]  JOURNAL— EXCURSIONS  IN  CORNWALL.  81 

not  consider  it  native,  although  long  naturalized.  We  then  went  to 
Mousehole,  and  on  the  way  called  upon  Mr.  Curnow  (a  gardener), 
who  took  us  to  one  of  the  stations  of  Iris  tuberosa  (not  now  in  flower), 
upon  a  hedge  bank  above  his  house.  Naturalized  (?)  At  Mousehole 
visited  a  cave  in  the  sea-cliffs  beautifully  hung  with  ferns.  By  it  I 
gathered  Lotus  major  fi  glaber,  Polygala  oxyptera.  Between  this  place 
■and  Penzance  the  road  is  carried  close  to  the  edge  of  the  cliffs, 
and  commands  fine  views  of  Mount's  Bay,  the  Lizard,  etc.,  and 
produces  plenty  of  Scrophularia  Scorodonia  on  its  banks.  We  then 
went  along  the  bay  (in  a  carriage)  through  the  poor  little  town  of 
Marazion,  and  nearly  as  far  as  St.  Breage,  when  we  turned  down 
towards  the  sea,  to  a  mine  named  Trewavas,  and  gathered  Lotus 
Mspidtis  on  the  rocky  slopes  to  the  west  near  the  Bishop's  Rock,  and 
Illecebrum  verticillatiim  in  a  damp  place  a  little  further  in  that  direc- 
tion.    Returned  home  at  10.30  p.m. 

July  16.  Went  to  the  Logan  stone,  to  which  I  ascended,  and 
moved  it.  The  rocks  near,  called  Trereen  Castle,  are  most  grand. 
Mr.  Borrer  and  I  walked  from  the  Logan  by  St.  Levan,  where  we 
found  Lotus  hispidus,  to  Tol  Peden  Penwith,  a  fine  promontory,  with 
a,  hole  like  the  Sarnian  Creux  by  it.  Then  to  the  Land's  End,  and 
White  Sand  Bay,  and  home. 

July  17.  We  went  to  Penzance,  and  thence  to  examine  the 
sands  near  the  Hayle  river.  First  visited  some  sands  near  Lelant, 
and  then  spent  some  time  upon  the  Phillack  Sands,  finding  nothing 
of  interest  upon  either.  The  latter  forms  a  splendid  range  of  sandhills. 

Jidy  18.  Mr.  Comyn  drove  me  to  Penzance,  and  I  went  and 
gathered  Cynodon  Dadylon  on  the  sands  of  the  bay,  at  a  place  where 
Ludgvan  Church  comes  into  a  line  with  a  farmhouse  near  some 
trees.  It  was  not  in  flower.  Acer  Fseudo-platamis  appears  to  be  a 
native  in  Cornwall;  it  occurs  everywhere,  even  by  the  side  of 
mountain  streams.     Mr.  H.  Penneck  dined  with  us. 

July  19.  Again  very  wet  and  stormy.  In  the  afternoon  Borrer, 
W.  Comyn,  and  I  walked  to  St.  Just  and  Cape  Cornwall,  and  found 
Hypericum  linariifolium  on  a  steep  slope  above  the  sea  (between  two 
prominent  masses  of  rock),  on  the  south  side  of  the  promontory 
before  reaching  the  lower  part  which  connects  the  conical  headland 
with  the  rest.  Cape  Cornwall  is  a  very  fine  Head,  well  deserving 
a  visit. 

July  20.  Went  to  Zennor,  a  very  small  place  upon  the  coast. 
On  the  way  ascended  Mulfra  Hill,  and  saw  an  overthrown  cromlech, 
consisting  of  three  uprights  and  one  very  large  slab^  which  had  lain 
upon  them,  of  eleven  feet  by  nine  and  one  thick.  Between  Zennor 
and  St.  Ives  we  ascended  Eosehall  Hill,  to  enjoy  the  view.  At 
St.  Ives  (a  small  and  poor  place)  Mr.  Penneck  met  us,  and  took  us 
to  a  small  cave  in  the  second  cove  towards  Hayle,  and  pointed  out 
a  profusion  of  Adiantum  Capillus-Veneris. 

6 


82  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1839 

July  22.  Left  Sancreed,  and  reached  Helston,  from  whence  we 
went  to  Euan  Minor  and  Grade  to  botanize,  but  the  wet  prevented 
our  doing  or  seeing  much.     Gathered  Eiica  vagans  on  the  road-side. 

July  23.  Foggy  all  day.  Went  to  the  Lizard.  Drove  to 
Kynance  Cove,  but  the  tide  was  in,  so  that  we  could  not  get  upon 
Asparagus  Island ;  walked  along  very  fine  cliffs  to  the  Soap  Rock, 
and  gathered  Allium  sibiricum,  Genista  pilosa,  and  tindoria  var.  Then 
walked  to  the  Lizard  Town  and  lighthouses.  Drove  to  Grade,  and 
walked  along  the  cliffs  to  Euan  Minor  by  Cadgwith,  near  which  is 
a  hollow  communicating  with  the  sea  by  a  cave  called  "Hugga 
Driggee."  On  the  north-west  side  of  this  hollow  we  found  Orobanche 
ruhi'a,  and  on  the  left  bank  ascending  towards  Euan  Minor  from  the 
village  a  curious  Trifolium. 

July  24.  By  Truro,  a  fine  town  (gathering  on  the  way  in  young 
woods  above  Perran  Warfe  Erica  ciliaris),  Grampound,  and  St. 
Austell,  where  is  a  fine  church  with  the  figures  remaining  in  the 
niches  of  the  tower  (the  church  at  Probus  is  a  finer  one),  to  Lost- 
withiel.  Walked  to  Restormel  Castle,  which  is  seated  upon  a  lofty 
conical  hill,  and  has  its  outer  wall  quite  perfect ;  it  is  circular,  and 
the  finest  of  its  kind  that  I  have  seen. 

July  25.  Along  a  beautiful  road  through  Liskeard  and  Callington 
to  Tavistock,  and  on  to  Ivybridge  by  the  Moor  Eoad  by  Meavy. 
(From  this  place  we  ascended  Sheep  Tor  under  the  guidance  of  the 
farmer  of  Longstone  farm).  It  is  a  superb  hill,  with  lofty  walls  of 
rock  upon  its  summit,  and  a  curious  hollow  under  the  stones  called 
the  Pixies'  Hole  (See  Mrs.  Bray's  Work). 

July  26.    To  Kingsbridge.    Visited  the  Start  Point  in  heavy  rain. 

July  27.  In  the  morning  to  Salcombe  and  the  Bolt  Head.  At 
Salcombe  the  Lemon  tree  grows  in  the  open  air,  only  covered  in 
winter  by  a  reed-mat ;  it  is  a  beautiful  place.  Returned  to  Kings- 
bridge,  and  went  by  Slapton,  where  is  a  fine  old  tower  of  a  monastery 
in  a  garden,  in  which  the  Polycarpon  tetraphyllum  grows;  by  the 
Slapton  Sands  finding  C&irigiola  litoralis  by  the  bridge ;  and  Black- 
pool Sands  near  Stoke  Fleming,  on  which  we  found  Euphorbia  peplis, 
to  Dartmouth.  This  is  a  curious  town,  with  streets  so  narrow  as 
scarcely  to  admit  a  carriage,  and  only  doing  so  at  each  end  of  the 
town,  and  seated  upon  a  very  beautiful  estuary  -with  finely  wooded 
banks,  presenting  the  appearance  of  a  succession  of  lakes.  We 
arrived  at  Torquay  in  the  evening. 

July  28.  I  spent  the  day  with  Mrs.  Griffiths,  the  famous  Algo- 
logist,  and  her  two  daughters,  and  gathered  Bupleurum  aristatum 
and  Helianthemum  polifolium  on  the  Beacon  Hill  and  point  of  land 
near  to  it. 

July  29.     A  very  wet  day ;  spent  it  with  Mrs.  Grifiiths. 


1839]  JOURNAL— EXCURSIONS  IN  DEVONSHIRE.  83 

July  30.  Left  Torquay.  A  very  wet  day,  the  roads  between 
Exeter  and  Sidmouth  were  much  flooded,  and  we  had  to  get  off  the 
coach  at  a  ford.     Parted  from  Mr.  Borrer  at  Torquay. 

July  31.  Walked  along  the  cliffs  towards  Otterton,  and  about 
the  town,  which  is  much  smaller  than  I  had  supposed. 

Aug.  1.  Walked  over  the  cliffs  to  the  east  of  the  town  until  I 
had  passed  the  two  first  hills,  and  then  along  the  beach,  nearly  as 
far  as  Branscombe;  returned  by  an  inland  road,  and  found  (as  I 
had  done  yesterday)  Schistostega  pennata  in  every  hole  in  the  hedge- 
banks. 

Aug.  2.  Went  to  Sidbury,  where  there  is  a  curious  old  church, 
and  gathered  by  the  way,  particularly  at  Sidford  (and  also  at  a 
cottage  to  the  left  of  the  road,  soon  after  leaving  that  which  leads 
to  Exeter),  plenty  of  Oxalis  corniculata  in  cottage  gardens,  where  it 
is  a  weed. 

Aug.  3.  Left  Sidmouth  by  coach  to  Taunton,  over  the  Black 
Down  Hills.  At  Taunton  could  not  get  a  place  by  the  morning 
coach,  so  walked  about  the  town  and  neighbourhood  until  2  p.m., 
when  proceeded  by  way  of  Tiverton  and  South  Molton  to  Barnstaple. 

Aug.  4.  Sunday.  Before  and  after  church  walked  by  the  side 
of  the  river  Taw  through  a  very  beautiful  country,  and  at  4  p.m. 
went  to  Ilfracombe ;  the  first  and  last  parts  of  the  road  are  interest- 
ing, through  wooded  valleys ;  the  middle  part  lofty  downs.  Went 
to  the  church  in  the  evening. 

Aug.  5.  Walked  by  the  coast  road  (which  is  all  up  and  down 
steep  hills)  by  Berry  Harbour  to  Coombe  Martin,  near  which  place 
I  noticed  the  red-stalked  form  of  Athyrium  Filix-femina  and  the 
scaly  one  of  A.  Filix-mas,  also  Atropa  Belladonna  and  Orobanche 
barbata.  Eeturned  by  the  inland  road,  which  is  much  longer,  but 
has  only  one  long  ascent  and  a  long  descent.  Trifolium  medium 
is  very  common  by  the  road-side.  Left  by  the  steam  vessel  at 
5  p.m.,  and  arrived  at  the  Mumbles  Lighthouse  at  about  9  p.m. 
As  the  tide  was  low,  we  had  to  land  at  the  Mumbles,  and  walk  to 
Swansea,  a  distance  of  five  miles. 

Aug.  6.  Called  on  Mr.  Flower,  who  was  in  lodgings,  and  he 
went  with  me  to  Pennard  Castle,  where  we  saw  plenty  of  the  Draba 
aizdides  on  the  walls  and  rocks  near  the  castle  (he  said  that  he  had 
seen  it  at  the  Worm's  Head)  and  Sinapis  Cheiranthus  on  the  steep 
side  of  the  sand  hills,  between  the  castle  and  the  sea,  towards  the 
river.  We  returned  by  the  coast,  and  examined  Oystermouth 
Castle,  a  fine  ruin,  on  which  grows  Orobanche  barbata.  Upon  rough 
waste  fields  near  the  town  W.  Flower  directed  me  to  Reseda  fruti- 
culosa. 

Aug.  7.  Mr.  C.  T.  Cayley  and  I  walked  up  the  river,  and  went 
over  the  copper  works  of  Messrs.  Vivian,  the  largest  in  existence. 


84  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1839 

Atig.  8.  Left  Swansea,  passing  by  way  of  Neath,  and  up  the 
beautiful  vale  of  that  name,  to  Merthyr  Tydvil.  We  walked  up 
the  valley  above  the  town,  when  Mr.  Cayley  attempted  to  fish,  and 
I  botanized,  not  finding  much  of  interest.  In  the  evening  we  went 
down  the  valley,  and  saw  part  of  Mr.  Crawshaw's  iron  works. 

Aug.  9.  Walked  down  the  valley  for  about  five  miles,  and 
found  it  to  be  very  beautiful.  Started  at  3.15  for  Brecon  in  an 
omnibus,  which  took  four  hours  in  going  nineteen  miles.  Un- 
fortunately it  rained  hard  as  we  were  passing  over  the  mountains, 
so  that  I  only  obtained  a  faint  idea  of  the  country.  The  Brecon 
Beacons  appear  very  fine  hills. 

Aug.  10.  Went  on  to  Hereford  by  way  of  Hay,  and  arrived  at 
Lingwood's,  Sufton  Court,  Mordiford,  before  dinner-time. 

Aug.  12.  Walked  about  the  neighbourhood,  and  noticed  by  the 
side  of  the  Wye  Arctium  Lappa  for  the  first  time. 

Aug.  13.  We  went  to  Worcester  by  way  of  Ledbury  and 
Malvern.  Mrs.  Lingwood,  Tom  Lingwood,  and  Miss  Helen  Ling- 
wood  accompanied  us.  On  the  way  ascended  the  Herefordshire 
Beacon,  upon  which  there  is  a  large  encampment ;  from  the  summit 
a  most  extended  view.  At  Worcester  we  saw  the  porcelain  works 
of  Barr  &  Co.,  the  new  County  Courts,  to  which  lodgings  for  the 
judges  and  magistrates  are  attached,  the  Natural  History  Society, 
the  Town  Hall,  and  the  Cathedral. 

Aug.  14.  Walked  along  the  road  towards  Lugwardine,  and 
after  crossing  the  brook  turned  to  the  right,  and  visited  a  curious 
mass  of  Trap  rock.  The  adjacent  strata  present  curious  appearances, 
resulting  from  the  roasting  heat  of  the  Trap. 

Aug.  16,  17.  Wet  weather.  On  the  latter  day  we  visited  the 
extensive  and  highly  interesting  collections  in  antiquities,  etc.,  of 
the  Kev.  C.  Bird,  the  Rector  of  Mordiford. 

Aug.  19.  Walked  to  the  top  of  a  hill  denominated  Backbury, 
on  which  there  are  some  fine  rocks,  and  an  extensive  view.  In  the 
afternoon  I  went  to  Fownhope. 

Aug.  20.  Went  to  Hereford,  and  saw  the  Cathedral,  some  parts 
of  which  are  fine,  from  the  Norman  arches,  etc.,  but  the  most  part 
is  uninteresting. 

Aug.  21.  Walked  over  the  hill  behind  the  house,  and  along  the 
valley  as  far  as  a  quarry  called  Chackley  (?),  where  we  got  numerous 
fossils  out  of  the  carboniferous  limestone. 

Aug.  23.  Walked  along  the  banks  of  the  Wye,  above  Mordiford 
Bridge,  until  it  again  met  the  Hereford  road,  and  found  plenty  of 
Mya  margaritifera  and  solida. 

Aug.  24.  Left  Sufton  Court,  and  reached  Birmingham  to 
attend  the  meeting  of  the  British  Association.  Lingwood  and  I  took 
lodgings  at  Mrs.  Harrison's,  10,  Anne  Street. 


1839]  JOURNAL— BIRMINGHAM  AND   CAMBRIDGE.  85 

Aug.  26.  Section  commenced  its  sittings.  But  few  in  number, 
and  papers  scarce. 

Aug.  29.  Yesterday  and  to-day  we  formed  a  private  dinner 
party  at  the  "  Red  Lion  "  Inn,  with  Dr.  Macartney  in  the  chair. 
{Note. — It  is  a  clean,  quiet  inn.) 

Aug.  30.  An  expedition  to  Dudley  took  place  to-day  by  barge. 
It  rained  very  hard ;  we  went  by  water  into  the  caves  at  Dudley, 
which  were  finely  illuminated,  and  most  beautiful.  Saw  the  Castle, 
and  a  fine  collection  of  fossils  in  the  infant  Museum.  Spent  a  very 
pleasant  day. 

Aug.  31.     The  meeting  terminated. 

Sept.  2.  Left  Birmingham  and  arrived  at  Croxall,  the  living  of 
.James  Gisborne. 

Sept.  4.     A  fine  Aurora  Borealis  this  evening. 

Sept.  IL  Reached  Yoxall  Lodge,  and  found  uncle  very  well,  and 
my  aunt  moderately  so. 

Sept.  20.  Went  with  Mr.  Gisborne  to  a  meeting  of  the  Bible 
Society  at  Burton-upon-Trent,  and  went  on  in  the  evening  to 
Thringstone,  to  spend  a  few  days  with  M.  D,  Babington. 

Sept.  27.  Went  by  coach  to  Coventry,  and  then  by  railroad  to 
London. 

Sept.  28.     Arrived  in  Cambridge. 

Sept.  30.  Dr.  Hancock's  steam  carriage  came  from  London  to 
Cambridge,  and  exhibited  on  the  Trumpington  Road  the  next  day. 
Henslow  came  up  in  order  to  pack  up  his  goods,  and  cease  from 
residing  in  Cambridge. 

Oct.  IL  Churchill  Babington  came  up  to  St.  John's  as  a 
Freshman  Pensioner.  I  got  rooms  for  him  in  my  own  staircase, 
Letter  A,  New  Court,  and  No.  9. 

Oct.  16.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Evans  came  to  Cambridge  to  put  William 
Evans  into  rooms  as  a  Fellow-Commoner  of  Trinity  College. 

Oct.  21,     Dined  with  them  at  the  "Hoop." 

Oct.  30.     First  meeting  of  the  Ray  for  the  year. 

Nov.  6.  Anniversary  meeting  of  the  Philosophical  Society,  at 
which  I  was  again  elected  a  Member  of  the  Council  of  the  Society. 

Dec.  7.  W.  S.  Hore  of  Plymouth,  who  had  come  up  to  take  his 
M.A.  Degree,  breakfasted  with  me. 

Dec.  8.     I  did  the  same  at  his  rooms  in  Queens'  College. 

Dec.  12.  Supper  at  Cartmell's,  to  meet  Lingwood  and  Hunt, 
who  both  left  Cambridge  the  next  day.  1  dined  with  Ward  of 
Magdalene. 

Dec.  18.     Went  to  Adolphus  Holmes'  at  St.  Margarets. 


SQ  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1840 

1840.  Jan.  1.  Left  St.  Margarets  and  went  to  Brockdish,  to 
the  west  of  Harleston,  to  visit  Whitear. 

Jan.  2.  We  went  to  Stratton  on  the  Norwich  road,  to  spend  the 
day  with  J.  L.  Brown,  the  curate  of  that  place,  and  he  returned 
with  us  in  the  evening. 

Jan.  3.  We  and  Brown  walked  to  Wingfield  Castle,  an  old  seat 
of  the  De  La  Pole  family.  The  entrance  gateway,  and  the  side  in 
which  it  is  placed  is  fine,  but  ruinous  within.  We  also  saw  Wing- 
field  Church,  which  is  very  well  worth  a  visit,  from  its  beautiful, 
perfect,  and  correct  architecture ;  and  also  several  fine  monuments, 

Jan.  5.  Sunday.  Walked  to  evening  service  at  Starston,  and 
heard  an  excellent  sermon  from  Mr.  Spencer. 

Jan.  6.  Went  with  Whitear  (who  is  a  Guardian),  to  the  meet- 
ing of  the  Board  at  the  Union  House  at  Pulham,  and  walked  back 
by  Harleston.    Went  to  tea  at  the  Squire's  house,  Mr.  Brettingham. 

Jan.  7.  Walked  to  Broome,  and  called  unsuccessfully  upon 
Mr.  Kirby  (Fellow  of  Clare  Hall),  and  Eye.  In  Broome  Church  are 
some  monuments  of  the  Cornwallis  family,  beautifully  restored.  At 
Eye  there  are  some  slight  remains  of  a  castle,  and  a  very  fine  church, 
now  undergoing  repairs. 

Jan.  10.     Penny  Postage  plan  came  into  operation. 

Jan.  13.     Dined  at  Mr.  Brettingham's  house. 

Jan.  14.  Went  to  Brockdish  Hall  to  see  some  Elizabethan 
remains,  but  consider  the  house  more  modern,  and  uninteresting ; 
also  to  Syleham  Church,  which  is  worth  a  visit. 

Jan.  16.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

Jati.  18.     Degree  Day. 

Feb.  3.  Went  to  London  and  attended  a  meeting  of  Entomo- 
logical Society. 

Feb.  4.     Linnean  Society. 

Feb.  5.     Geological  meeting. 

Feb.  6.  Went  to  Mr.  Forster's  at  Woodford,  and  the  next  day 
returned  to  Cambridge. 

Feb.  18.  Henslow  spent  the  day  in  Cambridge,  and  I  dined  in 
his  company,  with  Sedgwick  in  Hall,  at  Trinity. 

Feb.  19.  Ray  Club  met  at  my  rooms.  The  Rev.  Edward  Hill, 
of  Ch.  Ch.,  Oxon.,  came  to  the  Ray ;  he  had  not  been  in  Cambridge 
since  the  British  Association  meeting  here.  During  the  autumn  I 
was  elected  a  member  of  the  "  Brotherhood  of  the  Friends  of  Truth," 
a  society  instituted  for  the  purpose  of  combining  all  those  who  are 
in  pursuit  after  truth,  in  however  many  difi"erent  ways,  into  one 
body.     (See  letter  of  Edward  Forbes,  dated  Dec.  20,  1839.) 


1840]  JOURNAL— EASTER  VACATION.  87 

Feb.  20.     Dined  with  Stokes  of  Caius  to  meet  Mr.  Hill. 

Feb.  22.     Mr.  Hill,  Dr.  Paget,  and  Ansted  breakfasted  with  me. 

March  6.     Whig  dinner  at  the  Bull  Inn,  twenty-four  attended. 

March  7.  J.  Ball  came  to  Cambridge,  having  got  a  degree  at 
Dublin.  At  the  "  Hendeka "  meeting  that  evening.  Ball  in  the 
chair,  the  society  presented  to  me  a  copy  of  "  Hallam's  Constitutional 
History,"  as  a  "  mark  of  their  satisfaction  for  the  services  that  I  had 
rendered  to  the  society  at  the  time  when  it  was  in  a  state  of  de- 
pression, and  also  for  my  conduct  as  President  for  three  terms." 

March  9.     Dined  with  Cartmell  at  Christ's. 

March  10.     Dined  with  Joseph  Power  at  Trinity  Hall. 

March  11.  Had  a  dinner  party  consisting  of  J.  Ball,  W.  C. 
Lukis,  J.  Lukis,  Stokes,  J.  Francis,  J.  E.  Fitzgerald,  Ansted,  Joseph 
Power,  and  Churchill  Babington. 

April  7.  Left  Cambridge  for  the  vacation.  Dined  with  the 
Linnean  Club,  and  attended  the  meeting  of  the  society,  where  I  met 
W.  S.  Hore  of  Plymouth. 

April  8.     To  Bath  by  railway  to  Keading,  and  coach. 

April  15.  Went  to  Hampton  Wood,  and  found  the  Primrose, 
Wood  Anemone,  Yew,  etc.,  in  flower. 

April  18.  Went  to  the  new  garden  of  the  Horticultural  and 
Botanical  Society  in  the  Victoria  Park,  and  saw  there  a  fine  plant  of 
Ulex  strictus  in  full  flower.  Mr.  Baxter,  the  son  of  the  Oxford 
Curator,  has  the  management  of  the  garden. 

April  21.  Exhibition  of  the  Bath  Royal  Horticultural  and 
Botanical  Society  in  their  new  garden.  I  was  there  during  the 
whole  day.  More  than  2000  visitors  were  at  the  garden  during 
the  day. 

April  23.  Walked  to  Wyck,  and  looked  for  Gagea  lutea  at  the 
locality  under  Lansdown,  but  failed  in  finding  it. 

April  28,  Went  with  James  Gisborne,  Mr.  Charles  Hoi  worthy, 
and  Mr.  Edward  Holworthy  to  Middle  Hill,  to  Mr.  Henry  Hol- 
worthy's,  and  then  we  went  together  to  the  Box  Tunnel,  and  went 
down  the  shaft  No.  7,  walked  back,  and  dined  with  Mr.  Henry 
Holworthy,  and  then  returned  to  Bath  in  the  evening. 

April  30.  Left  Bath  by  the  "  Monarch  "  night  coach  at  8.15  p.m. 
and  reached  London  at  8  a.m.,  by  railroad  from  Reading.  The 
weather  had  been  particularly  hot  for  twelve  or  fourteen  days, 
often  in  the  shade  rising  to  70°  or  72°. 

May  1.     Reached  Cambridge. 

May  2.  Third  Anniversary  of  the  Ray  Club.  We  dined  with 
Garnons  at  Sidney  College. 


88  CHAELES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [184(> 

May  6.  Henslow  commenced  his  lectures.  Postage  stamps 
came  into  use.     Great  feast  at  St.  John's. 

May  7.  First  meeting  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society  at 
the  Master  of  St.  John's.     Dined  with  Professor  Willis. 

May  15.  Dined  with  Henslow  at  Downing,  and  met  Professor 
Starkie,  the  candidate  for  the  Town.  We  went  with  Starkie  to  a 
meeting  in  King  Street,  and  I  made  a  speech  in  his  favour. 

May  22.  The  botanical  party  into  the  Fens  took  place.  We 
had  a  fine  day ;  the  whole  passed  off  very  pleasantly. 

May  28.  The  botanical  party  to  Gamlingay.  A  fine  day.  Very 
few  insects  to  be  found. 

May  30,  The  "  Hendeka  "  Society  held  its  last  meeting,  having 
dissolved  itself  at  its  rising.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the  members 
at  this  time : 

*Joseph  Clark,  Christ's  College ;  *John  Ball,  Christ's  College ;  *Edmund 
Thompson, Christ's  College;  *Jaines  Francis, Christ's  College;  *Thomas. 
J.  Lingwood,  Christ's  College;  *  James  Back,  Christ's  College;  *Stephen 
Catley  Baker,  St.  John's  College ;  fFrederick  Wistinghausen,  Christ's 
College;  JJohn  W.  Reeves,  Christ's  College;  JJohn  Dunnington 
Fletcher,  Christ's  College ;  James  Edward  Fitzgerald,  Christ's  College ;. 
JCharles  C.  Babington,  St.  John's  College;  JHenry  Drury,  Caius 
College;  H.  J.  Marshall,  St.  John's  College;  R.  N.  Wood,  Jesus 
College ;  JFrancis  Baines,  Christ's  College ;  John  Pemberton  Bartlett> 
Christ's  College ;  R.  J.  Snape,  Christ's  College ;  John  Cartmell,  Pem- 
broke College ;  Edwin  H.  Vaughan,  Christ's  College. 

June  2.  Went  by  coach  to  Linton,  with  H.  C.  Rothery,  B.A.^ 
of  St.  John's,  and  then  walked  to  the  usual  hills  and  open  places  to 
which  Henslow's  class  have  been  accustomed  to  go,  but  found  that 
the  two  open  places  on  which  the  most  interesting  plants  were 
found,  had  been  ploughed  up.  It  came  on  to  rain  hard,  and  we 
walked  by  in  it,  going  along  the  Roman  Road,  and  then  turning 
down  to  the  station  for  Ophrys  aranifera,  but  found  that  some  one 
had  been  before  us  and  dug  up  all  the  plants. 

June  3.  Dined  in  Hall  at  Caius,  to  meet  Mr.  Brooke,  who  has 
recently  presented  a  fine  collection  of  shells  to  the  Woodwardian 
Museum. 

June  5.  Walked  with  Rothery  and  Churchill  Babington  to- 
Fulbourn  and  the  Little  Devil's  Ditch,  finding  the  chalk  plants  in 
perfection,  such  as  Hippocrepis  comosa,  Hedysarum  onoirychis,  Astragalus 
hypoglottis,  Orchis  ustulata,  etc.     Anemone  Pulsatilla  was  almost  over» 

June  8.  Left  Cambridge  for  a  short  time,  and  reached  St. 
Margarets,  Southelmham ;   at  Holmes',  in  the  evening. 

*  Original  Members  and  full  Honorary  Members,  f  Full  Honorary  Member. 
X  Honorary  Members. 

James  Francis  undertakes  to  keep  the  Minute-Book. 


1840]  JOTTRNAL— EXCURSIONS  IN  NORFOLK.  8& 

June  9.  Walked  with  Holmes  to  St.  Peters,  gathering  Trago- 
pogon  pratensis  (the  true  plant)  and  Aconitum  Napellus;  then  to 
Flixton,  finding  near  the  river  on  a  wooded  bank  Ornithogalum 
umbellatum,  and  returned  by  Homersfield. 

June  10.  Went  to  Southwold  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Holmes  and 
the  two  little  boys.  In  the  evening  found  Echinospermum  Lappula 
in  flower  on  the  further  part  of  the  inner  slope  of  the  beach  towards 
the  pier. 

June  11.  Walked  by  Walberswick  along  the  coast,  and  through 
the  marshes  to  Dunwich,  finding  Macroplea  zosterae  in  one  of  the 
ditches,  and  gathering  Glyceria  Borreri,  Bhjsmus  compressus.  The 
church  at  Dunwich  is  about  one  hundred  yards  from  the  edge  of  the 
cliff,  and  quite  in  ruins ;  behind  it  are  the  remains  of  a  monastery, 
but  of  very  little  interest.  Returned  by  the  new  church,  near  to 
which  there  is  an  interesting  ruin,  and  by  Little  and  Great  Dingle, 
and  so  across  the  marshes  to  Walberswick  Church,  which  is  a  very 
fine  ruin,  and  so  home.  We  gathered  near  Dunwich  on  our  return 
Trifolium  glomeratum. 

June  12.  Walked  along  the  coast  towards  the  north  by  Easton 
Bavent,  a  parish  which  is  nearly  washed  away,  Easton  Broad 
(a  large  sheet  of  water),  to  some  marshes  beyond  Covehithe,  where 
we  found  Garex  Fseudo-cyperus  and  paniculata.  Then  to  Covehithe 
Church,  a  fine  ruin,  and  home  by  the  inland  road.  In  a  swampy 
place  by  the  way  back  we  saw  some  Natterjacks,  Bufo  ruheta. 

June  13.  Examined  the  banks  close  to  the  sea,  near  to  the 
northern  end  of  the  town,  and  found  Medicago  denticulata  and  Tri- 
folium glomeratum.  Afterwards  we  walked  over  the  town  marshes, 
and  in  the  evening  returned  to  St.  Margarets. 

June   15.      Walked  to  the  river-side   above  Homersfield,  and 

found  Potamogeton  praelongus,  Stratiotes  aldides,  Sagittaria  sagittifoliay 
etc.     Also  saw,  not  in  flower,  fine  plants  of  Siuin  latifolium. 

June  16.  Drove  to  Bungay,  and  called  upon  Mr.  Stock,  then 
walked  to  the  Bath  Hills,  but  found  them  so  much  covered  with 
trees  and  bushes  that  we  could  get  nothing.  Noticed  Iris  foetidissima 
and  Helleborus  foetidus  in  the  wood.  Crossed  the  river  to  Bungay 
Common,  but  found  no  rare  plants.  We  hunted  for  Tillaea  in  the 
places  in  which  it  had  been  found,  but  could  not  obtain  any. 

June  17.  Mr.  Borrer  arrived,  and  we  walked  to  St.  Peters,  and 
on  our  return  found  in  a  field  at  St.  Margarets  Lolium  temulentum. 
Mr.  Borrer  brought  with  him  from  Eye,  specimens  of  Allium  ambig- 
uum,  gathered  this  day  by  the  side  of  the  hollow  path  ascending  to 
the  castle  of  that  place.     They  are  nearly  out  of  flower. 

June  18.  Holmes,  Borrer,  and  I  went  to  Southwold,  to  show 
Borrer  the  Echinospermum  Lappula.  On  the  way,  just  at  the 
entrance  of  Halesworth,  we  found  plenty  of  Anthriscus  Cerefoliumy 


90  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1840 

and  at  the  bottom  of  the  last  hill  before  that  Geranium  pyrendicum. 
At  Southwold  found  Poa  distans  on  the  sands,  Trifolium  wnitlw- 
podidides,  a  mealy  variety  of  Frankenia  levis,  near  Walberswick,  and 
several  other  things.  Mr.  Borrer  returned  to  London  by  the 
Yarmouth  mail. 

June  22.  Went  to  Mendham  Bridge,  where  we  borrowed  a 
boat,  and  went  some  way  up  the  river  Waveney,  having  some 
difficulty  to  push  through  the  weeds,  consisting  chiefly  of  Oenanthe 
Phellandrium.  We  gathered  a  quantity  of  Potamogeton  praelongv^  to 
send  to  Sowerby  for  "  Eng.  Bot.  Supplement." 

June  23.  Walked  to  the  marshes  near  Homersfield,  and  got 
specimens  of  Ranunculus  circinatus  for  Sowerby,  to  send  with  Pota- 
mogeton praelongus.  Dined  at  Mrs.  Holmes',  at  Gaudy  Hall,  and  met 
Sir  G,  Crewe. 

June  29.  Went  in  Holmes'  carriage  to  Beccles,  and  then  walked 
to  Yarmouth.  By  the  way  we  noticed  a  fine  Norman  tower  to  the 
Church  of  Gillingham;  a  very  remarkable  Saxon  window  in  the 
tower  of  Haddiscoe  Church,  and  had  much  pleasure  in  inspecting 
Burgh  Castle.  In  Haddiscoe  churchyard  gathered  a  Ballota,  pro- 
bably rvderalis.  We  saw  in  the  marshes  near  to  St.  Olave's  bridge. 
Althaea  officinalis,  and  A'pium  graveolens.  On  the  heath  near  Calde- 
cott  Hall  we  gathered  Datura  Stramonium,  and  saw  numerous 
Natterjacks,  and  also  Verhascum  pulverulentum. 

June  30.  Messrs.  Paget  called,  but  could  not  give  us  much 
botanical  information ;  they  directed  us  to  Mr.  Lowne,  a  pastrycook 
in  Broad  Row,  who  directed  us  to  several  plants.  We  first  crossed 
the  suspension  bridge,  and  gathered  Lotus  tenuis  in  the  marshes,  and 
then  returned  and  went  as  far  as  Caister,  and  found  there  Callitriche 
platycarpa,  and  on  the  sandhills  Corynephorus  canescens,  Elymus 
arenarius  in  flower.  We  then  went  to  the  South  Denes,  and  at 
about  fifty  yards  from  the  west  side  of  the  Barracks,  found  plenty 
of  Trifolium  suffocatum.     Walked  to  Lowestoft,  Crown  Inn. 

July  I.  Found  Urtica  pillulifera  in  plenty  under  walls  below  the 
hill  on  which  the  town  stands.  Examined  the  outlet  of  the  new 
harbour  of  Lake  Lothing,  and  walked  back  to  Beccles  by  way  of 
Kirkley,  Carlton  Colville,  Mutford,  Barnaby,  and  North  Cove.  At 
Beccles,  the  carriage  met  us,  and  took  us  back  to  St.  Margarets. 

July  3.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

July  8.  Went  to  Cherry  Hinton,  and  found  the  Bunium  Bulho- 
castanum  in  a  corn  field  on  the  south  side  of  the  road  to  the  hill, 
going  by  the  great  chalk  pit. 

July  13.  Whitear  and  Henslow  came  into  rooms  near  to  me  in 
College,  to  attend  the  meeting  of  the  Agricultural  Society. 

July  14.     Went  to  the  Hills  Road  Turnpike  to  see  a  ploughing 


1840]  JOUENAL— WELSH   TRIPS,  Etc.  91 

match.  The  whole  road  was  thronged  with  pedestrians,  and  persons 
in  carriages,  or  on  horseback.  Dinner  in  the  Hall  of  Trinity,  which 
went  off  very  well. 

July  15.  Went  to  the  Cattle  and  Implement  Show  at  6.30  a.m. 
and  returned  to  breakfast.  In  the  afternoon  went  again.  Much 
pleased  with  many  of  the  cattle,  and  also  with  the  implements,  some 
of  which  showed  great  ingenuity.  Dinner  in  the  great  temporary 
building  in  the  court  of  Downing  College;  at  which  2600  were 
present. 

July  16.  Grand  Horticultural  Show  in  the  building  of  Downing 
College. 

July  29.  Mr.  Borrer,  who  arrived  here  yesterday,  went  with  me 
to  Chesterton  to  gather  the  Ulva  furfuracea,  and  to  Cherry  Hinton  to- 
get  the  Bunium  Bulbocastamim. 

July  30.  Left  Cambridge  by  the  "Star,"  and  took  up  Mr. 
Borrer  at  Royston.  Went  on  the  same  evening  by  the  Hereford 
Mail,  by  the  Western  Railway,  to  Steventon,  and  then  by  way  of 
Oxford,  Cheltenham,  and  Ledbury,  reaching  Lingwood's  at  Sufton 
Court  to  breakfast  on  July  31. 

Aug.  6.  Started  on  a  trip  down  the  river  Wye.  We  went  in 
Lingwood's  carriage  to  Ross,  and  then  took  boat  for  Monmouth, 
visiting  Goodrich  Court  and  Castle  by  the  way.  The  collection  of 
armour  at  the  former  is  of  great  interest.  The  castle  is  a  fine  ruin, 
and  both  it  and  the  court  are  finely  situated.  Lower  down  the  river, 
Simmon's  Yat  is  a  place  of  great  grandeur. 

Aug.  7.  After  sleeping  at  Monmouth,  we  went  on  by  water  to 
Chepstow,  stopping  at  Tintern  by  the  way. 

Aug.  8.  Returned  to  Sufton  Court  by  way  of  Raglan,  Mon- 
mouth, and  Ross.  The  road  to  Raglan  commands  some  fine  views ; 
the  castle  is  a  grand  and  most  interesting  object. 

Aug.  10.     Went  to  Abergavenny  by  the  coach, 

Aug.  11.  Ascended  the  Blorenge,  and  endeavoured  to  find 
Teucrium  regium,  but  did  not  succeed.  Afterwards  went  to  Llan- 
thony  Abbey,  where  the  little  inn  kept  by  a  person  of  the  name  of 
Webb,  is  formed  out  of  parts  of  the  ruin  in  such  a  manner  as  not  to 
disfigure  it  at  all.  The  ruins  are  in  a  very  bad  state,  and  not  likely 
to  stand  much  longer. 

Aug.  12.  Walked  from  Llanthony,  up  the  valley  and  over  the 
Pass  of  the  Black  Mountains,  to  Hay,  and  then  returned  to  Sufton 
by  car. 

Aug.  16.  W.  Baily,  of  Clare  Hall,  whom  we  had  fallen  in  with 
at  Ross,  upon  our  trip  down  the  Wye,  and  who  had  accompanied 
us  upon  that  occasion  as  far  as  Simmon's  Yat,  came  to  Sufton. 


92  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1840 

Aug.  17.  Baily,  Lingwood,  and  I  examined  the  strata  of  the 
Ludlow  and  Wenlock  rocks  on  the  north-west  parts  of  the  Woolhope 
Valley.  We  met  with  numerous  broken  Trilobites  in  the  Wenlock 
shale.     Heavy  storms  of  rain  all  the  day. 

Aug.  18.  We  examined  to-day  that  portion  of  the  Woolhopa 
Valley  that  forms  the  southern  side  of  the  bounding  range,  and  the 
central  portion,  particularly  the  Caradoc  limestone  and  sand. 

Aug.  19.  I  left  Sufton  Court  this  morning,  and  went  by  way  of 
Birmingham  to  Liverpool,  and  then  took  the  steam  packet  to  Dublin, 
arriving  at  that  place  at  6  a.m. 

Aug.  20.  Called  upon  Mr.  Mackay  at  the  Botanic  Garden,  then 
went  to  Kingstown,  and  left  Dublin  by  the  mail  in  the  evening. 

Aug.  21.     Arrived  at  Westport  at  5  p.m. 

Aug.  22.  I  examined  the  neighbourhood  of  the  harbour  for 
some  hours,  and  then  went  to  Newport,  to  the  Rev.  G-.  Gildea,  wha 
is  rector  of  that  place. 

Aug.  23.  Sunday.  There  was  a  good  congregation.  I  under- 
stand that  there  are  about  500  Protestants  in  the  parish. 

Atig.  24.  Went  to  Burrishool  Abbey,  of  which  the  greater  part 
of  the  church  remains  pretty  perfect.  It  is  of  a  very  late  style  of 
architecture,  the  styles  being  much  mixed.  Then  crossed  the  lower 
of  the  Burrishool  Lakes,  by  going  over  Nixon's  Island,  in  a  flax  field 
in  which  I  found  a  small  quantity  of  Cuscuta  epilinum ;  then  followed 
the  road  upon  the  western  side  as  far  as  the  island  that  divides  the 
lakes ;  having  found  in  a  hollow  before  getting  to  the  "Leap"  plenty 
of  Eriai  mediterranea  in  a  swampy  place,  between  the  road  and  the 
lake.  The  Erica  also  occurs  upon  the  south  side  of  the  island  that 
divides  the  lakes.  Here  I  saw  Callitriche  pedmiculata  /3  sessilis,  and 
also  plenty  of  C.  platycarpa.  After  again  passing  to  the  eastern  side 
of  the  water,  I  went  to  the  upper  end  of  the  upper  lake,  and  then 
ascended  a  mountain  called  Buckough,  and  descending  upon  its  other 
side,  returned  to  Newport.  There  is  a  very  fine  view  from  the  top 
of  the  mountain,  including  the  whole  of  Clew  Bay,  the  Morisk 
Mountains,  Lough  Beltra,  and  most  of  Erris.  The  lakes  of  Burris-^ 
hool  communicate  by  two  streams  with  a  great  fall ;  the  lower  one 
is  affected  by  the  tide. 

Aug.  25.  We  went  in  a  boat  for  some  distance  amongst  the 
islands  of  the  bay. 

Aug.  26.  Walked  to  an  old  castle  on  the  coast  beyond  Burris- 
hool, called  Carrigachouley,  and  returned  by  an  old  and  very  bad 
road  to  the  Burrishool  bridge.  Found  a  little  more  of  the  Cuscuta 
epilinum.  Then  went  along  the  new  road  to  Castlebar,  as  far  as  the 
place  where  it  joins  the  old  one,  by  which  I  returned.  In  the  lake 
between  these  roads  I  determined  that  the  long-leaved  Potamogeton 
that  is  so  common  in  this  country,  but  so  rarely  flowers,  is  P.  hetero- 
phyllus  [since  determined  to  be  P.  lanceolatus,  1864]. 


1840]  JOURNAL— EXCURSIONS   IN  IRELAND.  93 

Axog.  28.  Went  by  car  to  the  Sound  of  Achill,  where  I  stopped 
for  the  night.  The  drive  from  Newport  (seventeen  Irish  miles)  is 
particularly  interesting,  as  it  affords  extensive  views  of  Clew  Ba};-, 
and  after  passing  Mulraney,  and  entering  Coraawn  Achill,  passes 
round  a  very  fine  mass  of  mountains,  amongst  which  a  few  red  deer 
still  remain.  I  have  reason  to  believe  that  I  saw  some  of  them 
passing  along  the  highest  ridge  of  one  of  the  mountains.  At  a  very 
short  distance  to  the  west  of  Mulraney,  the  Erica  mediterranea  is 
found  in  great  plenty,  growing  sometimes  to  five  or  six  feet  high, 
and  looking  like  underwood  upon  the  mountain  side. 

Aug.  29.  Walked  from  the  Sound  to  Dorga,  and  then  crossed 
the  Minnaane  Mountain  to  Dookinelly,  and  so  to  the  Missionary 
Settlement.  The  sea  cliffs  of  the  Minnaane  are  very  fine,  and  the 
walk  over  them  of  great  interest.  At  the  settlement  I  found 
Mr.  Coneyes  (assistant  to  Mr.  Nangle,  who  was  absent)  and  Dr. 
Adams,  both  of  whom  were  very  kind  and  attentive  to  me.  Lord 
Adare  was  at  the  hotel. 

Aug.  30.  Simday.  Saw  all  the  children  collected,  to  the  number 
of  more  than  100.  After  church  went  to  the  top  of  Slievemore 
Mountains,  which  I  found  a  work  of  some  difficulty,  but  was  well 
repaid  by  the  view  from  the  top.  The  mountains  in  Achill  are 
remarkably  steep  on  all  sides.  A  very  large  quantity  of  land  has 
been  brought  into  cultivation  by  the  settlement,  and  I  found  the 
whole  establishment  so  far  superior  to  what  I  had  expected  that  I 
cannot  do  less  than  praise  it. 

Aug.  31.  Walked  through  the  village  of  Slievemore,  and  over 
a  hill  (leaving  an  old  look-out  tower  to  the  right)  to  a  pretty  little  lake 
called  Lough  Nageerage  ;  then  on  to  near  the  point  of  Saddle  Head, 
up  the  face  of  Croghan  Mountain,  over  it  to  Achill  Head,  returning 
by  Keem,  Dooagh,  and  Keel.  The  cliffs  of  Croghan  are  of  stupendous 
grandeur  when  seen  from  Saddle  Head,  and  also  from  their  tops ; 
they  are  as  if  a  mountain  of  2500  feet  had  been  split  from  top  to 
bottom,  and  one  of  the  parts  taken  away.  The  cliffs  also  near  to 
Achill  Head  are  very  fine.  The  view  from  the  road  near  to  Keem 
takes  in  all  the  mountains,  from  "  the  Pins,"  in  Connemara,  to  the 
summit  of  Ballycroly. 

Sept.  1.  Walked  to  the  Sound  to  breakfast,  and  returned  to 
Newport  by  car. 

Sept.  3.  Left  Newport  by  the  mail  car  to  Castlebar,  at  which 
place  I  had  to  remain  until  3  p.m.  The  view  from  a  burying  ground 
above  the  town  is  very  pretty.  Reached  Ballina  at  6  p.m.  by  the 
Pun  toon  road,  along  the  shores  of  Lough  Conn  and  Lough  Cullen. 
The  part  of  the  road  near  to  the  lakes  winds  more  (to  avoid  the 
rocks  and  water)  than  any  road  that  I  have  ever  seen.  The  views 
are  beautiful.  .  .  .  The  town  has  all  the  appearance  of  being  a 
rising  place ;    there  are  two  fine  stone  bridges,  a  handsome  new 


94  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1840 

Gothic  Eoman  Catholic  Cathedral,  good  streets  and  houses.  I  saw 
eight  or  ten  salmon  leap  quite  out  of  the  river. 

Sept.  4.  Lord  Adare  came  in  unexpectedly,  and  we  went  on  in 
company  to  Sligo.  It  is  a  dreary  road,  but  after  the  first  half  is 
passed  the  views  of  the  sea  and  the  On-mountains  are  fine,  and 
continually  changing.  There  is  a  fine  waterfall  at  Ballisadare. 
The  agriculture  improves  greatly  as  we  approach  Sligo,  which  is  a 
prosperous,  well-built  town.  Lord  Adare  and  I  went  on  immediately 
by  car  to  Lissadell,  the  seat  of  Sir  Robert  Gore  Booth,  and  arrived 
there  to  dinner  at  7  p.m. 

Sept.  5.  Walked  to  the  summit  of  Ben  Bulben,  and  then  followed 
the  lower  edge  of  the  cliff  quite  round  the  two  angles,  finding  the 
Koeleria,  supposed  to  be  valeriaea*  in  great  plenty,  also  Saxifraga 
aizdides,  and  a  small  quantity  of  Polygonum  viviparum.  Then  joined 
Sir  Robert  on  the  summit,  and  walked  along  the  top  to  a  cave  on 
the  further  side  of  Ben  Weshin,  called  "Lobiermot."  Near  the 
mouth  of  it  found  a  great  quantity  of  Arenaria  ciliata.  The  cave  is 
difficult  of  access,  and  the  ascent  from  it  to  the  top  of  the  mountain 
very  much  so.  The  summit  flat  of  these  mountains  is  curiously 
marked  with  deep  holes  descending  through  the  bog,  and  to  some 
distance  into  the  limestone.  We  returned  across  a  valley  called 
Glen  Gormagh,  full  of  bog,  and  singularly  full  of  deep  hollows 
between  the  parts  of  it,  so  as  to  make  the  walking  very  difficult. 
At  DrumclifF,  between  Sligo  and  Lissadell,  there  is  a  fine  cross  of 
the  most  ancient  form,  and  the  base  of  a  Round  Tower. 

Sept.  7.  Left  for  Derry,  with  Sir  R.  Gore  Booth.  Bundoran  is  a 
neat  watering-place  near  to  the  dirty  town  of  Ballyshannon,  at  which 
we  breakfasted.  Donegal  is  a  very  poor  place.  To  the  north  of 
this  last  town  the  road  passes  through  a  fine  mountain  valley  for 
some  miles,  and  then  enters  a  much  improved  country,  which 
continues  as  far  as  Derr)\ 

Sept.  8.  As  the  steamer  left  Derry  early  in  the  morning,  I  was 
unable  to  see  anything  of  the  town.  We  had  a  most  interesting 
sail  along  the  coast  of  Ireland,  by  the  Giant's  Causeway,  Fair  Head, 
etc.,  and  by  the  aid  of  the  captain's  glass,  saw  every  place  very 
completely.  We  reached  Campbelltown,  on  the  Mull  of  Cantire,  in 
the  evening,  and  immediately  went  on  board  Sir  Robert's  yacht, 
the  "  Gleam,"  of  thirty  tons. 

Sept.  9.  Sailed  up  the  estuary  by  Arran  to  Loch  Gilphead  on 
Loch  Fyne,  with  a  favourable  wind,  and  a  fine  day.  On  board  are 
Mr.  James  and  Mr.  Wentworth  Gould,  brothers-in-law  to  Sir  Robert. 

Sept.  10.  This  day  was  spent  in  passing  through  the  Crinan 
Canal,  which  is  conducted  through  a  very  interesting  country.  It 
now  blows  hard. 

*  Now  cristata. 


1840]  JOURNAL— SCOTLAND.    BRITISH  ASSOCIATION.  95 

Sept.  11.  Blowing  hard.  Walked  along  the  coast  towards  the 
south,  and  then  went  up  the  mountains,  but  found  no  plants. 
Much  pleased  with  my  walk. 

Sept.  12.  Still  blowing  too  hard  to  start.  Walked  with  Mr. 
Campbell  of  Jura  as  far  as  the  head  level  of  the  canal,  and  then 
botanized  upon  the  mountain,  and  returned  by  the  road.  On  the 
hill  near  the  head  level  of  the  canal,  I  found  Cuscuta  epilinum  in  a 
flax  field. 

Sept.  13.  Sailed  from  the  Crinan,  and  passed  through  some 
tideways  that  reminded  one  of  the  Nau  of  Alderney.  We  had  a 
splendid  sail  amongst  the  islands,  by  Jura  and  Mull,  and  through 
the  Sound  of  Mull  to  Tobermory. 

Sept.  14.  I  landed  at  Tobermory,  to  return  to  Oban  by  the 
steamer.  Walked  along  the  coast  for  two  or  three  miles  in  both 
directions  from  the  town,  and  was  much  pleased.  The  town  is  a 
pretty  little  place. 

Sept.  15.  Close  to  the  town  of  Oban  I  found  in  a  potato  field 
plenty  of  Lamium  intermedium,  and  Galeopsis  versicolor.  Went  by 
coach  to  Inverary,  by  way  of  Taynuilt  and  Loch  Awe.  The  views 
of  Ben  Cruachan  were  grand. 

Sept.  16.  Reached  Glasgow  by  way  of  Lochgoil  Head.  Joined 
Lingwood  in  lodgings.     British  Association. 

Sept.  17.  Meeting  of  the  Sections  in  the  College.  Dined  at  the 
Ordinary,  which  was  poor. 

Sept.  18.  We  reestablished  our  Extraordinary,  at  the  "Thistle," 
in  Glassford  Street. 

Sept.  19.  After  the  meetings  were  over,  Lingwood  and  I  went 
by  the  coach  to  Lanark.     Sept.  21.     Returned  to  Glasgow. 

Sept.  23.  The  meeting  terminated.  Lingwood  and  I  went  to 
Stirling  in  the  evening. 

Sept.  24.  Saw  Stirling  Castle,  which  fully  comes  up  to  the 
accounts  of  it,  both  in  itself  and  also  the  view  from  it.  The  town 
also  is  a  nice  place.  Started  at  1  o'clock  by  steam  vessel  for  Edin- 
burgh, and  enjoyed  the  sail  down  the  Forth.  The  windings  of  the 
river  near  Stirling  are  very  remarkable,  and  the  views  of  the  Ochill 
Hills  and  the  Castle,  very  fine.  Afterwards  the  broad  estuary  is 
highly  interesting.  Reached  Granton  Pier  at  about  5  and  went  to 
the  Waterloo  Hotel. 

Sept.  26.  Breakfasted  with  Dr.  J.  H.  Balfour,  and  then  walked 
with  a  party  of  about  twelve,  to  Blackford  Hill,  Corstorphine  Hill, 
Craigleith  Quarry,  and  to  a  fish  dinner  at  Newhaven. 

Sept.  28.     Lingwood  left  for  England.     Dr.  Lankester  and  I 

took  lodgings  at  Mrs.  Cossar's,  14,  Frederick  Street Dined 

with  Dr.  Graham. 


S6  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1840 

Sept.  29,  Spent  the  morning  in  the  rooms  of  the  Botanical 
Society.     Dined  with  Dr.  Greville. 

Sept.  30.  At  work  in  the  botanical  room.  Supper  at  Edward 
Forbes',  21,  Lothian  Street. 

Oct.  1.     Dined  with  Balfour. 

Oct.  2.     Supper  at  Dr.  A.  D.  Maclagan's. 

Oct.  3.  Went  to  the  Zoological  Gardens,  and  walked  to  New- 
haven  and  Granton.     Fish  dinner  at  Newhaven. 

Oct.  4.     Sunday.     After  church  walked  with  Campbell  to  Leith. 

Oct.  5.  Spent  the  morning  in  the  Botanical  Garden  with  Pro- 
fessor Link  of  Berlin,  and  Dr.  F.  J.  Klotzsch  of  the  same  place. 
Dined  with  Mr.  Lizars,  the  engraver,  to  meet  Sir  W.  Jardine. 

Oct.  6.     Dined  with  Balfour,  to  meet  Link  and  Klotzsch. 

Oct.  7.     Breakfasted  with  Greville. 

Oct.  9.     Dined  with  James  Wilson. 

Testimonial  given  to  J.  H.  Balfoue,  M.D. 

"  Learning  that  Dr.  J.  H.  Balfour  is  a  candidate  for  the  Professorship  of 
Botany  in  the  University  of  Glasgow,  about  to  be  vacated  by  Sir  W.  J. 
Hooker,  it  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  be  enabled  to  express  my  very 
high  opinion  of  bis  scientific  attainments,  and  to  declare  that  I  am 
fully  convinced  that  it  would  be  difficult  to  find  a  better  successor  to 
the  above  distinguished  Botanist. — C.  C.  B." 

[^Note. — He  was  elected  in  May,  1841.] 

Oct.  12.  Left  Edinburgh  by  the  Dumfries  mail  for  Sir  W. 
Jardine's.  The  ride  is  a  beautiful  one,  and  amongst  other  places 
we  passed  the  spot  mentioned  by  Scott  in  "  Redgauntlet "  as  the 
site  of  the  escape  of  some  of  his  characters. 

Oct.  16.  Lankester  and  I  went  to  Lochmaben.  The  castle  is 
very  remarkable  for  its  immensely  thick  walls  and  fine  situation. 

Oct.  20.  Went  to  dine  at  Mr.  Younger's,  of  Craigielands,  near 
Beattock.  We  walked  up  a  beautiful  ravine,  down  which  a  brook 
flows  from  near  to  Auchen  Castle,  and  visited  the  castle  itself,  which 
is  quite  a  ruin. 

Oct.  21.  After  sleeping  at  Mr.  Younger's,  we  went  to  the 
mineral  spring  at  Moffat,  and  in  the  ravine  below  it  examined  the 
junction  of  the  New  Red-sand  with  the  whinstone  of  the  country, 
the  latter  possibly  representing  the  Old  Red-sand  formation. 

Oct.  22.  Intended  to  have  left  Jardine  Hall,  but  could  not  get 
places. 

Oct.  23.  Left  by  the  Carlisle  mail  at  3  p.m.,  and  proceeding  by 
railroad,  reached  London  at  1.15  p.m.  the  next  day. 

Oct.  24.     Arrived  at  Cambridge  in  the  evening. 


1840—41]      JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE  ENGAGEMENTS,  Etc.  97 

Nov.  9.     Henslow  came  for  a  few  days. 

Nov.  11,  12,  13.     Election  of  High  Steward. 

Nov.  23.     Annual  Dinner  of  the  Philosophical  Society. 

Nov.  25.     Dinner  of  the  Kay  Club,  at  Dr.  Paget's  rooms. 

Dec.  9.     Professor  Sedgwick  gave  a  dinner  to  the  Kay  Club. 

Dec.  13.     Frost  commenced. 

Dec.  14.     Thermometer  last  night  at  21°. 

Dec.  15.     Thermometer  at  17°. 

Dec.  16.     Heavy  fall  of  snow.     Temperature  last  night  15°. 

Dec.  31.     Thaw.     Dined  with  Mr.  Ashton. 

1841.  Jan.  3.  A  very  severe  thunderstorm  this  morning, 
between  5  and  6  o'clock.  The  day  turned  to  snow  in  the  after- 
noon, which  continued  through  the  two  next  days. 

Jan.  7.  Temperature  last  night  12°.  In  the  middle  of  to-day 
21°  Fahr. 

Jan.  8.  Temperature  last  night  6°.  In  the  middle  of  to-day 
15°  Fahr. 

Jan.  9.  In  the  middle  of  last  night  the  temperature  was  as  low 
as  0°  or  even  lower.     I  went  inside  to  Woodford. 

Jan.  11.  In  London.  Took  tea  with  Dr.  Lankester,  and  met 
Dr.  Vogel. 

Jan.  12.  Went  to  Henfield,  and  took  Churchill  Babington  with 
me.  We  remained  at  Mr.  Borrer's  until  Friday,  and  then  returned 
by  London  to  Cambridge. 

Jan.  22.     I  dined  to-day  with  Mr.  R.  Taylor. 

Jan.  23.  Arrived  in  Cambridge.  The  roads  had  been  so  much 
injured  by  the  bad  weather  that  the  "  Star "  coach  was  one-and-a- 
half  hours  after  its  time. 

Feh.  3.     Had  the  Ray  at  my  rooms. 

Feb.  18.     Dined  with  the  Master  (Dr.  Tatham)  at  the  Lodge. 

March  1.     Whig  Dinner  at  the  "Bull." 

March  2.     Dined  with  J.  J.  Smith  at  Caius. 

March  19.  The  Council  of  the  Philosophical  Society  dined  with 
the  President,  the  Master  of  Peterhouse,  Dr.  Hodgson. 

March  26.  Went  to  London,  where  I  saw  Dr.  Balfour,  who  was 
in  the  pursuit  of  the  Chair  of  Botany  in  Glasgow.  I  dined  with 
Dr.  Lankester,  at  University  College  Hospital,  where  he  was  acting 
as  the  House  Physician. 


98  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1841 

March  27.  Met  Kothery  in  the  street.  Left  London  at  2  p.m. 
by  railway,  and  reached  Wootton  Bassett  at  5,  and  Bath  by  coach 
at  9.30. 

Testimonial  to  Edwabd  Foebes. 
"  Believing,  as  I  do,  that  the  Professorship  of  Natural  History  in  the 
University  of  Aberdeen  could  not  be  held  by  a  person  better  qualified 
to  fulfil  its  duties  with  honour  to  himself  and  advantage  to  the  Univer- 
sity than  Mr.  Edward  Forbes,  it  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  testify  to 
his  high  scientific  attainments,  and  to  his  enthusiastic  and  successful 
pursuit  of  Natural  History,  and  to  recommend  his  appointment  to  that 
distinguished  oflSice. — C.  C.  B." 
[Note. — He  was  too  late  in  his  application]. 

March  30.  Attended  the  wedding  of  Miss  F.  Bates  and  Thomas 
Pycroft,  at  St.  Saviour's  Church.  Mrs.  Bates  afterwards  gave  a 
breakfast  to  a  very  large  party,  and  Mr.  Pycroft  the  elder  gave  a 
large  dinner  party. 

April  12.  Went  with  T.  Fortune  to  Bristol,  and  examined  the 
large  iron  steam  vessel  now  building  by  the  Great  Western  Steam 
Ship  Co.,  and  also  the  fine  machinery  for  the  manufacture  of  its 
engines,  etc.  The  vessel  is  to  be  worked  by  means  of  the  "  Archi- 
medean Screw."  Afterwards  we  went  to  look  at  the  progress  which 
had  been  made  in  the  Clifton  Suspension  Bridge.  At  this  time  the 
piers  upon  both  sides  are  complete. 

April  15.  Mr.  Haslam  and  I  walked  to  Wyck,  examining  by 
the  way  the  Hanham  (?)  rocks  for  Gagea  lutea,  but  could  not  find  it. 
Dined  with  a  party  at  my  uncle's,  Dr.  Whitter's. 

April  16.  To-day  we  walked  to  Warleigh,  where  we  found  by 
the  footpath  some  peculiarly  fine  Morels,  and  then  along  the  top  of 
Farleigh  Hill  to  Bathford,  and  home. 

April  17.  We  walked  to  Ashley  Wood,  and  found  Lathraea 
squamaria  in  plenty,  and  South  Wraxhall — Wraxhall  Hall  is  fast 
going  to  decay — returning  by  Monckton  Farleigh.  My  aunt  had  a 
party  to  meet  the  Haslams  this  evening. 

April  20.  Horticultural  Show  in  the  Botanical  Garden  at  the  Park. 

April  21.  Haslam  and  I  walked  over  Charmy  Down  to  the 
upper  end  of  St.  Catherine's  Valley,  and  found  great  plenty  of 
Hellehorus  foetidus  and  one  plant  of  Doronicum  Pardalianches,  the 
latter  not  yet  in  flower ;  returned  by  Batheaston,  after  inspecting 
the  fine  old  house  at  St.  Catherine's.     Dined  with  Haslam. 

April  22.  We  walked  to-day  over  Claverton  Down  to  the 
Aqueduct,  and  along  the  valley  to  Midford  Castle,  then  by  Coombe 
Down  home.     Dined  with  Dr.  Totty. 

April  23.  Attended  a  meeting  of  the  members  of  the  Bath 
Horticultural  and  Botanical  Society  to  pass  some  new  laws,  and 
was  one  of  a  committee  for  the  revival  of  some  of  them.  Dined 
with  Dr.  R.  W.  Falconer. 


1841]  JOUENAL— CAMBRIDGE  AND  BATH.  99 

April  24.     Dined  with  Mr.  Walmesley. 

April  27.  Left  Bath  at  7.40  a.m.  by  the  "  Eclipse  "  coach  to  the 
Wootton  Bassett  station,  and  reached  London  at  2,15  p.m.  Left 
town  at  6.30  p.m.,  and  reached  Cambridge  at  1.30  a.m.  April  28. 

May  4.     Dined  with  the  Vice-Chancellor,  Dr.  Graham,  Christ's. 

May  5.     Ray  Club  met  at  my  rooms. 

May  8.     Dined  at  Caius  to  meet  G.  V.  Jackson  of  Mayo. 

May  15.  The  Botanical  party  to  Burwell  Fen.  We  had  a  very 
fine  day,  but  it  was  rather  too  early  in  the  season,  so  that  but  few 
of  the  plants  were  come  into  flower. 

May  17.     Dined  with  Bateson  to  meet  a  party  of  Whigs. 

May  18.     Dined  with  Professor  Willis. 

May  19.     In  Hall  at  Jesus,  with  Ansted. 

May  20.  Mr.  Haslam  came  to  spend  a  few  days  here,  and  joined 
the  Botanical  party  to  Gamlingay  on  the  21st. 

May  22.  Haslam  and  I  walked  to  Cherry  Hinton  and  over  the 
"Gogs,"  returning  by  the  Hills  Road.  Found  a  few  of  Anemone 
Pulsatilla  in  flower,  also  Cineraria  campestris ;  Bunium  Bulhocastanum 
getting  far  on  towards  flowering. 

May  24.  Haslam  and  I  went  to  London  together,  and  attended 
the  meeting  and  Anniversary  Dinner  of  the  Linnean  Society. 

May  25.  Called  upon  Lord  Adare,  but  found  that  he  had  that 
morning  left  town.  Haslam  introduced  me  to  Dr.  Hoskins  of 
Guernsey. 

May  27.  Dined  at  Downing;  it  being  Henslow's  last  day  in 
Cambridge. 

May  28.     Breakfasted  with  Lucas  at  Downing. 

May  29.     Dined  with  Sedgwick  to  meet  the  Ray  Club. 

June  10.  After  some  peculiarly  fine  and  hot  weather,  it  now 
became  so  cold  as  to  require  fires  again. 

June  11.     The  thermometer  showed  50°  and  52°. 

June  14.  Left  Cambridge  by  the  "Star,"  and  reached  Bath  at 
7.30  p.m.  the  same  day. 

June  15.  Went  to  tea  at  Lady  Carrington's,  in  the  Circus,  to 
meet  Miss  Trevelyan,  to  whom  James  Gisborne  is  going  to  be 
married. 

June  16.  Haslam  and  I  walked  to  Monckton  Farleigh  and 
Wraxhall,  and  found  plenty  of  Ornithogalum  pijrenaicum,  etc. 

June  19.  Went  with  W.  Falconer  to  Wyck.  We  gathered 
Sedum  album  on  the  ledges  of  the  rock  near  to  the  lime-kiln  on  the 
north  side  of  the  river. 


100  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1841 

June  21.  "Walked  with  Haslam  to  Prior  Park  to  shew  the  station 
for  Euphorbia  pilosa  to  Major  Champ. 

June  22.  Horticultural  Show  at  the  Victoria  Park.  I  spent 
the  whole  day  there,  to  assist  the  committee,  and  dined  with  them 
afterwards. 

June  23.  My  aunt  Bedford,  Miss  Nash,  Dr.  Falconer,  and  I 
went  by  the  rail  to  Weston-super-mare.  Falconer  and  I  walked 
out  all  the  morning  to  botanize ;  we  went  along  the  shore  to  the 
mouth  of  the  river  Axe,  intending  to  cross  over  to  Brean  Down, 
but  learned  that  if  we  did  so,  we  could  not  be  home  in  time  to 
return  to  Bath.  We  found  Trifolium  maritimum  near  the  river 
mouth  on  a  bank,  and  Ophrys  apifera  and  Oenothera  biennis  (not  in 
flower)  in  a  small  wood  at  a  short  distance  from  the  sea  through 
which  we  returned.  After  skirting  the  town  on  the  land  side,  we 
ascended  the  hill  on  the  north  by  a  rustic  road  close  to  the  sea,  and 
found  Urtica  dioica,  var.,  longifolia.  By  the  side  of  the  road  to  the 
baths,  upon  heaps  of  rubbish,  we  found  Reseda  alba  or  fruticulosa  in 
plenty.  Having  left  Bath  at  8.30  a.m.  we  got  back  by  10  p.m. 
We  were  out  in  several  heavy  storms. 

June  28.  The  nomination  of  candidates  for  the  Bath  Election ; 
all  went  off  very  well.  The  Tory  party  made  an  attempt  upon  the 
flags  of  the  reformers,  which  was  returned  by  their  having  all  their 
own  destroyed.     In  other  points  the  day  went  off  quietly. 

June  29.  This  morning  James  Gisborne  was  married  to  Miss 
C.  Trevelyan,  at  Walcot  Church.  Lady  Carrington,  her  mother,  gave 
a  grand  breakfast  afterwards  at  No.  30,  Crescent.  The  Bath  Election, 
at  which  Lord  Duncan  and  Roebuck  were  returned  by  a  great 
majority  over  Powerscourt  and  Bruges.  Dined  with  Dr.  Falconer 
to  meet  Bell  of  Oxford. 

June  30.  Great  Western  Railway  opened  throughout.  Chairing 
of  the  members.  A  splendid  procession  of  the  trades  and  gentle- 
men's carrriages.     A  fine  day,  and  all  went  off  quietly. 

July  2.  Falconer  and  I  went  by  the  railway  to  Chippenham, 
and  then  walked  to  Langley  Marsh,  where  we  found  several 
interesting  plants :  Cnicus  pratensis,  Serratula  tinctoria,  Myosotis 
versicolor,  Habenaria  bifolia  (Bab.),  etc.  The  marsh  is  not  now 
nearly  as  wet  as  it  appears  to  have  been  lately ;  it  is  covered 
with  fern,  gorse,  high  grass,  and  young  trees,  and  is  of  consider- 
able extent.  We  returned  iDy  the  railway.  Dined  at  the  "  White 
Hart "  with  the  friends  of  the  new  members.  Lord  Duncan  and  Mr. 
Roebuck. 

July  3.  Left  Bath  by  the  railway  to  Bristol,  and  then  by  the 
"Victory"  steam  vessel  (Capt.  Parker).  Started  for  Cork.  On 
our  way  down  the  Channel,  we  had  the  good  fortune  to  meet  the 
Great  Western  Steam-ship  just  arriving  from  its  voyage.     We  went 


1841]  JOURNAL— EXCURSIONS  IN  IRELAND.  101 

close  to  it,  so  as  to  have  a  good  view  of  it  when  under  way,  and 
certainly  it  was  a  very  fine  sight. 

July  4.  At  sea  all  the  day,  as  we  did  not  reach  Cork  until 
6  p.m.,  after  a  short  passsage  of  twenty-four-and-a-half  hours. 
Went  to  the  "Imperial"  Hotel. 

July  5.  Walked  to  Blarney  by  a  very  round-about  way,  and 
gathered  several  plants,  but  none  of  much  interest.  The  castle  is  a 
fine  ruin,  and  the  celebrated  "Stone"  is  certainly  an  odd  one,  but  what 
it  has  been  I  am  quite  unable  to  say.  The  "Groves"  are  well 
worth  a  visit,  and  quite  different  from  anything  that  I  have  seen 
elsewhere.  Walked  to  Blackrock  in  the  evening  with  Mr.  H. 
Jordan,  a  gentleman  of  Bristol,  with  whom  I  formed  a  slight 
acquaintance  on  the  steamer. 

July  6.  Went  to  Killarney  by  the  coach,  in  the  face  of  a 
remarkably  cold  and  high  wind. 

July  7.  I  went  to-day  along  the  Kenmare  road,  as  far  as  the 
upper  lake,  and  employed  myself  in  the  study  of  the  Saxifrages.  I 
was  much  grieved  to  find  that  Lord  Kenmare's  gardener  had  quite 
extirpated  the  Trichomanes  in  the  place  where  I  gathered  it  in  1835. 

July  8.  Started  at  about  9  a.m.  and  went  up  the  old  road  to 
Kenmare,  passing  behind  Turk  mountain,  as  far  as  it  continued  to 
ascend ;  and  then  returning  went  to  the  top  of  the  Turk  mountain, 
and  descended  through  the  wood  to,  the  lake  by  a  very  diflficult 
climb.  On  the  ascent  of  the  back  of  the  mountain  I  found  two 
Carices,  which  I  am  unable  to  determine  in  a  satisfactory  manner, 
and  rather  suspect  one  of  them  to  be  new.  On  the  top  I  found 
Pinguicula  grandiflora  still  in  flower,  and  also  in  one  place  (under  a 
rock  near  the  top  of  the  main  summit,  the  last  facing  the  W.N.W. 
by  N.  by  compass)  Saxifraga  elegans{1)  and  S.  umbrosa,  common  on 
the  upper  parts.  The  view  of  the  lakes  from  this  elevation  is 
peculiarly  fine,  and  it  well  deserves  a  visit.  The  woods  and  slopes 
of  the  mountain  are  quite  covered  with  Euphorbia  hiberna,  which  is 
now  in  great  perfection. 

July  9.  Went  to  Tralee  by  the  car,  but  could  not  get  on  to 
Dingle,  so  walked  down  to  Blennerville  over  the  marshes,  and  found 
Scrophularia  nodosa,  with  pale  flowers. 

July  10.  Went  to  Dingle  in  the  evening  by  the  mail  car,  starting 
at  6.30  p.m.  and  not  reaching  that  place  until  11.30.  This  day 
Ensign  G.  Grove,  90th  Regt.,  walked  with  his  men  to  Dingle,  over 
Connor  Hill,  in  the  rain,  and  was  nearly  killed  by  it. 

July  11,  Dingle  is  a  nice  little  town,  and  the  inn,  kept  by  Mrs. 
Jefcott,  an  excellent  one.  In  the  churchyard  there  is  an  old  tomb- 
stone of  one  of  the  Earls  of  Desmond,  who  died  1506. 

July  12.  Walked  to  Connor  Hill,  a  lofty  mountain  pass,  over 
which  one  of  the  roads  to  Tralee  passes;   the  old  track  is  most 


102  CHARLES  CARL) ALE  BABINGTON.  [1841 

curious,  going  in  a  zigzag  manner  up  the  almost  perpendicular  side 
of  the  mountain.  I  found  here,  on  the  cliffs,  plenty  of  Saxifraga 
geum  and  umbrosa,  but  could  not  fall  in  with  the  Sibthorpia  Europaea, 
which  has  been  found  here  by  former  botanical  visitors.  The  view 
from  the  top,  including  Brandon  mountain,  which  was  moderately 
clear,  is  fine. 

July  13.  Went  to  Gallerus,  and  saw  the  hermitage  and  castle, 
described  in  Lady  Chatterton's  book,  and  found  them,  the  former 
in  particular,  highly  interesting.  Then  crossed  the  Smerwick  Strand 
to  Sybil  Head,  which  is  nearly  as  fine  a  cliff  as  has  ever  come  under 
my  notice.  Returned  by  Fermeter's  Cove  and  Ventry  Harbour. 
There  is  a  fine  ruin  of  a  castle  surrounded  by  an  ancient  rath  on 
the  hill  side  above  the  latter,  which  I  did  not  visit,  for  want  of 
time.  The  whole  of  this  day's  walk  was  highly  interesting  on 
account  of  the  splendid  mountain  views,  although  I  did  not  find 
any  rare  plants. 

July  14.  Went  to-day  by  Ventry  to  the  northern  part  of 
Mounteagle,  but  found  no  plants. 

July  15.  St.  Swithin's  Day.  This  day  and  the  next  were  the 
only  really  dry  days  during  my  stay  at  Dingle.  Saw  the  old  church 
at  Killmachedor,  in  the  early  Norman  style  of  architecture ;  in  the 
churchyard  are  a  curious  cross  and  a  very  rude  Ogham  stone  (see 
Lady  Chatterton's  book).  In  a  neighbouring  deserted  village 
there  is  a  curious  cave  extending  to  some  distance  under  the 
ground,  and  formed  probably  for  temporary  security  from  invaders. 
To  the  south  of  Killmachedor  there  is  a  rath  formed  of  a  broad 
wall  of  loose  stones,  and  within  it  several  conical  cells  formed  by 
the  stones  being  laid  in  horizontal  courses  projecting  inwards,  more 
in  each  succeeding  course,  until  they  meet  at  the  top.  Several  of 
them  are  perfect,  but  the  tops  of  most  have  fallen  in. 

July  16.  To-day  I  ascended  Brandon  mountain  from  Ballybrack, 
on  which  side  it  is  peculiarly  easy  to  reach  the  summit.  Unfortu- 
nately the  summit  was  clouded,  so  that  I  could  not  see  the  view. 
I  found  some  Saxifrages  in  the  place  formed  as  a  shelter  near  the 
top,  and  also  on  the  cliff,  but  feared  to  descend  into  the  latter  on 
account  of  the  wind  and  mist.  Dan  Sullivan  of  Ballybrack  went 
with  me. 

July  17.  Again  to  Connor  Hill,  and  found  Saxifraga  hirsuta{l) 
under  a  rock  at  a  short  distance  directly  below  the  zigzag  road. 
Rain  came  on  before  I  left  the  hill,  and  continued  until  I  got  back. 

July  18.  Mr.  Grove  and  I  went  to  see  the  Ogham  stones, 
described  by  Lady  Chatterton,  at  Ballintagart. 

July  19.  Went  to  Mounteagle,  and  ascended  the  cliff  to  look 
for  Trichomanes,  which  was  found  there  by  Mr.  Andrews,  but  did 
not  get  it.  Went  to  the  summit  of  the  mountain  to  see  the  Blashets, 
and  then  returned.     Hard  rain  all  the  evening. 


1841]  JOURNAL— IKISH  AND   SCOTCH  EXCURSIONS.  103 

July  20.  A  very  wet  day.  At  Dingle  I  became  acquainted 
with  Dr.  Williams  and  Mr.  Thomas  Eagar. 

July  21.  Left  for  Tralee  and  Killarney,  which  latter  place  I 
reached  in  the  evening. 

July  22.  Walked  to  the  Gap  of  Dunloe,  and  after  a  great  deal 
of  trouble,  found  Saxifraga  hirsuta{'\)  under  detached  rocks  near  the 
upper  small  pool  only.  On  my  return  called  upon  Mr.  M.  J.  O'Con- 
nell  at  Grena,  and  saw  him  and  his  father  John  O'Connell,  with  both 
of  whom  I  was  much  pleased. 

July  23.  Went  to  Kenmare,  and  spent  the  day  with  Dr.  Taylor 
at  Dunkerron. 

July  24.  Returned  in  the  morning  to  Killarney,  and  proceeded 
by  the  coach  to  Limerick,  where  I  spent  the  following  day,  being 
Sunday. 

July  26.  Ascended  the  Shannon  by  the  steamer  to  Shannon 
Harbour,  but  unfortunately  the  day  was  very  wet,  so  that  I  did  not 
see  the  most  distant  views.  I  had  intended  to  have  stopped  at 
Portumna  to  hunt  for  Teitcrium  Scordiiim,  but  was  prevented  by 
the  wet. 

July  27.     By  the  canal  to  Dublin ;  a  most  uninteresting  route. 

July  28.  In  Dublin  with  Mr.  Moore  and  Mr.  Mackay.  At 
10.30  p.m.  left  by  steamer  for  Liverpool,  and  arrived  there  the  next 
morning  at  9.30.  The  next  evening  started  by  the  "Achilles" 
steam-ship  for  Glasgow  at  8.30,  and  arrived  there  after  a  rough 
passage  at  8  p.m.  the  next  day,  July  30. 

July  31.  Reached  Edinburgh,  and  took  up  my  quarters  at  Dr. 
J.  H.  Balfour's,  15,  Dundas  Street.  Went  to  Granton  Pier  to  see 
W.  H.  Campbell  off  for  London,  and  dined  there. 

Aug.  1.     Sunday.     Heard  the  Rev.  Mr.  Binney. 

Aug.  2.  Went  to  the  college  to  see  the  conferring  of  the  M.D. 
■degree,  which  is  done  by  putting  a  round  cap  upon  the  head  of  each 
of  the  candidates.  At  3  p.m.  left  for  Glasgow,  and  arrived  there  so 
as  to  join  the  party  that  was  going  to  the  Hebrides.  Dined  and 
spent  the  evening  with  Professor  Thompson,  M.D.,  who  remembers 
my  father  as  a  student  at  Edinburgh. 

Aug.  3.  The  names  of  the  party  to  the  Hebrides  are :  J.  H. 
Balfour,  W.  Marshall,  C.  C.  Babington,  R.  M.  Blamey,  R.  T.  Hole, 
Henry  Hinson,  James  James,  and  W.  F.  Mactier.  We  slept  at  the 
^' Clyde"  Hotel,  and  went  on  board  the  "Shandon  "  steamer  at  5  a.m. 
At  the  Crinan  Canal  changed  to  a  swift  boat,  and  again  on  board  a 
steamer,  the  "Brendon,"  for  Oban.  The  vessel  was  so  full  of 
passengers  as  to  make  it  inconvenient  to  move  about.  At  Oban 
again  changed  into  the  "Toward  Castle."  .  .  .  Reached  Tobermory 
in  Mull  at  about  11  p.m.,  after  a  very  pleasant  day's  voyage. 


104  CHARLES   CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1841 

Aug.  4.  Left  Tobermory  at  3  a.m.,  and  was  greatly  pleased  by 
remaining  upon  the  deck  as  we  passed  round  the  Point  of  Ardna- 
murchan,  and  by  Arisaig  to  Armadale  in  Skye ;  where  we  were  met 
by  C.  Macdonald,  Esq.,  of  Ord ;  and  Balfour  and  I  landed,  and 
walked  by  the  castle  and  woods  of  Armadale  to  Captain  Macdonald's 
at  Ostaig,  where  we  breakfasted ;  went  on  to  Knock,  and  then 
crossed  the  interior  to  Ord,  where  we  arrived  to  dinner,  and 
remained  for  the  night  at  Mr.  Macdonald's.  The  house  is  pleasantly 
situated  on  the  shore  of  Loch  Eishart,  and  has  considerable  remains 
of  the  natural  wood  in  the  neighbourhood.  The  Coolin  Hills  are  seen 
to  great  perfection  from  Ord,  and  were  quite  clear  in  the  evening. 

Aug.  5.  Mr.  Macdonald  conveyed  us  over  the  mouths  of  Lochs 
Eishart  and  Slapin  in  his  boat,  and  landed  us  on  Strathaird,  near 
to  the  house  of  Dr.  Norman  MacAlister,  to  which  we  went.  Soon 
afterwards  Mr.  MacNab  and  the  rest  of  the  party  arrived,  who  had 
landed  at  Broadford,  and  come  across  the  country  with  the  baggage. 
Mr.  MacNab  returned  with  it,  but  the  rest  of  the  party  remained 
for  the  night  at  Dr.  MacAlister's,  where  we  were  most  hospitably 
received.  At  Ord  saw  Carduus  heterojphyllus.  Saw  Rumex  aquaticus 
at  Strathaird. 

Aug.  6.  Balfour,  Hole,  Mactier,  James,  and  I  went  to  Capt. 
John  MacMillan's,  at  Camasunary,  where  we  found  a  curious  variety 
of  Apargia  autumnalis  on  the  roofs  of  the  buildings,  and  then  passed 
by  a  very  difficult  walk  round  the  point  of  the  land  to  Loch  Scavaig. 
Walked  up  the  west  side  of  Loch  Coruishk,  and  saw  many  curious 
granitic  veins  in  the  blocks  upon  the  shore,  also  several  fine  eagles. 
The  day  was  wet,  but  still  we  saw  the  mountains  in  great  beauty. 
The  Coolin  Hills  are  by  far  the  finest  mountains  that  I  have  seen„ 
and  present  a  most  curious  serrated  outline  ;  their  slopes  are  formed 
of  smooth,  bare,  black  rock,  so  as  to  be  almost  inaccessible,  and 
peculiarly  bare  of  plants.  At  the  head  of  the  valley  we  turned  to 
the  right,  and  passed  over  the  mountains  by  a  pass  of  singular 
difficulty ;  then  turning  the  wrong  way  we  went  by  mistake  to 
Loch  Brittle,  and  had  to  obtain  a  guide  to  shew  us  the  way  to  the 
inn  at  Sligachan,  which  we  reached  after  a  most  laborious  day,  at 
9  p.m.,  and  joined  MacNab  and  the  rest  of  the  party.  On  the 
Coolin  Hills  we  saw  but  few  Alpine  plants,  viz.  Alchemilla  alpina,. 
Arahis  petraea,  Salix  herhacea,  Thalidrum  alpinum,  Saxifraga  stellariSy 
and  Luzula  spicata. 

Aug.  7.  A  very  wet  day.  Walked  from  Sligachan  to  Dunvegan 
in  heavy  rain,  after  gathering  Eriocaulon  at  the  former  place  in  great 
plenty,  and  also  Car  ex  pauciflora.  Started  at  10  a.m.,  and  reached 
Dunvegan,  a  distance  of  twenty-six  miles,  at  6  p.m.,  most  of  the 
party  quite  wet  to  the  skin.  I  was  more  fortunate.  By  the  way 
found  a  curious  form  of  Taraxacum-dens-leonis,  allied  to  palustre,  but 
not  that  plant.  Near  Bracadale  the  basaltic  hills  are  highly  in- 
teresting, and  continue  to  be  so  as  far  as  Dunvegan. 


1841]  JOURNAL  -IN   THE   HEBRIDES.  105 

Aug.  8.  Sunday.  There  is  a  nice  inn  at  Dunvegan,  and  the 
Castle  of  Macleod  of  Macleod  is  highly  interesting,  and  is  now  under- 
going a  thorough  repair.  Near  the  castle  Mimulus  lideus,  Prenanthes- 
purpurea,  and  Gnaphalium  margaritaceum  are  quite  naturalized,  having 
escaped  from  the  gai-den  into  the  woods.  Rumex  aquaticus  is  common, 
and  Petroselinum  sativum  is  on  the  rock  of  the  castle.  Went  to  the 
church  at  2  p.m.,  and  had  an  English  sermon  and  a  Gaelic  prayer. 
We  saw  Dr.  MacCaskill,  a  friend  of  Edward  Forbes.  The  church 
is  a  good  one.  The  view  of  "Macleod's  Tables,"  two  flat  topped 
mountains  is  curious ;  below  the  inn  on  the  road-side  we  saw  Oro- 
banche  rubra  and  Orobus  sylvaticus. 

Aug.  9.  Left  Dunvegan  by  the  packet  for  North  Uist  after 
breakfast,  and  were  becalmed  almost  as  soon  as  we  had  reached 
Dunvegan  Head,  where  we  remained  all  day,  and  did  not  reach 
Loch  Maddy  in  North  Uist  until  the  next  morning  at  11,  being 
thus  twenty-four  hours  about  the  voyage  of  twenty-five  miles.  We 
were  near  being  starved,  as  there  were  no  provisions  on  board,  and 
we  failed  in  obtaining  any  from  a  ship  that  was  near  to  us.  Macnab 
fortunately  had  a  small  supply.  We  were  much  amused  by  the 
number  of  fine  Medusae  that  came  near  to  the  vessel,  many  of 
which  we  caught,  and  examined  with  great  interest. 

Aug.  10.  Found  three  large  ships  in  Loch  Maddy,  for  the 
purpose  of  conveying  emigrants  to  Cape  Breton.  The  poor  inn 
was  quite  full  of  people,  either  going  away  or  come  to  see  them  off, 
so  that  we  could  get  no  accommodation  whatever.  We  walked  to- 
the  western  part  of  the  island,  and  found  a  sandy  district  of  great 
fertility  and  beauty,  but  did  not  find  any  plants  of  rarity,  although 
many  that  were  interesting  from  their  locality,  such  as  Papaver  Arge- 
mone,  Hippuris,  Lycopsis  arvensis,  etc.  On  our  return  we  ascended  a 
hill  called  Knockgarre,  of  no  great  elevation,  and  were  well  repaid 
by  the  view  over  the  interior  of  the  island,  in  which  it  is  difficult 
to  say  if  the  land  or  the  water  predominates.  The  ramifications  of 
the  sea  and  fresh-water  lakes  are  so  great,  as  to  present  the  appearance 
of  an  immense  number  of  distinct  lakes  covering  nearly  half  the 
surface  of  the  country.  Surrounding  this  wet  district  is  an  enclosing 
boundary  of  rather  elevated  bare  and  dry  mountains.  Near  to 
the  top  of  the  hill  we  found  Salix  herbacea.  There  are  good  roads 
in  Uist,  although  MacCullach  says  that  there  are  none.  At  night 
we  had  to  accommodate  ourselves  as  we  could  upon  the  floor  of  the 
room  in  which  we  had  been  sitting,  as  all  the  rest  of  the  house  was 
quite  full  of  people,  and  we  were  entertained  (?)  nearly  all  night  by 
people  dancing  in  heavy  shoes  over  our  heads,  so  heavily  as  to  make 
us  fear  that  the  floor  would  be  brought  down  upon  us. 

Aug.  11.  Started  by  a  boat  soon  after  5  a.m.  for  Obb  in  Harris, 
which  we  reached  after  a  pleasant  sail ;  to  breakfast  at  a  small,  but 
neat  and  comfortable  inn.  We  went  up  a  low  hill  near  to  the 
Point  of  Kowadill,  and  had  the  most  splendid  view  that  can  be 


106  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1841 

conceived,  over  the  Sound  of  Harris,  North  Uist,  etc.,  and  including 
the  mountains  of  Ross-shire,  Skye,  and  numbers  of  the  islands  all 
round  the  south  as  far  as  St.  Kilda.  On  the  north  side  the 
mountains  of  Harris.  We  examined  this  district  carefully  for 
Ajuga  pyramidalis,  but  could  not  see  any  trace  of  it.  Here  are 
some  flourishing  woods,  the  only  ones  I  believe  in  the  Long  Island. 
Near  to  the  Point  is  an  interesting  old  church,  which  was  a  cathedral 
in  old  times,  and  has  now,  much  to  the  disgrace  of  the  proprietors, 
been  allowed  to  go  to  ruin.  The  architecture  is  of  the  style,  I 
believe,  called  "  Decorated,"  and  has  a  number  of  curious  carvings 
about  it.  There  are  some  fine  monuments  to  the  old  MacLeods  of 
Harris,  particularly  one  to  Alexander,  son  of  John  MacLeod,  dated 
1528.  It  has  a  canopied  opening  over  a  prostrate  statue  with  most 
remarkable  carved  figures  upon  the  wall,  representing  the  Virgin 
and  Child,  bishops,  etc.  Mr.  Murray,  the  schoolmaster  at  Rowadill, 
kindly  gave  us  information  as  to  our  further  proceedings,  of  some 
value. 

Aug.  12.  Left  Obb  at  8  a.m.,  and  walked  by  the  southern  part 
of  the  island  and  along  some  sandy  shore  to  Scavester.  Saw  on  the 
sands  Blysmus  rufus,  and  many  of  the  plants  of  the  western  parts  of 
North  Uist.  At  Scavester,  called  upon  the  Rev.  Mr.  Maclver,  the 
minister,  who  received  us  kindly,  and  gave  us  full  direction  for  the 
further  part  of  our  route  to  Tarbert.  Soon  afterwards  we  forded  an 
arm  of  the  sea,  and  then  turned  over  the  mountains  in  the  direction 
of  Tarbert,  which  place  we  reached  at  about  6  p.m. 

Aug.  13.  Went  to  a  hill  called  Chesham,  the  highest  land  in 
the  island,  about  2700  feet ;  long  before  we  had  reached  the  top  it 
was  covered  by  a  thick  mist,  so  that  we  lost  the  view  for  which  we 
most  desired  to  ascend  its  top.  We  found  scarcely  any  Alpine 
plants  :  Poa,  alpina,  Alchemilla  alpina  being  nearly  the  whole  number, 
but  there  were  numbers  of  the  more  common  plants  of  the  lower 
country. 

Aug.  14.  Went  this  morning  by  water  to  Loch  Meavig,  and 
ascended  Lanya,  the  second  highest  hill  in  the  country,  and  as  the 
day  was  fine,  we  had  a  grand  view  all  over  the  country.  The  glen 
between  this  hill  and  Chesham  and  their  neighbour  is  of  a  grand 
Alpine  character,  and  on  the  whole  this  part  of  Harris  Forest  is 
equal  to  any  mountain  district  with  which  I  am  acquainted,  except 
the  Coolin  Hills.  We  found  very  few  Alpine  plants,  only  Luzida 
spicata,  Thalidrum  alpinum,  Saussurea  alpina,  Salix  herbacm,  Hymeno- 
phyllum  Wilsoni,  Aira  alpina,  and  a  few  others.  I  returned  to  the 
boat  by  the  glen  on  the  north-west  side  of  the  hill,  and  had  a  very 
long  walk.     The  day  was  peculiarly  fine. 

Aug.  16.  Left  Tarbert  at  6  a.m.  in  an  excellent  boat  belonging 
to  the  inn-keeper,  Mr.  Morrison  (who  made  us  very  comfortable 
during  our  stay),  and  landed  on  the  Shiant  Isles  for  two  or  three 


1841]  JOURNAL— IN  THE  HEBRIDES.  107 

hours  to  hunt  for  the  Menziesia  caeridea,  which  is  reported  to  have 
been  found  there ;  we  found  nothing  like  it,  except  Empetrum  nigrum, 
after  a  careful  search,  and  are  convinced  that  it  is  not  to  be  found 
in  these  islands,  but  that  some  mistake  has  taken  place  about  the 
locality.  We  arrived  at  Stornoway  at  6  p.m.  The  cliffs  of  the 
Shiant  Isles  are  formed  of  fine  basaltic  columns,  and  in  one  place 
there  is  a  miniature  "  Giant's  Causeway ; "  we  saw  there  peculiarly 
large  specimens  of  Carex  binervis,  Lychnis  dioica.  The  rocks  are 
perforated  with  fine  arches  in  several  places,  and  on  the  whole  the 
islands  are  well  worthy  of  a  visit.  Stornoway  is  a  large  town  of 
3000  inhabitants,  and  makes  a  good  appearance,  being  built  along 
the  shores  of  the  bay  for  an  extent  of  nearly  a  mile.  Many  of  the 
houses  are  very  good,  and  there  is  a  good  inn  kept  by  Mr.  Maclver. 

Aug.  17.  We  started  this  morning  for  the  Butt,  in  company 
with  Mr.  Mackenzie,  the  Sheriff  Clerk,  who  was  of  great  use  to  us 
■during  our  trip  to  the  Butt.  The  interior  of  the  country  as  far  as 
Barvas  (on  the  west  coast)  is  an  extended  uninhabited  moor,  pro- 
ducing scarcely  anything  except  heath.  Far  to  the  south  we  saw 
our  old  friends  Chesham  and  Lanya,  and  to  the  north  was  the  much 
lower  (but  highest  hill  of  that  part)  Murmaich.  Near  Barvas  the 
usual  sandy  district  occurs,  and  with  it  the  same  rich  vegetation 
that  we  had  seen  in  other  places ;  we  saw  Lamium  intermedium, 
Juncus  halticus,  and  many  other  plants.  We  were  informed  that 
the  people  give  the  roots  of  the  Fetasites  vulgaris,  which  abounds, 
to  the  cattle  in  the  winter.  At  Barvas  we  called  on  Mr.  MacRae, 
the  minister,  and  the  schoolmaster,  Mr.  Nicholson,  and  then  walked 
on  towards  the  Butt,  calling  at  Galson,  the  residence  of  Mr.  Mac- 
gregor,  on  our  way,  and  reached  the  school-house  of  Ness  about 
■9  p.m.  Mr.  Finlayson,  the  minister,  most  kindly  received  us  into 
the  Manse  for  the  night. 

Aug.  18.  Rose  early,  and  walked  by  the  new  pier  at  Dun 
Errodale  along  the  coast  by  Sto  Harbour  to  the  Butt,  and  so  back 
to  the  school-house.  The  cliffs  are  fine  all  the  way  round,  but  more 
particularly  so  at  the  Butt  itself.  At  Sto  Harbour  I  found  the 
largest  specimens  of  Sagina  maritima  that  I  have  ever  seen,  also 
Eanunadus  sceleratus,  Pyrethrum  maritimum,  Carex  extensa,  etc.  We 
went  on  to  Galson  to  breakfast  by  invitation,  with  Mr.  Macgregor. 
After  that  it  began  to  rain,  and  we  had  a  very  wet  walk  to  Barvas, 
so  that  we  were  obliged  to  give  up  our  plan  of  going  on  to  Callernish, 
and  remained  at  Barvas  for  the  night.  The  minister,  Mr.  MacRae, 
received  us  most  kindly  to  dinner  and  to  sleep. 

Aug.  19.  A  wet  morning,  so  that  we  could  not  start  until  the 
middle  of  the  day,  when  it  cleared  up,  and  we  walked  back  to 
Stornoway.  Balfour  and  I  went  down  to  the  sands  at  Barvas,  and 
round  the  west  end  of  the  Loch  before  starting,  but  found  no  plants 
of  interest.     We  intended  to  have  gone  to  Callernish  to  have  seen 


108  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1841 

the  Druidical  remains  there,  which  are  of  high  interest,  but  unfortu- 
nately the  packet  to  Poolewe  was  to  sail  the  next  morning,  and 
therefore  we  had  to  give  it  up. 

Aug.  20.  At  5  a.m.  we  went  on  board  the  packet  for  Poolewe, 
and  were  again  becalmed  upon  this  usually  stormy  sea,  so  that  we 
did  not  reach  that  place  until  between  2  and  3  o'clock  the  next 
morning. 

Aug.  21.  After  breakfast  we  started  by  boat  up  Loch  Maree, 
which  is  certainly  in  my  opinion,  the  finest  lake  that  I  have  seen. 
On  the  cliffs  above  the  lake  Finus  sylvestris  is  found,  and  also  plenty 
of  Arbutus  Uva-ursi.  At  the  head  of  the  lake  we  again  took  to  our 
legs,  and  walked  to  Auchnanault,  a  distance  of  eighteen  miles.  Near 
to  Loch  Maree  some  of  the  bare  quartz  summits  of  the  mountains 
assumed  very  curious  forms,  particularly  one  very  remarkable  hill 
on  the  south-east  of  the  upper  end.  At  the  eastern  end  of  Loch 
Roshk,  near  to  a  cottage  belonging  to  Sir  Colin  Mackenzie,  is  a 
most  remarkable  series  of  lofty  mounds,  almost  closing  a  lateral 
valley,  and  presenting  the  appearance  of  a  gigantic  fortification. 
They  are  probably  the  moraine  of  an  ancient  glacier,  and  are  com- 
posed of  sand  and  gravel.  The  inn  at  Auchnanault  was  quite  full, 
most  of  it  being  occupied  by  Sir  Colin  Mackenzie  and  his  family. 
He  was  very  polite  to  us,  and  invited  us  to  call  at  his  seat  of 
Balmadutty  in  the  Black  Isle.  Some  of  us  went  on  in  a  carriage 
to  Dingwall,  where  we  arrived  at  2  a.m.  Some  others  walked  to 
Garve,  where  there  is  a  good  inn,  and  came  to  Dingwall  the  next 
morning. 

Aug.  22.  Drove  to  Fir  Wood  near  Coul,  and  hunted  for  Pijrola 
uniflora  in  its  old  station,  but  failed  in  finding  it.  Saw  P.  secunda 
and  P.  media,  Trientalis  Europaea,  Listera  cordata.  Passed  through 
Strathpeffer,  on  our  way  and  return,  and  were  much  pleased  with 
the  neat  appearance  of  it.  It  is  a  watering  place.  Ben  Wyvis  has 
a  grand  appearance  throughout  all  this  district.  Here  our  party 
broke  up,  and  some  of  them  went  immediately  towards  the  south. 

Aug.  23.  Dr.  Balfour  and  I  walked  across  the  Black  Isle  by 
Balmadutty,  and  Avoch  to  Fortrea,  and  so  over  the  ferry  to  Fort 
George,  where  we  were  most  kindly  received  by  Major  Fraser  in 
the  fort.  Saw  plenty  of  Lithospermum  maritimum  on  the  shingles 
near  to  Fort  Rose. 

Aug.  24.  Near  Campbellton  is  an  old  fortification,  called  now 
Cromwell's  Fort,  a  corruption  of  the  Gaelic  name,  as  it  is  an  old 
earth-work,  and  has  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  Cromwell.  Here 
grows  Bianthus  deltdides,  and  in  fields  near,  PMnanthus  major  {1). 
We  went  by  Flemington,  the  house  of  Major  Fraser,  and  saw  near 
to  it  Hypochoeris  glabra  in  profusion,  and  so  forward  to  Cawdor 
Castle,  where  we  remained  with  Mr.  Stables.  The  old  castle  is 
Ijighly  interesting,  and  is  kept  up  in  the  original  style.     The  woods 


1841]  JOURNAL -FROM   NORTH   TO   SOUTH.  109 

peculiarly  fine,  and  a  fine  glen  passes  through  them.  Balfour  found 
Monotropa  Hypopitys,  and  we  saw  Goodyera  repens,  Festioca  Calamaria. 
The  glen  is  the  deepest  and  narrowest  ravine  that  I  have  ever  seen, 
•and  well  deserving,  as  are  the  woods,  of  a  careful  examination  by 
the  botanist. 

Aug.  25.  We  walked  over  Culloden  Moor  to  CuUoden  House, 
where  we  were  kindly  received  by  Mr.  Forbes  of  Culloden,  and 
then  went  on  to  Inverness.  We  ascended  the  hill  Craig  Phadric, 
•and  examined  the  vitrified  fort  there. 

Aug.  26.  Left  Inverness  by  the  "  Duke  of  Wellington  "  coach 
for  Perth,  by  the  Highland  road,  by  Aviemore,  Strathspey,  Blair 
Athol,  Dunkeld.  The  station  for  Menziesia  caerulea  is  upon  the  Sow 
of  Athol,  at  just  the  middle  of  the  road  between  Dalwhinnie  and 
Dalnacardoch.  The  ruins  at  Dunkeld  are  left  in  good  order,  and 
are  very  fine. 

Aug.  27.  From  Perth  to  Edinburgh  by  Kinross  ;  saw  Burleigh 
Castle  and  Loch  Leven.  Crossed  the  Queen's  Ferry,  and  so  reached 
Edinburgh. 

Aug.  28.  Again  took  up  my  quarters  with  my  excellent  friend, 
Dr.  J.  H.  Balfour. 

Aug.  29.  Continued  with  Balfour  till  Tuesday,  Oct.  5th ; 
working  at  the  second  edition  of  the  Botanical  Society  Catalogue, 
the  fourth  and  fifth  Reports  of  the  Society,  the  conclusion  of  the 
first  and  the  whole  of  the  second  part  of  the  Transactions ;  all  of 
which  we  completed.  During  that  time  dined  with  Mr.  Roy, 
J,  Goodsir,  Campbell,  Greville.  Campbell  started  for  Demerara, 
on  Sept.  25th. 

Oct.  4.  Balfour,  J.  Duncan,  G.  Paterson,  Brand,  Fred.  Douglas, 
Jos.  Dickson,  and  I  dined  together  at  Mrs.  Clark's  Hotel,  at  New- 
haven. 

Oct.  5.  Left  Edinburgh  at  7  a.m.  for  England,  and  had  a  very 
wet  journey ;  it  rained  heavily  during  the  whole  day  until  we  got 
within  one  stage  of  Newcastle.  Went  by  way  of  Kelso.  Reached 
Darlington  at  12.30  a.m.,  and  started  again  by  the  railroad  at 
6.15  a.m.,  reaching  Derby  at  1  p.m.  On  the  way  from  Edinburgh 
it  happened  that  Mr.  Evans  and  William  were  upon  the  same  coach, 
and  so  we  went  on  together,  and  I  went  with  them  to  Allestree  Hall. 

Oct.  7.     The  same  three  went  to  Yoxall  Lodge. 

Oct.  11.     Left  Yoxall  Lodge,  and  reached  London  in  the  evening, 

Oct.  12.  Made  arrangements  with  Bailli^re  about  the  publications 
of  the  Botanical  Society,  Edinburgh.  Examined  a  herbarium  that 
Pamplin  has  to  dispose  of. 

Oct.  13.     Arrived  in  Cambridge. 


110  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1841—42 

Nov.  6.  Purchased  the  herbarium  of  Dr.  Leo,  of  Metz,  for 
£94  10s. 

Ncm.  12.  Overton  and  I  walked  to  Shelf ord  and  back,  between 
10  and  12  in  the  evening,  to  look  for  the  annual  meteors  that  appear 
at  this  time.  We  saw  a  considerable  number  at  about  11  o'clock, 
particularly  one  very  bright  one,  which  left  a  long  train  of  fire 
behind  it. 

Nov.  13.  Intended  to  have  looked  out  again  to-night,  but  was 
prevented  by  heavy  rain. 

Nov.  14.  Snow ;  which  continued  on  the  ground  until  the  18th, 
and  several  of  the  nights  the  thermometer  shewed  24°  or  26°. 

Nov.  22.  Dinner  of  the  Philosophical  Society  at  the  "Eagle," 
thirty  members  were  present. 

Nov.  24.  Dinner  of  the  Ea.y  Club  at  Stokes'  rooms,  all  the 
members  were  present,  either  at  dinner  or  afterwards,  and  Professor 
Clark  and  Miller,  Mr.  Kingsley  and  Mr.  Goodwin  were  there  as 
visitors. 

Dec.  24.     Dined  with  Dr.  Clark  to  meet  Prof.  Owen. 

Dec.  25.     Dined  in  Hall  at  Trinity. 

1842.  Jan.  18.  Gave  up  all  idea  of  being  a  candidate  for  the 
Chair  of  Botany  in  King's  College,  London,  not  wishing  to  under- 
take to  commence  a  course  of  sixty  lectures  at  such  short  notice  as 
from  February  to  May.  Went  to  London,  and  dined  at  the  Linnean 
Club. 

Jan.  20.     Eeturned  to  Cambridge. 

Feh.  15.  Went  to  town,  and  dined  at  the  Linnean  Club.  Voted 
for  R  Kippist,  as  Librarian  of  the  Linnean  Society. 

Feb.  16.  Breakfasted  with  Dr.  Lankester,  afterwards  met  Mr. 
Borrer  at  J.  Sowerby's,  and  went  to  Woodford  with  Mr.  Forster. 

Feb.  17.  Eeturned  to  Cambridge.  Professor  Royle  persuaded 
me  to  allow  him  to  endeavour  to  persuade  the  King's  College 
Professors  to  appoint  me  to  the  Chair  of  Botany,  he  taking  the 
lectures  for  the  present  year.  I  have  determined  to  make  no 
personal  application  to  them. 

Feb.  22.     Dined  with  Ansted  to  meet  Mr.  Bunbury,  Sec.  G.  S. 

Feb.  23,  24.  Spent  a  considerable  portion  of  these  days  with 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lukis  of  Guernsey,  who  were  here  with  W.  C.  Lukis. 

Feb.  25.  Dined  at  Anstey  Hall,  Trumpington,  with  Eben. 
Foster,  Esq. 

March  26.     Went  to  Bath  for  the  Easter  holidays. 

April  1.  This  day  my  name  appeared  for  the  first  time  on  the 
cover  of  the  "  Annals  of  Natural  History,"  as  one  of  the  Editors  of 
that  Journal. 


1842]  JOUKNAL— LONDON,   CAMBRIDGE,  Etc.  Ill 

April  5.  Left  Bath.  Dined  at  the  Linnean  Club  to  meet  Jussieu 
and  Kichard,  the  French  botanists.  Professor  Royle  informed  me 
that  the  King's  College  Professors  had  determined  not  to  make 
any  recommendation  of  a  person  to  fill  the  Chair  of  Botany  for  the 
present,  and  that  he  was  going  to  lecture  this  year. 

April  6.  Called  upon  Professor  Budd,  of  King's  College.  Dined 
with  Royle,  and  went  to  the  Geological,  where  a  very  interesting 
discussion  occurred  between  Dr.  Grant  and  Mr.  Owen. 

April  7.  Royle  introduced  me  to  Professor  Daniell,  of  King's 
College,  and  also  to  the  Principal  of  the  College,  Mr.  Lonsdale. 
Returned  to  Cambridge. 

April  11.  Dined  with  F.  J.  Gunning  to  meet  Mr.  Morgan  John 
O'Connell. 

April  12.     Dined  with  Arlett  of  Pembroke  to  meet  the  same. 

April  26.  Wrote  to  Dr.  Royle  to  decline  becoming  a  candidate 
for  the  Botanical  Chair  at  King's  College. 

May  4.     Dined  with  Sedgwick  to  meet  the  Ray  Club. 

May  13.  Went  to  Ely  to  dine  with  the  Dean,  as  President  of 
the  Philosophical  Society,  and  slept  at  the  Deanery. 

May  17.  Set  Henslow's  botanical  paper  to  the  medical  candidates 
in  the  Arts  School :  only  three  candidates  !  Commenced  my  duties 
as  Local  Treasurer  of  the  British  Association  for  the  Advancement 
of  Science  at  Cambridge. 

May  28.  Went  to  London,  and  spent  the  following  three  days 
at  Mr.  Edward  Forster's,  at  Woodford. 

May  30.  Went  with  a  party  of  the  Linnean  Club  by  Brighton 
railway  to  Redhill,  and  then  walked  to  the  chalk  hills  above  Reigate, 
and  saw  the  cave  in  the  Castle  Hill  said  to  have  been  used  as  a 
place  for  consultation  by  the  Barons,  in  King  John's  time.  We 
saw  but  few  plants,  and  none  of  much  interest.  Returned  in  the 
evening. 

May  31.  Mr.  Brown,  Mr.  R.  Taylor,  Mr.  H.  Solly,  and  Mr. 
Bennett  dined  at  Mr.  Forster's. 

June  1,     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

June  8.     Went  to  Hitcham. 

June  9.  Henslow  and  I  went  to  Hadleigh.  A  remarkably 
handsome  church  and  parsonage. 

June  10.  Found  Myosotis  sylvatica  in  plenty  in  Hitcham  wood, 
with  peculiarly  large  flowers. 

June  11.  Went  to  Ipswich  to  meet  Holmes,  and  then  with  him 
by  coach  to  St.  Margarets. 

June  14.  We  went  to  Aldeburgh  in  a  gig,  and  were  so  unfortu- 
nate as  to  be  upset  by  a  horse-hoe,  of  Mr.  Garrett's,  running  upon 


112  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1842 

us,  from  the  horse  having  taken  fright.     Neither  of  us  was  seriously 
hurt,  but  my  right  arm  and  elbow  were  bruised  and  cut  considerably. 

June  15.  Walked  to  Orford  Ness,  and  found  Lathi/rus  pisiformis, 
Bderochloa  Borreri,  S.  distans,  S.  maritima,  Spartina  strida,  etc.  After 
dinner  went  the  other  way  from  the  town. 

June  16.  Took  a  boat  upon  the  river  to  Orford,  and  hunted 
well  in  Ray's  locality  for  Medicago  murimta,  but  came  away  quite 
satisfied  that  it  does  not  now  exist  there.  Found  M.  minima,  Vicia 
lathyraides,  and  several  other  plants  in  a  sand  pit  on  the  Castle 
Hill.  The  church  has  been  a  very  fine  one,  but  is  partially  ruined. 
Returned  to  St.  Margarets. 

J^me  17.     Walked  to  Redenhall. 

June  18.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

June  22.  Left  for  the  summer,  going  by  way  of  London,  and 
then  by  the  night-mail  train  to  Manchester,  where  I  arrived  the  next 
morning,  and  immediately  went  into  lodgings  with  Dr.  Lankester, 
at  No.  17,  Faulkner  Street,  for  the  British  Association  Meeting. 

June  26.  Sunday.  Went  twice  to  hear  Dr.  Halley,  a  celebrated 
Nonconformist  minister,  and  was  greatly  pleased. 

June  29.  The  meeting  concluded  this  day.  It  was  thinly 
attended.  Our  "Red  Lion"  party  dined  several  times  at  the 
"White  Bear." 

June  30.  This  day  I  went  with  about  400  others,  by  boat,  to 
see  the  tunnel  and  mines  at  Worsley,  but  we  saw  only  the 
tunnel,  and  after  going  about  four  miles  underground,  were  told 
that  we  might  go  three  miles  further,  but  that  there  was  nothing 
more  to  see,  so  I  and  many  others  went  up  a  shaft  of  sixty  yards, 
and  walked  by  the  new  Hall  back  to  the  entrance  of  the  tunnel, 
and  so  back  by  the  boats  to  Manchester,  having  had  considerable 
fun,  but  seen  nothing  worth  the  trouble. 

Jidy  1.  Went  to  see  some  of  the  works  at  Manchester,  and  the 
exhibition  of  machines  collected  for  the  meeting. 

Jidy  2.     Left  in  company  with  Mr.  Winterbottom  for  York. 

July  3.  At  York.  Mr.  Baines  of  the  Yorkshire  Museum  walked 
with  us  up  the  river,  and  we  gathered  Barbarea  strida,  and  also  (for 
the  first  time  so  far  south)  Rumex  aquations.  Also  walked  to  Hes- 
lington  Field,  and  saw  many  interesting  plants. 

July  4.  Started  at  7.30  a.m.  by  rail  in  the  hope  of  getting 
breakfast  at  Darlington,  but  could  not  get  time,  and  so  went  on  to 
Barnard  Castle  for  it.  We  went  on  to  Middleton  and  High  Force 
in  Teesdale.  We  found  the  fall  very  full  of  water,  and  it  continued 
to  rain  hard  all  the  evening.  Mr.  James  Backhouse,  of  York,  is 
here  botanizing. 


1842]  JOURNAL— IN  THE  NORTH.  113 

July  5.  We  walked  to  Cronkley  Fell,  and  found  Tofieldia 
pcUustris,  Helianthemum  canuni,  Draba  incana,  Hieracium  pulvionarium, 
and  amplexicauleCl).  The  day  was  most  stormy,  and  very  wet. 
High  Force  very  full  of  water,  and  fine.  By  High  Force  we  found 
'Crepis  siiccisaefolia  in  plenty. 

Jidy  6.  Went  to  Widdy  Bank,  and  found  Tofieldia  palustris, 
'Carex  capillaris,  Gentiana  verna  in  fruit,  Bartsia  alpina,  Kohresia 
caricina,  and  several  others ;  thence  to  Falcon  Glints,  where  we 
found  Woodsia  ilvensis,  Hieracium  Lawsoni,  and  pidmonarium ;  also 
H.  amplexicaule  {1),  etc.  Crossed  the  bridge  at  Caldron  Snout, 
which  was  full  of  water,  and  extremely  fine,  then  forded  the  Maize 
Beck,  after  finding  Saxifraga  stellaris  and  Botrychium  Lunaria,  and 
•crossed  the  boggy  moor  for  several  miles  towards  Mickle  Fell,  but 
finding  nothing  returned  over  Cronkley,  and  descending  at  the 
further  end,  found  Epilohium  alsinifolium  in  a  spring  head  near  the 
bottom,  far  from  the  river.     Returned  over  Cronkley  Bridge. 

Jtdy  7.  We  went  to  Wynch  Bridge,  and  found  Hieracium 
rigidum,  Lawsoni,  amplexicaule  (1),  and  villosum  (1).  Also  Thlaspi 
'ttlpestre,  Potentilla  salisburgensis,  etc. ;  then  to  Holwick  Scar  (a  fine 
i)asaltic  cliff",  but  too  dry  for  plants),  and  returned  on  account  of  rain, 

July  8.  The  Messrs.  Backhouse  left.  We  went  to  Widdy 
Bank  and  Falcon  Clints,  and  found  (on  the  basalt)  some  more 
Woodsia,  and  also  (on  the  limestone)  at  the  lower  end,  Potentilla 
salisburgensis.  On  our  return  we  gathered,  from  a  bend  in  the 
little  beck  running  into  Langdon  Beck,  Potamogeton  longifolius  (?) 
and  in  a  bog  near  the  turnpike  road  Epilobium-  virgatum. 

Jidy  9.  Went  over  Cronkley  Bridge,  and  then  to  the  top  of 
'Green  Fell ;  returned  to  the  south  side  of  High  Force,  and  followed 
the  river  to  Wynch  Bridge,  but  found  very  little,  a  few  specimens 
■of  Hieracia  and  Rosae. 

Jidy  10.  In  the  afternoon  walked  down  the  road  and  up  the 
old  one,  where  we  gathered  what  may  be  the  true  Hieracium  sylvati- 
cwm.  Hunted  for  Vaccinium  idiginosum  in  a  boggy  place  behind 
Moon  Rigg's  house,  where  it  is  said  to  grow,  but  could  not  find  it. 

July  12.  Went  up  Ettersgill  Beck  to  near  its  source.  The 
lower  part  is  highly  picturesque,  although  on  a  small  scale,  being  a 
succession  of  small  waterfalls,  and  a  winding  ravine  with  rugged 
oliffs.  Found  there  Vicia  sylvatica,  Myrrhis  odorata,  and  several 
Eoses.  Then  crossed  a  succession  of  curious  cavernous  limestones 
to  the  upper  part  of  Langdon  Beck,  returning  by  the  road. 

July  13.  Walked  to  Barnard  Castle;  calling  on  the  way  upon 
the  Rev.  Wilse  Brown  at  Egglestone,  and  dining  with  him.  Went 
by  coach  to  Durham. 

July  14.  Winterbottom  and  I  separated,  he  going  south,  and  I 
by  way  of  Sunderland  and  the  Brandling  Railway,  to  Newcastle. 
Took  tea  with  Mr.  Alder. 

8 


114  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1842 

July  15.  Went  by  Carlisle  Railway  to  the  Bardon  Mill  Station^ 
and  called  upon  Mr.  John  Thompson  of  Crow  Hall  Mill,  who  went 
with  me  to  Muckle  Moss,  and  shewed  me  Carex  irrigiia,  curta,  pauci- 
Jlora ;  there,  and  on  the  way,  Hieradum  lanceolatum  (in  Winch's 
station  for  his  H.  sabaudum  /3),  H.  molle,  etc.  We  also  went  up  the 
glen  of  the  Allan  near  Ridley  Hall,  and  saw  Hieradum  prenanthdides 
and  Festuca  Calamaria.  Returned  by  the  rail  from  the  Ridley  Hall 
private  station. 

July  16.  Went  to  Berwick,  and  took  up  my  quarters  with  Dr. 
Johnston. 

July  20.     Went  to  Edinburgh. 

July  21.  Took  lodgings  at  93,  Princes  Street.  Dined  with 
J.  Goodsir. 

July  23.  Went  with  Graham's  class  to  Ravelrig  and  the  Pent- 
lands  by  Hobble's  How.  Saw  Linnaea  in  a  plantation  adjoining 
the  east  side  of  Ravelrig  bog,  but  found  no  other  plants  of  interest. 

July  27.  Walked  to  Crammond  Bridge  to  get  Scrophularia 
Ehrharti,  and  found  it  in  plenty  in  a  boggy  piece  of  ground  by  the 
mill  stream  ;  found  also  Hieradum  sylvaticum,  Senedo  saracenicus. 

July  29.  Went  to  Glasgow  to  Balfour;  went  to  the  new 
Botanical  Garden,  and  met  at  dinner  at  his  lodgings  W.  Gourlie^ 
Adamson,  Lyon,  and  Gardner. 

Jidy  30.  Attended  Balfour's  concluding  lecture  and  distribution 
of  prizes.     Returned  to  Edinburgh. 

Aug.  1.    Commencement  of  the  meeting  of  the  Highland  Society. 

Aug.  2.  Went  to  the  Show  Yard  in  the  park  adjoining  Brunts- 
field  Links,  and  had  much  difiiculty  in  getting  in,  from  the  crowd. 
A  fine  show  of  cattle,  but  better  of  men.  Dined  in  the  pavilion 
erected  for  the  purpose,  on  the  esplanade  in  front  of  the  castle 
(about  2000  present) ;  it  went  off  very  well. 

Aug.  5.  Left  by  steamer  from  Granton  at  7  a.m.  for  Dundee, 
and  on  arriving  there  went  on  by  railway  to  Arbroath  and  Forfar, 
passing  Rescobie  Loch  and  the  hills  of  Drumlin  (?),  both  celebrated 
botanical  stations  of  the  late  G.  Don.  Walked  from  Forfar  to  Clova 
in  five  hours,  arriving  at  10.30  p.m.  at  the  small  inn. 

Aug.  6.  Went  up  Glen  Dole,  and  gathered  Sonchus  alpinus  on 
rocks  in  a  ravine  containing  a  small  waterfall,  between  the  divisions 
of  the  fall,  on  the  left-hand  side  of  the  glen  near  the  Head ;  and 
Astragalus  alpinus  on  a  very  steep  rock  a  little  further  up  the  glen. 
Then  crossed  the  summit  to  the  head  of  Glen  Phu,  and  found  Carex 
aquatilis  in  plenty.  On  rocks  near  the  lower  end  of  Glen  Phu  on 
the  left-hand  side  (going  down)  grows  Oxytropis. 

Aug.  7.  Sunday.  Minister  gone  to  Glen  Proson.  Went  to 
Loch  Brandy,  and  gathered  Cerastium  alpinum. 


1842]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING  IN  SCOTLAND.  115 

Aug.  8.  To  the  summit  of  the  hills  opposite  the  inn,  called 
Craig-Inks,  and  found  Sibbaldia,  Azalea,  etc.,  in  plenty ;  went  along 
the  tops  as  far  as  the  head  of  Glen  Phu,  and  then  descended  by  a 
most  difficult  cleft  in  the  cliffs. 

Aug.  9.  Left  Clova  for  Braemar.  Followed  the  White  Water 
to  its  source,  gathering  Phleum  alpinum,  Alopecurus  alpinus,  Juncus 
castaneus,  Cornus  suecica,  etc. ;  then  due  north-east  to  the  head  of 
Glen  Callater,  where  we  found  Carex  rupestris,  and  down  that  glen 
to  Braemar,  where  there  is  a  nice  inn. 

Aug.  10.  On  the  way  to  Ben  Aven  we  ascended  a  lower  hill, 
called  Little  Craigindal,  upon  which  we  found  plenty  of  Astragalus 
alpinus,  Carex  rupestris,  etc.,  and  then  crossed  the  next  glen,  and 
ascended  Ben  Aven,  near  the  summit  of  which  grows  Luzula  arcuata. 
Here  we  were  overtaken  by  a  very  heavy  thunderstorm,  and  returned 
through  it  over  Great  Craigindal  to  the  inn. 

Aug.  11.  Went  up  the  glen  to  the  Linn  of  Dee,  and- returned 
by  Mar  Lodge. 

Aug.  12.  Went  by  coach  to  Aberdeen  through  a  most  beautiful 
country,  with  the  intention  of  going  to  Orkney  from  that  port. 
Various  causes  however  made  us  put  it  off.  Marischal  College  is 
being  rebuilt  in  good  taste,  but  in  a  very  bad  situation.  The  old 
church  is  being  well  restored. 

Aug.  13.  Breakfasted  with  Dr.  Fleming  at  Old  Aberdeen,  and 
walked  with  him  to  the  Links  to  gather  Carex  incurva,  and  then 
along  the  coast  south  of  the  Dee,  as  far  as  the  wild  but  low  hills 
that  terminate  the  Grampians. 

Aug.  14.  Sunday.  Breakfast  with  Dr.  Fleming.  Went  twice 
to  the  cathedral,  which  is  the  nave  of  a  fine  Early  English  (?)  church. 
It  has  a  simple  but  beautiful  west  front,  of  two  low  pyramidal 
towers,  a  semi-circular  doorway,  including  two  pointed  arches,  and 
over  it  a  series  of  seven  equal  lancets.  Dined  with  Professor 
Gregory,  and  took  tea  with  the  Principal,  Jack.  The  old  college 
(King's)  is  a  fine  building,  particularly  the  chapel.  A  neat  building 
has  just  been  added  as  a  museum. 

Aug.  15.    Went  by  coach  to  Inverness,  and  then  on  to  Dingwall. 

Aug.  16.  To  the  summit  of  Ben  Wyvis,  from  which  we  had  a 
most  beautiful  view,  extending  as  far  as  Skye  and  Sutherland. 

Aug.  17.  Again  to  Ben  Wyvis,  and  examined  the  cliffs  over 
the  valley,  at  the  eastern  end,  but  found  nothing  of  interest  except 
Arbutus  alpinus.  Gathered  an  astonishing  quantity  of  the  fruit  of 
Bubus  Chamaemorus.  The  same  evening  went  to  Inverness,  and 
arriving  there  at  2  a.m.  the  next  day,  did  not  go  to  bed,  but  sat 
up  till  the  boat  for  the  Caledonian  Canal  started,  at  5,  by  which  we 
went  to  Fort  William.  Saw  the  Fall  of  Foyers  by  the  way,  and 
Fort  Augustus.     Boat  was  the  "  Eob  Eoy." 


116  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1842 

Aug.  19.  To  Oban.  Walked  to  DunstafFnage  Castle  and 
Dunolly  Castle. 

Aug.  20.  Went  to-day  by  the  steamer  "  Brenda  "  to  Staffa  and 
lona.  Started  at  6  a.m.  and  went  by  the  way  of  the  Sound  of 
Kerrera,  to  the  south  of  Mull,  landing  passengers  at  Loch  Buy  and 
Karsaig  to  lona,  and  had  a  splendid  view  of  the  coast  of  Mull. 
There  was  rather  a  heavy  sea,  which  affected  some  of  the  party 
considerably,  and  we  had  some  difficulty  in  landing  at  lona.  The 
ruins  of  the  monastic  church  and  the  cathedral  far  surpassed  my 
expectation,  and  are  well  worthy  of  a  careful  examination ;  we  had 
only  an  hour  allowed.  At  StafFa  we  landed  on  the  north  end  of 
the  island,  so  as  to  avoid  the  swell,  and  walked  to  the  cave,  which 
we  entered.  It  is  far  finer  than  I  expected.  Returned  by  the 
Sound  of  Mull  to  Oban  at  8  p.m.  The  party  consisted  of  about 
forty  persons,  and  we  had  on  the  whole  a  fine  day. 

Aug.  21.  Sunday.  As  there  was  no  service  in  English  in  the 
morning,  we  walked  as  far  as  Kilmore,  and  returned  by  Loch  Nell 
in  time  for  the  afternoon  service.  In  the  evening  we  went  along 
the  coast  to  the  south  for  about  four  miles. 

Aug.  22.     By  coach  to  Inverary. 

Aug.  23.  By  coach  to  Arroquhar ;  much  disappointed  with  Glen 
Croe,  in  which  there  is  a  profusion  of  Carum  verticillatum.  On  the 
hill-side  below  Arroquhar  we  found  a  Hieracium  without  the  radiant 
florets.  By  steamer  down  Loch  Long  to  Dunoon  and  Greenock, 
thence  by  rail  to  Glasgow. 

Aug.  24—26.     At  Glasgow. 

Aug.  27.  To  Edinburgh,  where  I  remained  during  the  Queen's 
visit. 

Sept.  7.  Went  to  Glasgow  and  Ardrossan  by  railway,  intending 
to  have  reached  Arran  that  night,  but  found  that  the  steam-boat 
did  not  go. 

Sept.  8.  To  Arran.  Landed  at  Brodick,  and  walked  round  the 
point  between  that  bay  and  Lamlash,  returning  by  the  road. 
Returned  to  Ardrossan,  and  finding  that  they  had  chosen  to  fill 
my  room  at  the  inn,  went  on  to  Ayr  by  the  railway. 

Sept.  9.  By  coach  to  Dumfries.  The  road  is  wild  and  un- 
interesting, through  a  sheep  farming  district  of  highish  hills. 

Sept.  10.  Walked  down  the  bank  of  the  Nith  to  the  Solway, 
then  along  it  to  Locker  Point ;  returned  to  Carlaverock  Castle,  and 
back  by  the  road  through  the  village  of  Carlaverock. 

Sept.  11.  Sunday.  Went  to  Beattock  to  breakfast,  and  then 
spent  the  rest  of  the  day  at  Kirkpatrick  Juxta,  with  the  Rev. 
W.  Little,  the  minister. 

Sept.  12,  13.     Remained  at  Kirkpatrick  Manse. 


1842—43]         JOURNAL— SCOTLAND  AND   CAMBRIDGE.  117 

Sept.  14.  To  Jardine  Hall,  where  I  continued  until  Sept.  30th, 
collecting  mostly  Brambles,  which  appear  to  be  very  plentiful  there. 
I  intended  to  have  left  Scotland  sooner,  but  could  not  get  a  place 
until  that  morning  at  5  o'clock,  and  reached  Lancaster  at  4.30  p.m., 
leaving  by  rail  at  5.30  p.m. ;  arrived  in  London  at  5  a.m.  on  the 
next  day. 

Oct.  1.     Eeached  Cambridge  this  evening. 

1843.  Feb.  Nothing  of  interest  having  occurred  to  enter 
during  this  winter,  in  which  I  did  not  leave  Cambridge,  I  now 
commence  again.     Fully  occupied  with  my  "Manual." 

Feb.  11.     John  Ball  came  to  Cambridge. 

Feb.  13.     Dined  at  Trinity  to  meet  him  at  Sedgwick's. 

Feb.  15.  Dined  with  Cartmell  of  Christ's  to  meet  Ball.  He  is 
Avorking  at  my  Hieracia. 

March  7.     Went  to  London,  and  dined  with  the  Linnean  Club. 

March  8.  Arranged  with  R  Taylor  to  commence  the  printing 
of  my  "  Manual  of  British  Botany." 

March  15.     Ray  Meeting  at  my  rooms. 

May  1.  Finished  the  manuscript  of  my  "  Manual,"  which  has 
kept  me  most  fully  employed  all  the  winter. 

May  15.     Corrected  the  last  proof  of  my  "Manual." 

May  24.  Went  to  London  to  the  Anniversary  of  the  Linnean 
Society,  and  dined  with  the  members.  My  "Manual"  published. 
Elected  Treasurer  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society,  in  the 
room  of  the  Rev.  J.  J.  Smith. 

May  27.  Went  to  Ely  to  dine  with  the  Dean,  as  President,  and 
the  Council  of  the  Philosophical  Society ;  remained  at  the  Deanery 
till  Monday,  and  then  returned  home. 

June  14.     The  first  fine  day  that  there  has  been  for  many  weeks. 

June  17.  Left  Cambridge  for  the  summer.  Went  to  Mr. 
Forster's  at  Woodford,  and  remained  there  till  Tuesday,  June  20th. 

June  21.  Went  to  Thames  Ditton,  at  Mr.  H.  C.  Watson's ;  and 
the  next  day  Mr.  Borrer  joined  us  at  the  Esher  Station,  and  we 
went  to  Woking,  between  which  place  and  Guildford  Ave  gathered 
at  White  Moor  Pond,  the  Eriophorum  gracile  (true),  Alopecurus 
fuhus,  and  several  other  plants.  Then  returned  to  Weybridge, 
and  unsuccessfully  looked  for  Linaria  simplex.  Saw  by  the  river 
at  Weybridge  Impatiens  fulva.     Returned  to  London. 

June  23.  Dined  at  Mr.  Forster's  to  meet  the  Bishop  of  Norwich 
(Dr.  Stanley),  President  of  the  Linnean  Society,  etc. 

June  24.     To  Shrewsbury  to  visit  W.  A.  Leighton. 


118  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1843 

June  26.  Walked  to  the  station  of  Saliz  Meyeriana,  and  again 
found  the  trees  from  which  Leighton  gathered  it  before,  at  about 
five-and-a-quarter  miles  from  Shrewsbury,  on  the  road  to  Pontesford. 

June  27.     Dined  with  the  Rev.  James  Colley. 

June  28.     To  Almond  Park,  and  saw  Ruhusfissus. 

July  6.  Left  Shrewsbury,  by  way  of  Wolverhampton,  to 
Manchester. 

July  7.    Took  up  my  quarters  at  my  cousin  Gisborne  Babington's. 

July  8.     Met  Dr.  Vaughan  and  Dr.  Wardlaw. 

July  9.     Went  to  Stand  in  the  evening  to  hear  Dr.  Vaughan. 

July  11.  Went  to  Dickson's  Fold,*  on  the  Bolton  railway,  and 
saw  the  fossil  trees. 

July  12.  To  Glossop,  by  Sheffield  rail,  to  see  viaduct  and 
timber  bridge. 

July  13.  To  Duckinfield  Station  of  the  above,  then  by  boat  to 
Marple.  Walked  by  Werneth,  Gee  Cross,  and  Hyde  to  Duckinfield 
and  Ashton,  and  back  by  railway.     A  most  beautiful  hilly  country. 

July  14.  To  Warrington  to  call  upon  Mr.  W.  Wilson,  but  did 
not  meet  with  him.  Walked  along  the  river  bank  downwards  from 
the  railway,  and  gathered  Allium  Scorodoprasum  in  a  grass  field  liable 
to  be  flooded. 

July  16.  Sunday.  At  church  at  Chapel-en-le-Frith,  and  heard 
John  Gisborne.  G.  Babington  and  I  then  walked  to  the  summit  of 
a  lofty  hill  near  Chapel. 

July  17.  Returned  to  Manchester  by  walking  along  the  canal 
to  Marple,  and  then  by  boat  and  railway. 

July  18.  Left  Manchester  by  railway  to  Hebden  Bridge. 
Walked  over  the  hills  and  valleys  to  the  west,  and  was  very 
greatly  gratified  by  the  beauty  of  the  country,  but  found  no 
plants  of  interest. 

July  19.  Spent  the  morning  with  S.  Gibson,  looking  over  his 
specimens.  He  then  took  me  to  the  station  for  Carex  Gibsoni,  but 
we  could  not  find  any  flowering  stems ;  we  saw  several  other  Carices, 
and  some  Eubi. 

July  20.  Went  over  the  moor  to  Keighley,  and  then  by  coach 
to  Skipton  and  Settle. 

July  21.  Breakfasted  with  J.  Tatham.  In  the  evening  he  took 
me  to  the  station  for  Lastrea  rigida,  of  which  we  found  plenty.  Also 
went  to  Scalebar  Force,  a  pretty  fall. 

July  23.  After  church  walked  up  the  Clapham  Road  to  the  top 
of  the  hill,  then  over  the  Fell,  and  down  to  Stainforth.     In  a  wood 

•  Query  Diggle'a  Fold. 


1843]  JOURNAL— IN  THE  LAKE  COUNTRY.  119 

just  below  the  bridge,  on  the  north  side,  and  near  Stainforth  Force, 
found  Hieracium  prenantho'ides,  Crepis  succisaefolia,  and  Allium  olera- 
ceum. 

July  24.  Tom  Tatham  (a  lad)  walked  with  me  to  Hesselden 
Ghyll,  where  we  found  Ribes  alpinum,  R.  petraeum,  Saxifraga  umbrosa 
(particularly  in  a  hollow  a  short  distance  up  a  lateral  stream  which 
crosses  the  road  at  a  cottage ;  the  plant  seems  not  to  be  an  escape, 
and  does  not  occur  up  the  stream,  even  as  far  as  the  cottage), 
Myrrhis  odorata,  Actaea  spicata,  and  several  others.  On  our  way  we 
visited  a  fine  waterfall,  called  Catterick  Force,  formed  by  a  stream 
joining  the  Kibble  at  Stainforth.    We  passed  close  under  Pen-y-gent. 

July  25.  T.  Tatham  guided  me  over  the  hills  to  Malham  Cove 
and  Gordale  Scar.  Passed  numerous  calamine  pits  by  the  way,  and 
saw  Malham  Tarn  at  a  distance.  Found  Thlaspi  alpestre  near  the 
calamine  pits,  and  Polemonium  caendeitm  at  the  cove.  Gordale  Scar 
is  a  fine,  deep,  rocky  hollow.  In  the  evening  I  met  and  was  intro- 
duced to  Mr.  Nuttall,  the  celebrated  American  botanist,  now  come 
to  live  in  England. 

July  26.  Went  to  the  ebbing-and-flowing  well.  Left  Settle,  and 
reached  Kendal  by  way  of  Kirkby  Lonsdale. 

Jidy  27.  Left  Kendal,  going  by  Ambleside  to  Keswick.  The 
day  was  fine,  and  the  ride  most  interesting.  Spent  the  evening 
with  Mr.  Carl  Voigt,  from  Vienna.  Walked  round  the  lake,  seeing 
Lodore  Fall  by  the  way. 

July  28.  Went  up  Borrowdale,  then  over  Gatesgarth  Pass, 
without  finding  Alchemilla  conjunda,  but  plenty  of  A.  alpina ;  to 
Buttermere,  where  it  commenced  raining.  Returned  in  a  car  by 
way  of  Newlands. 

July  29.  A  very  wet  day.  Went  to  St.  John's  Vale.  Found 
by  the  road-side  Thalidrum  majus. 

July  30.  Sunday.  The  new  church  built  by  Salvin,  at  the 
expense  of  Mr.  Marshall,  is  beautiful  Early  English. 

J^dy  31.  To  Wallow  Crag.  Got  only  Pyrola  secunda.  Saw 
Mr.  C.  H.  Wright,  the  botanist,  here ;  he  gave  me  several  plants. 

A^lg.  1.  Again  wet.  Went  with  Wright,  and  got  Epipadis 
media  in  a  wood  by  Kendal  road ;  also  to  Portinscale,  to  see  the 
station  of  an  unknown  Boragineous  plant. 

Aug.  2.  Left  Keswick  by  coach,  by  way  of  Cockermouth  and 
Wigton  to  Carlisle,  and  rail  to  Newcastle. 

Aug.  3.  To  Durham  by  the  Brandling  railway.  Took  up  my 
quarters  at  Mr.  Gisborne's  house.  Found  Walter  Gisborne  there ; 
we  walked  to  Finchale  Abbey,  beautifully  situated  on  the  banks  of 
the  Wear.  The  ruins  shew  curiously  the  alteration  of  casing 
Norman  pillars,  and  converting  the  style  into  Early  English. 


120  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [184S 

Aug.  4.  Saw  the  museum ;  dined  with  the  Dean,  Dr.  Waddington,. 
and  met  the  Bishop. 

Aug.  5.  Walked  to  a  paper-mill,  and  inspected  it.  Dined  with 
the  Bishop  of  Chester. 

Aug.  7.     "Went  to  Barnard  Castle. 

Aug.  8.  Walked  up  the  Yorkshire  side  of  the  valley  to  the 
High  Force  Inn,  and  then  to  Cronkley  Scar. 

Aug.  9.  Walked  to  Falcon  Glints,  and  saw  the  Woodsia.  On 
Widdy  Bank  got  Hieracium  Lapei/rmisii ;  and  in  the  evening  at 
Wynch  Bridge.     Gathered  Poa  Parnellii  at  the  High  Force. 

Aug.  10.  Walked  back  to  Barnard  Castle,  and  visited  the  ruins 
of  the  castle. 

Aug.  11.  To  York.  Galled  upon  Mr.  Baines,  also  Mr.  James 
Backhouse,  who  walked  with  me  into  the  country ;  dined  with  him. 

Aug.  12.  To  Liverpool  by  railway,  and  the  steam  vessel  to 
Dublin. 

Aug.  14.  Went  to  Glasnevin  Garden,  and  dined  with  R.  Ball, 
and  went  to  Dalkey  Island. 

Aug.  15.  By  the  "Vanguard"  steamship  to  Cork  in  thirteen 
hours,  arriving  in  the  morning. 

Aug.  16.  Committee  of  the  British  Association  met.  Took 
lodgings  at  Mrs.  Bagley's,  79,  Grand  Parade,  with  Dr.  Lankester 
and  Edward  Forbes. 

Aug.  17.    Sections  met.    "  Red  Lions  "  dine  at  "  Victoria  Arms." 

Aug.  23.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Kelcher,  one  of  the  local 
secretaries.     Last  day  of  the  meeting. 

Aug.  24.  Breakfasted  again  with  Mr.  Kelcher ;  and  went  in  a 
steamer  to  see  the  cove.  We  went  up  both  the  branches  of  it,  and 
had  a  scrambling  dinner  in  one  of  the  store-houses  on  Haulbowline 
Island. 

Aug.  25.  Winterbottom  and  I  went  by  coach  to  Clonakilty,  by 
way  of  Bandon,  which  is  a  nice  clean  town. 

Aug.  26.  Walked  to  Dunmore,  to  the  south  of  the  entrance  of 
the  bay,  in  search  of  Erica  MacJcaiana,  but  could  not  find  it.  Found 
Arctium  majus. 

Aug.  27.  Obliged  to  go  on  to  Ban  try,  by  the  way  of  Ross, 
Carbery,  and  Skibbereen.  The  country  very  beautiful,  and  well 
cultivated,  and  more  like  England.     Bantry  is  a  fine  spot. 

Aug.  29.  To  Glengariff  by  the  car.  Then  by  private  car  to 
Castleton  Berehaven.  On  the  way  we  ascended  Hungry  Hill,  by 
the  side  of  the  waterfall  of  Adrigole,  as  far  as  the  town,  then  along 
the  side  of  the  mountain  to  the  other  tarn.     The  only  interesting 


1843]  JOURNAL— EXCURSIONS   IN   IRELAND.  121 

plant  was  Saxifraga  hirsuta,  on  the  ascent.  Did  not  see  Dabeocia^ 
said  to  have  been  found  here  by  Mr.  Nash.  Called  upon  Dr.  P.  A. 
Armstrong. 

Aug.  30.  Spent  the  day  with  Mr.  Armstrong ;  he  shewed  to  us 
the  Spiranthes  gemmipara  growing  in  a  rather  wet  field  near  the 
shore,  amongst  Bushes,  just  to  the  south-west  of  the  town ;  we  saw 
about  twelve  specimens  nearly  out  of  flower. 

Aug.  31.     Walked  back  to  GlengarifF. 

Sept.  1.  Spent  the  day  exploring  Lord  Bantry's  demesne,  which 
is  very  beautiful. 

Sept.  2.  To  Kenmare  (by  the  new  road  by  the  tunnel),  and 
Killarney  by  the  public  car. 

Sept.  3.  Sunday.  After  church  visited  Lord  Kenmare's  western 
demesne,  and  also  Ross  Island. 

Sept.  4.     Examined  Turk  mountain. 

Sept.  5.  Dr.  Taylor  came  to  meet  us  at  Crom-a-glaun  mountain ; 
we  found  Trichomanes  by  a  little  stream  at  a  short  distance  beyond 
the  pierced  rock,  and  about  half-a-mile  from  the  road. 

Sept.  6.  To  the  same  district ;  ascended  through  some  beautiful 
woods  towards  Combnie,  and  then  descended  the  river  to  the  road 
again. 

Sept.  7.  Spent  the  day  in  the  examination  of  the  river  and 
waterfall  of  Turk.  Found  the  Trichomanes  some  distance  above  the 
fall,  a  little  below  a  bridge  ;  also  on  the  old  station  below  the  fall, 
and  several  other  spots  high  up  the  precipice,  on  the  north  side  of 
the  fall. 

Sept.  8.  Went  through  Mr.  Herbert's  demesne  as  far  as  the 
bridge  between  the  lakes.  Went  to  Grena  to  call  upon  Mr.  J. 
O'Connell.     Spent  much  time  at  Killarney  in  the  study  of  Eubi. 

Sept.  9.  Went  to  Waterville  by  car,  by  the  road  following  the 
north  side  of  the  Kenmare  river  from  Sneem,  and  going  close  by 
Derrynane. 

Sept.  12.  Went  to  Church  Island  in  Curraan  Lake,  but  found 
the  ruins  in  a  very  decayed  state.  Landed  on  the  south  side  of  the 
lake  at  a  short  distance  beyond  a  curious  promontory,  and  found 
Trichomanes.  Crossed  the  mountain,  and  examined  a  waterfall,  or 
rather  rapid,  at  the  head  of  the  next  valley. 

Sept.  15.  Went  by  the  public  car  to  Killarney,  by  the  way  of 
Cahir  Civeen  and  Killorglin.  Parted  from  Winterbottom  at  Cahir 
Civeen. 

Sept.  16.     To  Cork. 

Sept.  18.  To  Waterford,  by  way  of  Youghal,  Lismore,  Cappo- 
quin,  and  Dungannon. 


122  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1843 

Sept.  19.  To  Hobbs'  Point  (Milford  Haven)  by  steamer.  Only 
two  passengers.     At  sea  twelve  hours. 

Sept  20.     To  Tenby. 

Sept.  21.     Dined  with  R.  W.  Falconer,  M.D. 

Sept.  22.  Dined  again  with  R.  W.  Falconer,  to  meet  Wood 
of  Jesus  College,  and  J.  E.  Fitzgerald. 

Sept.  23.     To  Carmarthen. 

Sept.  25.     To  Monmouth. 

Sept.  26.  To  Bath,  by  Chepstow  and  Bristol.  Gathered  a  new 
Euphorbia,  allied  to  stricta,  between  Tintern  and  Wyndcliff. 

Sept.  27 — 30.  Assisting  my  aunt,  Mrs.  Bedford,  in  removing 
from  8,  Hanover  Street  to  7,  East  Beaufort  Buildings.  Got  in  to 
the  latter  on  the  29th. 

Oct.  2.  Dined  with  Dr.  Whitter,  and  went  to  a  scientific  party 
at  Mr.  Lawson's  afterwards. 

Oct.  9.  Called  upon  H.  C.  Rothery,  whose  family  were  staying 
at  1,  Bath  wick  Terrace. 

Oct.  10.  Spent  the  day  in  walking  about  with  Rothery,  and 
dined  with  that  family. 

Oct.  11.     Dined  with  Mr.  B.  Fowler,  5,  Beacon  Hill. 

Oct.  16.  Went  to  London,  and  stopped  at  H.  C.  Rothery's, 
10,  Stratford  Place. 

Oct.  19.     Came  to  Cambridge. 

Oct.  25.  The  Queen  came  to  visit  the  University;  we  all  collected 
in  the  great  court  of  Trinity,  and  after  forming  four  deep  round 
three  sides  of  the  court,  went  in  procession  to  present  the  address. 

Oct.  26.  Degree  conferred  upon  Prince  Albert  at  the  Senate 
House ;  afterwards  they  visited  St.  John's,  coming  in  at  the  middle 
gate  of  the  new  court.     They  left  Cambridge. 

Nov.  6.  Again  elected  into  the  Council  of  the  Philosophical 
Society. 

Nov.  20.     Anniversary  Dinner  of  Philosophical  Society. 

Nov.  29.  The  Ray  Club  dined  with  me  at  6.30  p.m. :  viz.,  J.  H. 
Pollexfen,  W.  T.  Kingsley,  D.  T.  Ansted,  Professor  Clark,  J.  J. 
Smith,  Joseph  Power,  W.  H.  Stokes,  J.  S.  Henslow;  also  W.  H. 
Miller  and  G.  G.  Stokes. 

Dec.  5.     Went  to  London. 

Dec.  6.  Heard  a  lecture  by  Mr.  Brande  at  the  Royal  Institution, 
addressed  to  the  Royal  Agricultural  Society. 

Dec.  7.  Went  to  the  Smithfield  Cattle  Show,  and  to  another 
lecture  by  Brande. 


1843—44]  JOIJRNAL— CAMBRIDGE  AND   LONDON.  123 

Dec.  8.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

Dec.  27.  Edward  Forbes  came  to  see  Cambridge,  and  dined 
with  us  on  St.  John's  Day. 

Dec.  28.  Forbes  and  I  dined  at  Jesus,  and  he  returned  to  town 
the  next  day. 

Dec.  29.     Dined  with  Professor  W.  W.  Fisher. 
1844.     Feb.  7.     Placed  on  a  syndicate  to  consult  concerning  the 
removal  of  the  Botanic  Garden. 

Feb.  10.     First  meeting  of  Botanic  Garden  Syndicate. 

Feb.  26.  Second  meeting  of  Botanic  Garden  Syndicate.  Dined 
with  Whewell,  Master  of  Trinity,  as  President  of  Cambridge  Philo- 
sophical Society. 

March  19.  To  London  to  meet  Balfour.  Dined  with  the 
Linnean  Club. 

March  21.  Balfour  and  I  went  to  Kew,  and  spent  some  hours 
with  Sir  W.  J.  Hooker,  at  his  house,  and  in  the  Botanical  Gardens. 

March  21.     Dined  with  R.  Taylor. 

March  22.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

March  27.  Balfour  came  to  Cambridge,  and  we  dined  with 
Ansted. 

March  28.     We  dined  in  Hall  at  Downing  with  Dr.  Fisher. 

March  29.     Balfour  left. 

April  2.     I  went  to  London. 

April  3.     At  Kew  with  Hooker,  examining  Spiranthes  gemmifera. 

April  4.  Went  to  R.  M.  Lingwood  at  Lyston,  by  the  way  of 
the  Cheltenham  railway  to  Cirencester,  then  by  Gloucester  and 
Ross.  Whilst  with  him  we  visited  Kilpeck  Church,  which  is  a 
highly  interesting  Norman  structure ;  inspected  the  restorations  in 
the  Cathedral  of  Hereford ;  went  to  the  highly  interesting  land-slip 
at  Dormington,  etc.  On  one  day  we  went  to  Monmouth  Cap,  and 
whilst  Lingwood  fished,  I  called  upon  Mr.  Bentham  at  Pontrilas. 

April  22.     Left  Lyston,  and  returned  to  London. 

April  23.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

May  4.  Went  to  Ely  to  the  Deanery  to  meet  Sedgwick,  who 
had  a  field  lecture  on  this  day. 

May  6.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

May  16.     Henslow's  Gamlingay  party. 

May  23.     To  London. 

May  24.  Anniversary  of  the  Linnean  Society.  Dined  with  it^ 
and  met  Mr.  Edgeworth,  the  botanist. 


124  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [184* 

May  25.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

May  31.  Power  of  Clare,  and  Power  of  Pembroke,  his  brother, 
Dr.  White,  and  I  went  to  Bottisham  Fen,  which  was  almost  dried 
up,  and  but  few  plants  to  be  found. 

June  5.  Went  to  the  "Gogs"  with  J.  Power  of  Pembroke. 
Yesterday  the  wind  left  the  north  and  east,  in  which  quarters  it 
had  continued  for  more  than  seven  weeks. 

June  14.     To  London. 

June  15.  Went  with  a  Geological  and  Botanical  party,  conducted 
by  Ansted  and  E.  Forbes,  to  Redhill,  and  then  to  Folkestone  and 
Hythe. 

June  16.  Visited  Lyddon  Spout,  and  gathered  Orobanche  caryo- 
phyllacea,  Silene  nutans,  etc. ;  on  the  bank  just  opposite  to  eastern- 
most house  of  Sandgate,  we  got  Fedia  carinata. 

June  17.  Found  Carex  divisa  on  the  shingles,  and  on  the  way  to 
Folkestone  Bromus  commutatus,  Hippopha'e,  etc.  Near  Hythe  Bark- 
hausia  taraxacifolia  and  Centaurea  Calcitrajpa  are  abundant. 

June  18.  Mr.  Mackeson  shewed  me  Ophrys  arachnites  on  the 
chalk  hill  at  about  five  miles  from  Hythe.  Went  to  Staplehurst  by 
railway,  and  then  by  coach  to  Hastings. 

June  19.  Called  upon  Mr.  Ranking  (a  surgeon),  who  sent  his. 
nephew  to  shew  the  place  where  Mr.  Hailstone  found  Carex  brizdides, 
but  it  was  so  grown  up  with  bushes  that  we  could  not  find  anything. 
It  is  a  bog  by  the  side  of  the  stream  that  enters  the  sea  through 
what  was  a  salt  marsh  to  the  west  of  the  town.  Back  to  railway, 
and  to  Tunbridge  Wells. 

June  20.  To  Eridge  High  Rocks,  where  we  saw  Rymenophyllum 
tunbridgense.     To  London. 

June  22.     Forbes,  Lankester,  and  I  went  to  Chelsea  Gardens. 

June  23.  To  Mr.  Forster's  at  Woodford,  and  remained  until 
the  next  morning. 

June  24.     To  Bath,  7,  East  Beaufort  Buildings. 

July  9.  Went  to  Chepstow,  and  to  the  "  Rose  and  Crown  "  Inn 
at  Tintern  to  meet  Lingwood.  Found  that  the  Euphorbia  stricta  of 
Koch  is  plentiful  from  above  Tintern  down  the  river  for  several 
miles. 

July  10.  Crossed  the  river  at  the  abbey,  and  went  through  the 
woods  to  the  Devil's  Pulpit,  from  whence  there  is  a  very  fine  view. 
Then  across  Tyddenham  Chase,  along  the  Coalford  road,  and  through 
the  woods,  in  which  there  is  a  remarkable  suberect  Eubus,  to  Brock- 
were,  and  home.    In  the  woods  Campamda  latifolia  is  not  unfrequent. 

Jtdy  11.      Walked   to  Trellech,  where  there  is  a  fine  Early 


1844]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING   IN   SCOTLAND.  125 

English  Church,  a  spring  strongly  charged  with  iron,  and  three 
large  monumental  stones.  Thence  to  Monmouth.  Between  Tintern 
and  Trellech  there  is  a  large  peat  bog  where  turf  is  cut  for  fuel. 
From  Monmouth  by  car  to  Lyston. 

July  12.     To  Aconbury  Chapel  and  Hill. 

July  15.     To  Bath. 

July  26.     To  Warrington. 

July  27.  Spent  the  morning  with  W.  Wilson  at  Orford  Mount. 
Ling  wood  joined  me,  and  by  railway  to  Liverpool,  and  by  "Princess" 
steamer  to  Glasgow. 

July  29.     Dined  with  Balfour. 

July  30.  We  went  to  the  Inverarnon  Inn  by  steamer  on  Loch 
Lomond.     Balfour  and  three  students  joined  us. 

July  31.  Walked  to  Killin  and  the  Lochy  Inn,  which  was 
head  quarters.  Through  Glen  Falloch  and  Glen  Docharb.  Fine 
country,  and  good  day. 

Aug.  1.  Went  up  the  Glen  of  Lochy,  and  ascended  Mael 
Ghyrdy,  where  we  got  Carex  pulla  (good),  Juncus  castaneus,  J.  higlu- 
mis,  and  many  other  plants  on  the  east  side  of  the  mountain  in  a 
wet  hollow,  by  which  we  descended  to  a  road  opening  at  the  bridge 
in  the  Glen  Lochy. 

Aug.  2.  By  car  to  Ben  Lawers  Inn,  then  ascended  the  mountain 
over  a  ridge  next  to  the  inn,  descended  into  the  hollow,  and  found 
Fhletim  alpimim,  and  an  Eriophorum  with  a  round  stem  which  may 
be  Don's  E.  capitatum.  View  very  fine  from  the  top.  Near  the  crater 
found  Saxifraga  cernua,  and  Myosotis  suaveolens,  and  Draba  rupestris. 
On  several  parts  of  the  hill  found  Arenaria  rubella,  Spergula  saginoides, 
Cherleria  sedoides,  Sibbaldia,  etc.  Descended  by  Ben  Lassie,  and 
found  on  the  cliffs  passed  in  reaching  it,  Gentiana  nivalis,  Myosotis  in 
plenty,  and  Balfour  says,  Saxifraga  cernua.  By  mistake  did  not 
visit  Craig-na-Gat  which  is  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  lake  from 
Ben  Lawers,  near  some  rock  upon  the  south-east  arm  of  the  hill 
where  Saxifraga  rivularis  grows. 

Aug.  3.  Ascended  Craig  Challaich,  and  Ben-y-Cruchbein.  On 
the  latter,  Balfour  got  lots  of  Poa  Balfourii,  and  I  saw  a  few  upon 
the  former.  Also  Arenaria  rubella,  etc.  Lingwood  left  us  to  go  to 
the  north  with  Mr.  Boddenham. 

Aug.  4.  Visited  the  MacNab  burying  ground,  and  saw  the 
supposed  natural  graft  on  a  Scotch  Fir,  but  considered  it  to  be  a 
mistake,  and  caused  by  the  fracture  of  a  branch  near  its  origin, 
which  shot  out  an  upright  shoot  from  near  that  spot,  and  then  closed 
the  wound  caused  by  the  fracture.  Also  visited  Finlarig  Castle,  and 
the  burying  place  of  the  Breadalbane  family. 


126  CHARLES   CAHDALE  BABINGTON.  [1844 

Aug.  5.  By  car  to  King's  House,  and  then  walked  by  Loch 
Lubnaig,  in  which  we  saw,  but  could  not  get  even  by  wading, 
Nuphar  ptimila,  also  Subularia,  Isoetes,  and  Litorella.  Through  the 
pass  of  Lennie,  to  within  one-and-a-half  miles  of  Callendar,  where 
we  saw  Eumex  alpinus  and  Spiraea  salicifolia,  by  Loch  Vennachar 
and  Loch  Achray,  to  Stewart's  Inn  at  the  Trossachs. 

Aug.  6.  Through  the  Trossachs,  and  by  Loch  Katrine  to 
Inversnaid,  and  then  to  Inverarnon  Inn  (where  we  found  Hieradum 
denticulatum,  Malaxis  paludosa,  and  Lycopodium  inundatum)  to  Balloch, 
and  by  coach  to  Glasgow,  through  a  terrific  storm  of  wind  and  rain. 
Stayed  with  Balfour. 

Aug.  7,  8.  Cattle  Show  of  Highland  Society  on  the  green. 
Was  a  judge  of  seeds  and  roots,  and  also  of  flowers  at  a  horticultural 
show.  Got  tickets  free  for  both  the  dinners  of  the  Highland  Society 
as  a  judge, 

Aug.  10.  Went  to  Campbelton  by  steamer,  with  a  party  of 
seven. 

Aug.  12.  By  the  coast  to  Southend,  where  four  of  us  remained 
at  a  nice  little  inn,  three  going  on  to  the  Mull  Lighthouse.  Visited 
the  fort  of  Dunlaverick  consisting  of  a  high  rock  projecting  into  the 
sea,  the  last  hold  of  the  MacDonalds  in  the  country. 

Aug.  13.  Crossed  the  interior  through  a  heathery  district  to 
the  west  coast,  which  we  followed  to  Mackerihanish  Bay,  and  then 
back  to  Campbelton. 

Aug.  14.  Up  the  west  coast  to  Tayinloan.  Remarked  great 
quantities  of  Aria  aquatica  growing  prostrate  upon  the  sands  of 
Lenanmore.  Ruined  church  of  Killean,  a  curious  structure  with 
two  lancets  with  round  heads  at  the  east  end,  and  a  door  with 
narrowing  sides  and  a  fiat  single  capstone. 

Aug.  15.  To  Porthullian  at  the  mouth  of  West  Tarbert  Loch ; 
then  by  the  steamer  to  Port  Askaig  in  Islay,  from  whence  we  were 
taken  by  a  carriage  sent  for  us  to  the  house  of  G.  T.  Chiene,  of 
Ealabus,  factor  to  Campbell  of  Islay.  Parnell,  Balfour,  and  I  were 
most  hospitably  received  at  his  house  during  our  stay  in  Islay. 
Ealabus  is  near  Islay  House.     There  is  a  good  inn  at  Bridgend. 

Aug.  16.  Drove  to  Kilchoman,  and  walked  to  Loch  Guirm,  and 
the  rocks  by  the  coast,  which  are  of  the  most  curious  kind. 

Aug.  18.  Saw  some  land  recently  brought  into  cultivation  by 
Mr.  Chiene  from  peat-moss,  producing  a  fine  crop  of  wheat.  Also  a 
road  of  about  two  miles  in  length,  made  by  the  assembly  of  nearly 
700  men  in  one  day. 

Aug.  19.  Drove  to  Portnahaven,  went  on  to  Kilberan,  and 
examined  a  good  farm  there. 


1844]  JOURNAL— SCOTCH  TOURS,  Etc.  127 

Aiig.  20.  To  Kilnane,  examining  the  west  side  of  Loch  Gruinart. 
The  ruins  of  Kilnane  Church  interesting. 

Aug.  21.  Examined  the  sands  and  marshes  at  the  head  of 
Lochindal. 

Aug.  22.  Visited  the  limestone  districts  of  the  interior,  and 
went  through  the  wood  upon  both  sides  of  the  river  along  the  Islay 
House  drives. 

Aug.  24.  Returned  to  Glasgow  by  Tarbert  and  the  Kyles  of 
Bute. 

Aug.  29.     To  Edinburgh. 

Aug.  30.  Took  lodgings  at  19,  Dundas  Street  (Collins),  the  same 
person  as  I  was  formerly  with  under  the  name  of  Fairbairn. 

Sept.  3.  Commenced  arranging  the  European  plants  in  the 
Botanical  Society's  collection. 

Sept.  7.  Brand  and  I  went  by  Queensferry  to  Dunfermline  to 
visit  Dr.  Dewar,  and  went  with  him  to  Glen  Devon.  The  river 
passes  through  a  very  narrow  and  deep  gully  at  the  "rumbling 
bridge."  The  glen  is  beautiful,  and  rich  in  Hieracia.  Found  Turritis 
glabra  on  rocks  on  the  left  of  the  river,  a  little  above  the  road  to 
Dunning,  in  a  decidedly  wild  locality ;  saw  also  plenty  of  Equisetum 
umbrosum  on  the  right  hand  side,  a  little  below  a  fine  waterfall  near 
a  bridge  close  to  the  road. 

Sept.  8.  Saw  the  fine  old  nave  of  the  Monastic  Church,  built  in 
the  time  of  Malcolm  Canmore,  Norman  style ;  in  bad  condition,  and 
a  church  in  bad  taste  attached  to  it  with  extremely  flattened  arches 
forming  a  cross.  Saw  also  the  Refectory,  with  a  very  fine  west 
window  in  good  preservation,  but  only  one  side  wall  standing ;  also 
the  stupendous  ruins  of  the  Palace ;  and  the  old  "  dun  "  from  which 
the  town  derives  its  name,  a  very  strong  place  on  a  lofty  promontory 
of  rock. 

Sept.  24.     Finished  my  work  for  the  Botanical  Society. 

Sept.  25.  To  Newcastle,  by  way  of  Galashiels  and  Melrose,  and 
over  the  Cheviot  Hills. 

Sept.  26.  To  York  before  breakfast.  British  Association  meet- 
ing. Lodgings  with  Lankester,  E.  Forbes,  and  Percy  at  2,  Penby 
Grove  Street.     "  Red  Lions  "  at  Jackson's  Hotel,  Petergate. 

Sept.  27.  Lord  Fitzwilliam  gave  a  dinner  to  nearly  200  of  the 
members.     Most  excellent. 

Oct.  5.     To  Cambridge. 

Oct.  .  Appointed  upon  the  Provisional  Committee  of  the  Cam- 
bridge and  Lincoln  railway. 

Nov.  6.  Appointed  Secretary  of  the  Cambridge  Philosophical 
Society. 


128  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1845 

1845.  Jan.  10.  To  London.  Spent  the  evening  at  Dr.  Day's 
with  Forbes. 

Jan.  11.  By  railway  to  Gosport,  and  so  to  Ryde,  where  I  visited 
Dr.  T.  Bell  Salter,  with  a  view  to  the  examination  of  Rubi^  having 
taken  a  large  portion  of  my  specimens  with  me. 

Jan.  13.  Dr.  W.  A.  Bromfield  visited  a  very  interesting  garden 
belonging  to  Sir  R.  Simeon's  house  near  Ryde,  where  a  collection  of 
the  Avild  Rubi  is  forming.  Afterwards  walked  some  distance  along 
the  Brading  road,  and  returned  to  dine  with  Bromfield. 

Jan.  15.  Left  Ryde,  and  went  by  coach  from  Portsmouth  to 
Brighton. 

Jan.  16.  At  Brighton  with  W.  Borrer,  junr.  Dined  with  him, 
and  in  the  evening  went  to  Henfield,  where  remained,  visiting 
Mr.  Borrer  until  the  24th.     To  London. 

Jan.  26.     To  Cambridge. 

Feb.  11.  On  the  night  of  this  day,  Tuesday,  the  temperature 
fell  as  low  as  10°  Fahr. 

Aug.  1.  Left  Cambridge  at  4  p.m.  for  London  by  the  railway, 
which  opened  the  Wednesday  before. 

Aug.  2.  To  Liverpool  by  the  railway,  and  then  by  the  steamer 
to  Glasgow,  where  we  did  not  arrive  until  8  p.m.  on  Aug.  3rd,  after 
a  very  slow  and  bad  passage. 

Aug.  4.     Spent  at  Glasgow,  and  dined  with  Balfour. 

Aug.  5.  Started  with  Balfour,  F.  J.  Cockburn,  and  Risk,  by 
steamer  to  Inverarnon,  and  had  a  peculiarly  fine  day  on  Loch 
Lomond.  Met  Legh  of  King's  on  a  tour  to  the  Highlands.  In 
the  afternoon  we  went  up  the  hill  opposite  the  inn,  from  which  we 
had  a  peculiarly  beautiful  view,  but  found  nothing  particular.  We 
returned  by  a  wooded  valley  into  Glen  Falloch. 

Aug.  6.  Went  along  the  lake  side  and  turned  up  a  glen  to  Loch 
Sloy,  and  ascended  to  the  top  of  Ben  Voirlich  in  a  very  heavy  rain. 
We  found  on  the  top  Carex  saxatilis  and  Subularia  aqioatica,  and  on 
the  descent  by  a  ravine  descending  towards  Loch  Lomond  we  got 
plenty  of  Foa  Balfourii. 

Aug.  7.  Walked  by  Crianlarich  and  Tayinloan  to  Inverarnon 
in  the  hope  of  being  taken  up  by  the  coach,  but  when  it  arrived  it 
was  quite  full.  An  extra  coach,  however,  being  on  its  way  through 
the  country,  we  got  a  lift  by  King's  House  and  Glencoe  to  Balla- 
chuillish,  where  the  inn  was  quite  full,  and  we  had  to  sleep  upon 
the  floor.  On  our  way  we  passed  close  to  a  very  fine  mountain  near 
Inverarnon ;  after  that  we  passed  the  side  of  the  moor  of  Rannoch 
and  saw  Schehallion  in  the  distance.  From  King's  House  descended 
a  wonderful  road  amongst  the  most  beautiful  mountains  into  Glencoe. 


1845]  JOURNAL— SCOTCH   TOURS.  129 

Aug.  8.  This  morning  we  got  a  lift  to  Fort  William,  where  we 
were  peculiarly  fortunate  in  getting  beds,  as  all  the  inns  were  over- 
full every  night.  At  12  o'clock  we  went  out  (that  is,  Balfour, 
Cockburn,  and  I),  walked  up  the  right  hand  side  of  the  water  of 
Nevis  for  many  miles,  crossing  a  very  steep  and  rough  mountain 
road  to  the  iijjper  part  of  the  glen,  to  a  fine  waterfall,  near  which 
the  vegetation  was  particularly  vigorous.  We  returned  down  the 
other  side  of  the  glen,  after  examining  a  very  grand  and  singular 
ravine  through  which  the  river  breaks — filled  with  large  rocks  one 
upon  another.  Here  we  had  much  difficulty,  and  had  to  return  by 
a  different  track.  We  reached  Fort  William  at  8  p.m.  On  the  top 
of  the  high  ridge  which  we  passed  in  going  up  the  glen  we  saw  the 
scratches  of  glacial  action  very  well  marked  on  the  rounded  rocks, 
and  crossing  the  natural  lines  of  structure  in  the  rocks. 

Aug.  9.  Went  along  the  Inverness  road  as  far  as  the  Lochy 
Ferry  and  then  turned  over  the  flat  land  and  ascended  into  the 
corrie  of  Ben  Nevis.  Examined  the  rocks  and  found  many  plants, 
amongst  others  Poa  laxa.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  day  we  ascended 
to  the  masses  of  snow  which  lie  in  a  hollow  far  up,  under  the  highest 
part  of  the  mountain.  It  can  scarcely  be  called  snow,  it  is  rather  a 
mass  of  spherical  crystals  of  ice,  each  of  about  the  size  of  mustard- 
seed.  It  is  broken  with  difficulty.  Near  to  the  snow  we  found 
Stellaria  cerastoides,  Sazifraga  rivularis,  and  a  few  other  plants.  We 
then  returned,  having  started  at  9  a.m.,  and  reached  home  again  at 
6.30  p.m.  It  was  a  stormy  day,  with  frequent  rains,  and  the  higher 
parts  of  the  mountain  constantly  covered  with  clouds.  I  was  very 
much  struck  with  the  grand  character  of  the  cliffs  and  rocks.  They 
are  the  finest  that  I  have  seen. 

Aicg.  10.     Sunday.     Attended  the  Episcopalian  Church. 

Aug.  11.  Balfour  went  again  upon  Ben  Nevis,  but  as  it  was 
raining  hard  on  the  mountain.  Risk  and  I  walked  eight-and-a-half 
miles  up  the  shores  of  Loch  Eil.  The  view  of  the  mountains 
towards  its  head  is  peculiarly  fine.  We  did  not  get  many  plants, 
only  picking  a  few  Eubi 

Aug.  12.  Balfour  having  heard  that  Dr.  Graham  was  dead,  and 
that  the  botanical  chair  at"  Edinburgh  was  thus  vacant,  we  returned 
towards  Glasgow.  It  was  a  very  fine  day,  and  we  saw  Glencoe  in 
perfection.  Indeed,  nothing  could  be  more  favourable  than  the  day 
for  the  whole  journey  to  Inverarnon.  At  that  place  Risk  and  I 
remained — Balfour  going  to  Glasgow,  and  Cockburn  to  Killin — and 
we  gathered  a  few  plants. 

A ug.  1 4.  To  Edinburgh.  Balfour  then  looking  after  the  Botanical 
Professorship. 

Aug.  15.  John  Goodsir  kindly  took  me  into  his  house  at  21, 
Lothian  Street,  and  I  spent  most  of  my  time  in  the  rooms  of  the 
Botanical  Society. 


130  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [184& 

Aug.  19.  Went  to  dinner  at  Bonally,  the  country  house  of  Lord 
Cockburn  (a  judge),  the  father  of  our  companion  in  the  Highlands. 

Aug.  22.     Dined  with  Dr.  and  Mrs.  G.  Patterson. 

Aug.  23.  Walked  with  Evans,  the  Curator  of  the  Botanical 
Society's  Museum,  to  the  Braid  Hills  and  Morton  Hall.  In  the 
woods  at  the  latter  saw  Hieracium  sabaudum.  On  our  return  we 
visited  Craig  Millar  Castle. 

Aug.  28.  Walked  to  Cramond,  and  examined  the  wood  upwards 
on  the  western  side  of  the  river.  Saw  plenty  of  Hieracium  sabaudum 
and  Scrophdaria  Ehrharti,  also  by  the  water  a  Bubus  with  very  long 
prostrate,  sulcate,  and  not  rooting  shoots.  Returned  over  the  old 
bridge  and  along  the  old  road,  much  nearer  to  the  shore  than  the 
new  one,  and  much  prettier. 

Aug.  30.  Went  by  the  railway  to  Linlithgow.  The  church 
plain  but  interesting.  A  curious  carved  tablet  found  under  the 
pavement  some  years  since,  and  kept  carefully  in  a  case.  The 
palace  highly  interesting,  and  the  walls  in  a  very  perfect  state. 
Walked  by  the  road  and  through  a  rather  woody  country  to  Winch- 
burgh,  near  to  which  there  is  the  ruin  of  a  fine  feudal  tower. 
Returned  from  Winchburgh  by  railway. 

Sept.  1.  Went  to  Berwick  by  coach  to  spend  a  few  days  with 
Dr.  Johnston, 

Sept.  2.     Drove  to  Wooler  in  the  evening. 

Sept.  3.  Ascended  the  College  river  as  far  as  the  foot  of  Cheviot 
to  a  cottage  named  Dunsdale,  where  we  met  the  members  of  the 
Berwickshire  Naturalists'  Club.  We  then  went  up  a  ravine  in  the 
mountain,  in  which  I  found  a  Foa,  probably  Balfourii,  in  plenty. 
On  the  top  of  the  hill  we  got  Cornus  suecica  and  many  other  Alpine 
plants.     Returned  in  the  evening  by  Ford  to  Berwick. 

Sept.  5.  Left  Berwick  by  coach  for  Newcastle  at  3  p.m.  Went  on 
by  the  railway  to  London,  where  I  arrived  the  next  day  (Sept.  6th) 
at  1  p.m.,  and  got  to  Cambridge  at  5  p.m.  the  same  day. 

Sept.  8.     Left  Cambridge  at  4  p.m. 

Sept.  9.  Went  to  Winchester  by  7  a.m.  train.  Lodgings  with 
J.  J.  Smith  and  J.  Anthony  at  Butts',  49,  High  Street,  during  the 
week  of  the  meeting  of  the  Archaeological  Association. 

Sept.  10.    Party  at  the  deanery  in  the  evening.    Everyone  there. 

Sept.  11.     To  Romsey  to  see  the  beautiful  Norman  church. 

Sept.  12.  To  Porchester  to  see  the  Roman  and  Norman  castle 
and  Norman  church. 

Sept.  14.     Walked  to  St.  Cross  with  Sharp  and  others. 

Sep)t.  15.  After  the  General  Meeting  of  the  Archaeological 
Institute  went  to  Gosport  and  Ryde  to  Dr.  T.  B.  Salter's. 


1845-46]  JOUKNAL— TOUR   TO   ICELAND.  131 

Sept.  16,     Dined  with  Dr.  Bromfield. 

Sept.  25.  To  Chichester  to  Dr.  Tyacke's.  Drove  to  Kingley 
Bottom,  where  are  the  finest  collection  of  yew  trees  that  I  have  ever 
seen. 

Sept.  26.     To  Henfield  to  Mr.  Borrer's. 

Sept.  27.     To  see  Leersia  oryzdides  in  Henfield  Level. 

Oct.  1.  To  Hurst.  Called  upon  Mr.  Mitten,  also  examined  the 
new  church  with  the  Rector,  the  Eev.  Cary  Borrer. 

1846.  June  15.  Left  Cambridge,  and  after  spending  a  few 
hours  in  London,  went  by  the  5  p.m.  train  to  Liverpool,  where  we 
arrived  at  shortly  after  1 1  p.m. 

June  16.  Found  that  the  box  containing  my  books  and  botanical 
drying  papers,  etc.,  had  not  come  by  the  rail,  so  that  I  was  obliged 
to  get  such  stock  to  replace  my  losses  as  I  could.  We  got  clear  of 
the  dock  at  4.30  p.m.,  and  cleared  the  river  by  sunset,  making  but 
little  way  afterwards. 

June  17.  Nearly  becalmed  all  day,  and  amused  ourselves  by 
fishing.  {Note. — The  name  of  the  ship  is  the  cutter  yacht  "Antelope," 
of  93  tons.  Master,  John  Armon,  with  eight  men — mate,  Henry 
Wheeler  of  Ryde.  She  belonged  to  F.  D.  Astley,  and  we  were  in 
company  as  his  guests,  T.  Guy  Gisborne,  T.  M.  Gisborne,  and  I). 
Calm  all  night,  and  had  to  anchor  in  order  to  avoid  drifting  back. 
Calm  all  day,  anchored  in  the  afternoon,  to  avoid  drifting  back. 
In  the  evening  a  smart  breeze  from  north-east,  which  took  us  swiftly 
down  the  Irish  sea,  as  we  had  now  determined  to  go  south  about. 
We  make  six  and  six-and-a-half  miles  the  hour.  Fell  nearly  calm 
again  late  at  night.     Got  no  fish  to-day. 

June  19.     Nearly  calm  all  day. 

June  20.  Wind  freshened  considerably  this  morning,  and  drove 
us  on  at  eight  or  nine  miles  an  hour.  We  passed  the  Cove  of  Cork 
in  the  afternoon,  and  reached  the  Old  Head  of  Kinsale  in  the  evening. 
At  about  10  p.m.  a  large  screw  steamer  passed  us  at  great  velocity. 

June  21.     At  midnight  Cape  Clear  was  north-west. 

June  22.    Cleared  the  land  ofif  the  end  of  the  Dingle  Promontory. 

June  24.  At  12  p.m.  "heavy  gale  from  N.N.E.,  with  a 
tremendous  sea  running ; "  so  says  the  master's  log.  Weather  on 
the  25th  much  moderated,  as  it  continued  on  the  following  day, 
on  which  I  quite  got  over  the  effects  of  the  sea,  which  had  made 
me  rather  uncomfortable  for  three  days.  We  saw  many  sea  birds, 
but  nearly  all  of  the  same  species. 

June  27.  At  7  a.m.  we  came  within  sight  of  the  Westmen- 
Islands  and  Eyafell  Jokul.  The  former  a  most  curious  cluster  of 
rocks  and  hills ;   the  latter  an  eminently  grand  lofty  mountain, 


132  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1846 

quite  covered  with  snow,  and  hidden  with  clouds  and  mist  at  its 
base.  Beyond  this,  to  the  east,  other  very  lofty  snowy  mountains 
extended  as  far  as  we  could  see.  We  spoke  a  Danish  schooner,  and 
obtained  from  her  captain  a  chart  of  the  coast.  She  sailed  beauti- 
fully, and  apparently  wished  to  beat  the  "  Antelope  " — no  go.  Our 
course  was  close  by  the  outermost  of  the  Westmen-Islands.  Thus 
in  five  days  we  again  saw  land. 

June  28.  Sunday.  At  4  a.m.  passed  close  to  Cape  Reykjanes, 
which  is  low,  and  has  a  very  singular  pointed  rock  near  its  south- 
west side,  called  Karlsklip.  We  then  beat  up  north  at  some  distance 
from  the  coast  so  as  to  weather  Skagi  and  the  reef  projecting  from 
it.  Spoke  a  Norwegian  fishing  vessel,  and  obtained  some  fine  cod 
from  her.  Then  bore  up  direct  for  Reykjavik,  not  being  able  to 
obtain  a  pilot.  During  the  whole  of  the  day  the  snow  mountain 
Snsefells-Jokul  had  a  grand  appearance,  at  a  distance  of  from  forty 
to  fifty  miles  north-west ;  about  half  its  height  seemed  covered  with 
snow.  To  the  east  of  it  a  continuous  range  of  lofty  (but  much 
lower)  hills  with  and  without  snow  bounded  the  horizon.  Our 
captain  not  having  ever  been  to  Iceland  before,  did  not  like  to 
venture  in  too  near  to  the  coast  without  a  pilot,  and  as  he  could 
not  get  one,  he  stood  off  and  on  in  the  bay,  until  he  got  a  man  from 
another  vessel.  By  that  time  the  wind  had  died  away,  and  we 
were  only  able  to  creep  in.  Soon  afterwards  we  were  boarded  by 
a  pilot,  who  took  us  in  close  alongside  of  the  town  at  11.40  p.m. 
There  were  two  French  cutters  of  war  in  the  harbour,  and  several 
small  Danish  craft. 

June  29.  After  breakfast  we  landed,  and  called  upon  M.  Hoppe, 
the  Stiftamtmann,  who  was  very  kind.  We  then  took  a  short  walk 
near  the  town.  Afterwards  we  took  the  boat,  and  went  four  miles 
up  the  water  to  the  salmon  fishery,  rented  from  the  King  of 
Denmark  by  M.  Tsergessen,  where  they  fished,  and  took  nineteen 
salmon.  I  walked  over  the  hills  towards  the  south.  The  hills 
were  very  barren,  covered  with  stones,  Avith  very  little  vegetation, 
but  with  here  and  there  some  good  turf.  A  great  quantity  of 
Dryas,  Cerastium  latifoUum,  Lychnis  alpina,  etc.  Then  returned  after 
a  peculiarly  fine  day.  The  town  is  very  little  larger  than  that 
described  by  authors,  and  very  full  of  stock-fish,  and  having  a  very 
fishy  smell.  A  large  house  (the  late  house  of  correction)  is  being 
converted  into  a  school.  Measles  have  been  very  destructive  in  the 
island,  and  are  now  very  prevalent.  Numbers  of  gulls,  solan  geese, 
and  two  fine  eagles.  Hills  much  like  some  of  the  wilder  parts  of 
Scotland,  but  with  some  snow  still  upon  them. 

June  30.  Walked  up  to  the  same  place  as  yesterday,  by  an 
inland  route  over  some  bogs.  The  master  of  the  fishery  turned  the 
water  off  from  the  pool  in  the  river  into  which  the  fish  run  in 
ascending  the  water,  and  we  obtained  an  immense  number  of 
salmon.     I  then  went  to  some  rocks  along  the  coast  on  the  further 


1846]  JOURNAL— ICELAND.  133 

side  of  the  bay  near  the  fishery,  and  obtained  many  plants.  I  then 
returned  to  the  town,  nearly  all  the  way  by  the  sea  shore. 

July  1.     After  spending  all  the  morning  in  arranging  my  plants, 

I  started  at  3  p.m.  to  walk  to  the  Lava  near  Hafnar-Fiord ;  it  is 
nearly  seven  miles  along  an  uninteresting  but  rather  good  road ; 
returning  the  same  way.  The  Lava  is  wonderfully  rugged  and 
cavernous.  Found  Woodsia.  It  rained  hard  all  night  and  until 
about  9  a.m.,  then  was  cloudy  all  day.  All  the  former  days  of  our 
stay  here  were  very  fine,  and  mostly  clear. 

July  2.  Spent  most  of  the  morning  in  the  examination  of  a 
collection  of  Icelandic  birds,  most  of  which  were  purchased,  on  the 
joint  account  of  Astley  and  Tom  Gisborne,  of  Mr.  Mliller,  an 
apothecary.  Also  saw  an  Iceland  falcon  alive,  and  a  black  fox. 
In  the  afternoon  I  went  to  examine  the  district  to  the  west  of  the 
town.  Found  some  sea  shore  plants,  and  a  few  shells.  At  about 
a  mile  west  of  the  town  there  is  a  fresh  pond,  in  which  I  found 
Hippuris,  Eanunculus  aquatilis,  and  a  small  yellow-flowered  Eanun- 
culus  with  three-parted  leaves,  which  I  do  not  know.  Late  in  the 
evening  we  went  to  take  tea  with  M.  Hoppe,  the  Stiftamtmann,  and 
met  some  of  the  French  and  Danish  officers.  Small  cakes,  rye-bread 
with  cheese,  and  enormous  radishes.  At  Mr.  Miiller's,  there  were 
in  pots  in  the  house,  a  poor  run  pink  carnation,  a  scarlet  Chinese 
rose,  mignionette,  and  a  small  fuschia.  The  people  were  planting 
out  turnips  in  their  little  plots  of  garden  ground,  and  potatoes  were 
coming  up  in  some  places.  I  saw  no  other  vegetables  growing 
except  mustard  and  cress,  unless  Archangelica  is  to  be  called  one. 
The  Urtica  wens  has  now  spread  into  most  parts  of  the  town,  from 
the  one  garden  mentioned  by  Hooker,  A  large  Dock  is  very  frequent 
in  and  about  the  town. 

July  3.  Sailed  at  9.30  for  Hvals-Fiord,  with  a  fair  wind.  At 
about  half-way  up  we  turned  into  a  small  harbour,  called  "Maria 
Havn,"  where  we  anchored,  and  I  went  towards  the  lofty  mountains 
at  the  head  of  the  bay,  but  in  passing  a  broad  morass,  I  found  so 
many  Carices,  etc.,  that  it  was  too  late  to  think  of  fording  the  river 
and  ascending  the  mountains,  upon  which  there  is  snow  in  large 
patches  and  fields.  The  little  bay  is  surrounded  by  lofty  hills,  and 
is  a  most  beautiful  place.      But  few  fish  were  obtained ;   but  at 

II  p.m.  Astley  and  Tom  Gisborne  set  off  in  a  boat  to  shoot  Eider- 
ducks,  of  which  there  were  thousands  upon  thousands ;  they 
remained  out  till  near  1  a.m.  on  the  4th,  and  brought  back  eleven 
ducks.  It  is  now  as  light  as  day  during  the  whole  night.  Sailed 
again  this  morning  for  the  head  of  the  Fiord,  with  very  light  winds. 
At  the  head  of  Maria  Havn  there  is  a  series  of  rapids  almost 
amounting  to  a  waterfall.  At  about  1  p.m.  we  came  to  an  anchor  at 
Austur-Hvammsvik,  near  the  head  of  the  Fiord.  Almost  immediately 
we  landed,  and  I  proceeded  to  examine  a  very  precipitous  mountain 
of  trap-rock,  called  Eeynivalla-hals,  upon  which  I  found  very  many 


134  CHARLES   CARD  ALE   BABINGTON.  [1846 

Alpine  plants.  After  a  careful  examination  of  a  considerable  part 
of  the  cliffs,  I  gained  the  top  by  a  circuitous  route,  not  being  able  to 
get  up  the  upper  precipice.  The  top,  was  mostly  covered  with  rather 
small  stones,  with  only  here  and  there  a  tuft  of  herbage  of  Saxifraga, 
Armeria,  or  mostly  Silene  acaulis.  I  had  much  difl&culty  in  finding 
my  way  down  again,  having  had  to  ascend  again  when  near  to  the 
bottom,  and  to  put  back  three  or  four  times.  At  last  I  reached  the 
boat  with  box  full  of  fine  plants  at  7  p.m.  The  view  from  the  top 
was  of  the  wildest  character,  nothing  but  barren  or  snowy  mountains 
and  boggy  valleys  in  all  directions.  Indeed  the  very  wildest  view 
that  I  have  ever  seen. 

Juli/  5.  Returned  to  Reykjavik  with  a  good  wind,  but  rather 
too  much  ahead.     Took  a  walk  on  land  in  the  evening. 

July  6.  A  very  fine  day,  went  with  the  net  up  to  nearly  the  old 
place,  and  fished  with  great  success.  I  found  a  few  new  plants. 
Visited  Videy  on  our  return,  and  saw  Eider-ducks'  nests,  and 
numerous  veiy  tame  sea  birds.  Walked  to  the  look-out  on  the  hill 
after  dinner.  On  the  way  from  Videy  we  ran  upon  a  rock,  and 
were  nearly  upset.  Indeed  we  all  thought  that  the  bottom  of  the 
boat  was  broken  open ;  fortunately  no  injury  was  done. 

July  7.  Started  for  the  Geysers,  with  a  drove  of  seventeen 
horses.  Ditchfield  the  steward,  and  Hansen  the  Dane,  went  with 
us.  I  felt  quite  out  of  my  way  on  starting  for  a  four  days'  ride. 
The  first  few  miles  of  the  way  Avas  a  moderately  good  path,  crossing 
the  river  at  a  short  distance  above  the  fishing  place.  Afterwards 
the  road  led  through  a  hilly  country  nearly  parallel  to  the  moun- 
tains bordering  Hvals-Fiord.  We  stopped  in  the  middle  of  the  day 
in  a  fine  grassy  glen,  to  rest  the  horses,  and  then  proceeded  over  a 
wild  and  dreary  stony  moor  until  near  Thingvalla,  obtaining  a  fine 
view  of  the  lake  of  that  name,  some  miles  before  our  arrival.  At 
length  we  reached  the  top  of  the  lofty  and  perpendicular  cliff  of  the 
Almannagja,  into  which  we  descended  on  foot,  without  unloading 
the  baggage  ;  then  fording  the  river  Oxara  we  reached  Thingvalla 
at  about  10  p.m.,  and  took  up  our  quarters  in  the  church.  We  dined 
or  rather  supped  in  the  choir,  and  slept  there  on  the  benches  by  its 
walls.  I  then  walked  amongst  the  crevices  of  the  lava  (most  of 
them  full  of  water),  also  to  the  fall  of  the  Oxara  into  the 
Almannagja. 

July  8.  After  a  very  bad  night  in  the  church,  I  went  to 
botanize  on  the  lava,  and  had  great  success  in  a  walk  of  about  five 
miles,  when  the  party  overtook  me,  and  I  mounted  my  horse.  We 
soon  came  to  a  crack  in  the  rock  similar  to  the  Almannagja,  and 
parallel  to  it,  Avhich  we  crossed  upon  a  ridge  of  stones  which  had 
fallen  in,  and  nearly  filled  it  up  in  one  place,  so  as  to  allow  a  narrow 
path  along  its  top,  and  so  got  to  the  other  side,  after  a  very  rough 
scramble  over  the  masses  of  rock.  All  this  part  of  the  country  is 
covered  with  low  bushes  of  Betula  glutinosa,  Betula  intermedia,  and 


1846]  JOURNAL— ICELAND.  135 

Willows,  amongst  which  the  Salix  kinata  was  peculiarly  beautiful. 
The  highest  Birch  which  I  saw  was  about  six  feet  tall.  We  soon 
reached  the  foot  of  the  mountains  on  the  east  side  of  the  valley  of 
Thingvalla,  having  rounded  the  end  of  the  lake,  and  descended  from 
the  lava  bj'^  a  very  steep  and  rugged  path  into  a  fine  grassy  district. 
This  lava  is  found  by  the  Baron  Waltershausen  to  have  come  from 
■a,  mountain  in  this  neighbourhood,  and  descended  as  far  as  Hafnar- 
Fiord.  At  the  top  of  this  descent  we  saw  the  so-called  crater 
mentioned  by  Hooker,  and  also  the  caves  in  the  lava,  the  roof  of 
■one  of  which  seemed  as  if  it  was  a  regular  arch  of  stones.  Further 
on  we  passed  along  the  base  of  a  grand  range  of  dark,  quite  barren, 
mountains,  which  looked  as  if  they  had  so  recently  been  burned  that 
there  had  not  been  time  for  vegetation  to  commence  upon  them. 
Then  followed  a  very  extensive  morass,  on  the  borders  of  which  are 
several  hot  springs  sending  up  volumes  of  steam.  We  crossed  a 
part  of  this  in  order  to  find  some  large  streams,  and  then  turned 
into  the  hills,  through  a  very  pretty  country,  having  continual  views 
of  the  marshes,  with  two  large  lakes  and  large  streams  in  them.  At 
length  we  arrived  at  the  river  Briiara,  which  we  crossed  by  a  most 
singular  and  formidable  looking  ford.  The  river  was  here  falling 
into  a  narrow  crevice,  passing  lengthwise  up  its  bed,  over  which 
a  small  wooden  bridge  was  thrown,  so  that  by  fording  to  the  bridge, 
and  again  fording  to  the  further  shore,  we  passed  it.  At  length  we 
came  in  sight  of  the  Geysers,  and  saw  a  distant  eruption  of  the  Little 
Geyser.  Passing  a  very  wet  marsh,  and  a  river  said  to  be  dangerous 
from  holes,  we  reached  the  Geysers  at  about  9.30  p.m.,  and  after 
pitching  our  tent  near  the  great  one,  we  saw  an  eruption  from  it  of 
moderate  size.  We  found  the  Baron  von  Waltershausen  and  some 
French  and  Danish  gentlemen  in  four  tents  there  before  us. 

Jioly  9.  This  morning  the  Great  Geyser  favoured  us  with  a  very 
grand  eruption,  preceded  by  sounds  like  the  distant  firing  of  great 
guns,  and  a  shaking  of  the  ground  for  some  distance  around.  The 
water  rose  to  the  height,  by  careful  measurement  by  the  Baron,  of 
105  English  feet.  During  the  day  the  Strokkur  had  three  fine  erup- 
tions, one  of  which  sent  the  water  up  to  146  feet.  The  Great 
Geyser  had  several  small  eruptions  during  the  day,  and  often  boiled 
over.  We  never  went  out  of  sight  of  the  springs  during  the  day, 
but  employed  ourselves  in  botanizing  and  collecting  minerals,  etc. 
Guy  Gisborne  was  so  unfortunate  as  to  scald  his  foot  at  the  Great 
■Geyser. 

July  10.  This  morning  we  left  on  our  return,  with  much  sorrow 
on  my  part,  as  I  should  have  much  liked  to  continue  there  another 
day,  the  interest  of  the  place  rather  increasing  by  time.  We  saw  a 
very  fine  eruption  of  the  Great  Geyser  before  starting.  Also  smoke 
from  the  lofty  mass  of  Hekla,  Avhich  is  visible  over  the  tops  of  the 
nearer  hills.  We  reached  Thingvalla  in  the  evening.  As  yet  we 
had  had  peculiarly  fine  weather.     Slept  in  the  tent. 


136  CHARLES   CARDALE   BABINGTON.  [1846^ 

July  11.  Returned  to  Reykjavik.  The  day  was  rather  bad  and 
showery,  and  one  heavy  storm  overtook  us  in  the  hills,  which  lasted 
about  an  hour. 

July  13.  Called  and  took  leave  of  the  Governor,  who  had  been 
on  board  the  "Antelope"  in  the  morning,  and  shewn  us  the  public 
library  of  the  town,  which  is  rather  extensive,  and  is  kept  in  the 
loft  over  the  church.  In  the  church  there  is  a  square  font  beauti- 
fully carved  on  the  sides  by  Thorwaldsen.  A  sheep  purchased  at 
Reikjavik  weighed  30  lbs.  and  cost  id.  per  lb.,  10s. !  At  6  p.m.  we 
got  under  way,  and  by  10  had  got  into  the  open  sea,  when  it  came 
on  to  blow  a  smart  gale  of  wind,  and  we  had  to  lie  to  until  the 
middle  of  the  next  day. 

July  14,  Nearly  all  the  ship's  companj'^  were  more  or  less  ill. 
I  got  over  it  by  dinner  time.     It  blew  hard  all  the  day. 

July  15.  Rounded  the  outer  island  of  Reykjanes  at  7  a.m.,  and 
were  off  the  Westmen-Islands  in  the  evening. 

July  16.  Dead  calm  early  in  the  day,  and  light  winds  in  the 
evening.  Off  Eyafell  and  Myrdals-Jokuls.  We  saw  a  whale  at 
about  a  mile  off  attacked  by  a  Thresher.  The  blows  of  the  latter 
were  most  wonderful. 

July  17.  Still  light  winds.  Rounded  Portland  early  in  the 
morning.  Had  fine  views  of  the  snowy  mountains  all  day,  and 
towards  night  came  abreast  of  Orsefa-Jokul,  of  which  we  obtained 
a  very  good  view,  and  saw  its  glaciers  to  much  advantage.  One  of 
them  had  a  large  moraine  in  its  centre,  and  shewed  the  crevices  very 
plainly  as  it  expanded  round  a  rocky  point,  where  also  a  deep 
depression  was  shewn  between  it  and  the  cliff.  We  were  unable  to 
go  within  some  miles  of  the  land,  on  account  of  the  uncertainty  of 
the  winds  and  its  own  badness.  The  snow  descended  about  a  third 
down  the  mountain,  and  the  glaciers  to  the  low  land  near  the  sea. 
Many  other  lofty  Jokuls  were  to  be  seen  inland.  Towards  the 
evening  the  wind  rose,  and  with  it  the  sea,  so  that  at  9  p.m.  the 
ship  was  hove  to,  and  continued  so  all  the  next  day. 

Jtdy  18.     With  a  very  heavy  but  short  sea. 

July  19.  A  continuance  of  the  same  weather,  but  rather  less 
wind.  As  the  weather  proved  that  we  could  not  possibly  reach 
Reydar-Fiord  before  Wednesday  at  the  soonest,  Astley  determined 
that  his  engagements  in  England  would  not  allow  him  to  spend  any 
time  there.  He  therefore  turned  the  ship's  head  towards  England, 
much  to  my  sorrow. 

July  20,  21,  22.  Moderate  and  favourable  winds.  Made  a 
good  run  for  St.  Kilda. 

July  23.  A  gale  of  wind,  which  we  afterwards  learned  was- 
considered  as  most  severe  in  Lewis. 


1846]  JOURXAL— LEAVES   ICELAND   FOE   SCOTLAND.  137 

July  24.  Laid  to  all  day.  Saw  the  Island  of  Eona  at  7  a.m.  at 
a  distance  of  about  four  miles.  At  the  time  we  endeavoured  to 
persuade  ourselves  that  it  was  St.  Kilda,  as  the  captain  supposed. 
Got  under  way  again  at  8  a.m.,  July  26th. 

Jitly  26.  Again  saw  Rona,  having  regained  the  distance  which 
we  had  lost  during  the  gale,  at  3  a.m.,  and  made  Cape  Wrath  at 
3  p.m.  Our  making  the  latter  place  proved  that  our  captain  was 
160  miles  wrong  in  his  calculations !  At  10  p.m.  a  very  severe 
squall  came  on,  and  we  had  to  heave  to.  By  this  time  .  .  .  Astley 
had  to  navigate  the  ship. 

July  27.  As  the  wind  was  unfavourable  for  our  reaching  Portree, 
and  the  captain  was  ill,  we  made  for  Stornoway,  and  anchored  at 
the  head  of  Loch  Tna  or  Broad  Bay  at  2  p.m.  We  then  walked  to 
the  town,  where  we  spent  the  night. 

July  28.  Remained  at  Stornoway.  "  Antelope  "  brought  round 
into  the  harbour.  Astley  and  I  Avalked  some  distance  into  the 
country  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  harbour  to  the  town.  Went  on 
board  in  the  evening. 

July  29.  Sailed  at  7  a.m.,  beating  down  close  to  the  coast  of 
Lewis  as  far  as  the  Shiant  Isles,  where  we  were  at  2  p.m.,  and  then 
bore  away  for  Portree  in  Skye,  which  we  reached  at  9.30  p.m. 

July  30.  Boarded  the  "  Tartar  "  steamer  at  4  a.m.,  and  arrived 
at  Greenock  at  9.45  a.m.  the  next  day.  Proceeded  to  Edinburgh. 
Dined  with  Balfour. 

Aug.  2.     Joined  Newbould  at  Edinburgh. 

A%bg.  3.     Went  to  Glasgow. 

Aug.  4.  By  steamer  to  Dumbarton,  and  by  Loch  Lomond  to 
Inverarnon.     Examined  the  lower  part  of  Glen  Falloch. 

Aug.  5.     Walked  by  Loch  Sloy,  over  the  top  of  Ben  Voirlich. 

Aug.  6.  Went  up  to  the  waterfall,  opposite  the  inn  at  Inverarnon. 
By  coach  to  Lawers  Inn.  {Note. — Lawers  Inn  is  a  very  poor  place. 
Nearly  starved). 

Aug.  8.  Thunderstorm  at  about  mid-day,  which  washed  away 
the  bridges  and  part  of  the  road  near  Loch  Tay.  Could  not  get 
out  to  work  all  these  two  days.     Went  to  Kenmore. 

Aug.  9.  Sunday.  Walked  along  the  south  shore  of  the  Loch 
for  some  miles.  Visited  the  falls  of  Acharn.  No  sermon.  Rubus 
latifolius  in  the  wood  just  below  the  road  at  about  half-way  (?) 
between  Kenmore  and  Acharn. 

Aug.  10.     To  Dunkeld,  Perth,  and  Edinburgh. 

Aug.  12.  With  John  Goodsir  to  his  brother  Joseph's  manse  at 
Largo.  Crossed  to  Burntisland,  and  then  went  by  coach  along  the 
coast. 


138  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1846—47 

Aug.  13.  John  Goodsir,  Newbould,  and  I  went  to  St.  Andrews. 
By  the  way  we  saw  the  ruins  of  a  monastery  at  Kilconquhar,  and  a 
beautiful  little  church  at  St.  Monance.  Called  upon  Mr.  Lyon,  the 
Episcopal  clergyman,  who  went  with  us  to  see  all  the  antiquities. 
The  old  tower  of  the  original  cathedral  interested  me  the  most. 

Aug.  16.    Sunday.    Heard  Goodsir  preach,  and  was  much  pleased. 

Aug.  17.  Set  off  by  the  coach  to  return  to  Edinburgh.  The 
coach  was  very  much  overloaded,  and  as  it  was  passing  through  the 
town  of  Leven,  it  ran  against  a  cart,  and  was  upset.  I  was  so 
fortunate  as  to  escape  without  more  than  a  few  bruises  and  a  wound 
on  my  hand,  but  Newbould's  left  shoulder  was  put  out.  We  got 
his  arm  put  into  place  again,  and  returned  to  Largo,  where  we  were 
detained  until  the  25th. 

Aug.  24.    Walked  to  Balcarres,  and  ascended  the  look-out  tower. 

Aug.  26.  Ascended  Arthur's  Seat.  Left  Leith  at  3  p.m.,  and 
after  a  very  pleasant  voyage  reached  Hull  at  8  p.m.  the  next  day. 

Aug.  28.  Placed  Newbould  in  the  hands  of  his  brother.  Visited 
the  church,  and  left  by  steamer  at  1.30  p.m.  for  Yarmouth,  where 
we  arrived  at  5  a.m.  the  next  day. 

Aug.  29.     Got  to  Cambridge. 

Sept,  8.  Left  home,  and  arrived  at  Southampton  on  the  9th,  to 
attend  the  British  Association  Meeting.  Lodgings  at  5,  Bernard 
Street,  with  Balfour  and  Wollaston. 

Sept.  12,  Balfour  and  I  went  to  Cowes,  and  Salter  shewed  us 
Cockleton  Bog.  We  also  went  to  Apes  Down,  and  found  Calamintha 
sylvaiica. 

Sept.  13.  To  Winchester  to  the  Minster  and  St.  Cross.  Dined 
with  Dr.  White,  and  back  to  Southampton. 

Sept.  17.  Left  Southampton,  and  went  with  Wollaston  by  coach 
by  way  of  Romsey  and  Salisbury,  and  Avebury  to  Swindon.  Then 
to  Bath. 

Oct.  6.     Cambridge. 

Nov.  10.  Went  to  London  to  meet  Mr.  Borrer.  Slept  at 
Mr.  Forster's  at  Woodford. 

Nov.  11.  Borrer  and  I  went  to  Hertford,  and  Avere  shewn 
Juncus  diffusus  by  Coleman.  Back  to  Cambridge.  Placed  on  a 
syndicate  to  superintend  the  new  Botanic  Garden. 

Dec.  15.     At  the  Linnean  Club. 

Dec.  17.     Dined  with  Red  Lion  Club  in  London. 

Dec.  18.     Cambridge. 

1847.  Jan.  9.  To  Yoxall  Lodge,  where  I  examined  my  late 
uncle's  (Canon  Gisborne)  collection  of  plants  and  botanical  books. 


1847]        JOURNAL— VARIOUS   BOTANICAL  ENGAGEMENTS.  139 

Most  of  the  former  were  worthless,  from  damp,  and  so  were 
destroyed — some  I  was  given.  Of  the  books,  I  was  given  Curtis' 
«F1.  Londin."  the  old  edition,  and  Bolton's  "Ferns." 

Jan.  18.     To  London  with  Astley  and'T.  Gisborne. 

Jan.  19.     Linnean. 

Jan.  20.     To  Henfield,  and  back  on  23rd,  and  to  Cambridge. 

Feb.  18.  To  Ely  and  back  with  J.  J.  Smith  and  W.  H.  Stokes, 
with  the  intention  of  going  to  Haddenham,  but  we  found  that 
Mr.  Banks  was  from  home. 

April  6.  Went  from  the  Linnean  Meeting  with  Dr.  J.  D. 
Hooker  to  Kew  to  examine  plants. 

April  7.     Eeturned  to  London  and  Cambridge. 

May  20.     Botanical  party  to  Gamlingay. 

May  24.     Attended  the  Linnean  Anniversary  Dinner. 

May  28.  Newbould,  Townsend,  and  I  went  to  Whittlesford  by 
rail ;  walked  to  Triplow  Heath  (now  under  corn,  and  therefore 
spoiled  for  botany),  to  Foulmire,  Triplow,  Newton,  Shelford,  and 
home  by  rail.  In  a  thicket  at  Triplow  we  found  Lonicera  caprifolium 
in  plenty. 

Jibne  7.  Newbould,  Townsend,  and  I  went  to  Yarmouth.  We 
botanized  that  afternoon  upon  the  Denes.     To  the  south  we  got 

Trifolium  suffocatum,  Cerastium  atrovirens,  etc. 

June  8.  We  went  to  Burgh  Castle  by  the  footway,  and  then 
along  the  marshes  to  Belton  Fen,  and  the  village  of  Belton.  Near 
Burgh  Castle  we  got  Alopecimis  hulbosus.     In  Belton  Fen  Stellaria 

glauca.  * 

June  23.  Went  to  Oxford  by  the  express  train.  British 
Association.  Had  rooms  in  Christ  Church.  The  "Red  Lions" 
•established  themselves  at  the  "King's  Arms." 

June  26.  Went  with  Wollaston,  Newbould,  and  Lankester  to 
Pangbourne.  We  botanized  on  the  hills  to  the  north-west  of  Pang- 
bourne  all  the  afternoon.  Here  I  first  saw  Iheris  amara  in  a  wild 
state.  In  a  brook  that  supplies  the  mill  at  Pangbourne,  at  some 
little  distance  from  the  village,  where  it  is  very  swift,  we  found 
true  Ranunculus  aquatilis,  much  lengthened  out,  but  not  at  all 
changed  towards  R.  fluitans. 

June  27.  We  crossed  the  river  to  Whitchurch,  and  then  passing 
behind  the  Hall,  on  the  way  towards  Goring,  we  burned  up  the  hill 
over  the  fields,  and  found  in  a  wood  a  large  quantity  of  Melampyrum 
pratense  latifolium.  We  then  descended  the  hill  through  the  woods 
towards  the  Goring  path,  and  on  the  grassy  slopes  under  the  belts 
of  wood  we  found  a  moderate  quantity  of  Orchis  militaris.     Crossing 


140  CHARLES   CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1847 

the  river  by  the  railway  bridge  we  visited  Basildon  Church  (beauti- 
fully restored),  and  returned  by  the  bank  of  the  river.  That  evening 
we  returned  to  Oxford. 

June  28.     Dined  at  New  College. 

June  29.  Dined  at  Lincoln  College  with  Metcalfe,  a  Fellow 
there,  but  late  of  St.  John's,  Cambridge. 

June  30.  Walked  with  Wollaston  and  Mr.  Young,  of  New 
College,  to  Godstow,  where  we  got  Aristolochia.  It  grows  on  a 
hedge  bank,  well  defended  in  front  by  a  wet  and  muddy  ditch. 
We  then  went  into  Whitham  Wood,  and  Avalked  all  round  it,  and 
through,  in  several  directions.  From  a  high  hill  in  it,  there  is  a 
most  extensive  and  beautiful  view  in  all  directions,  and  from  one 
place  a  peculiarly  fine  one  of  Oxford.  The  wood  is  rich  in  plants, 
but  none  of  any  great  value. 

July  1.  To  Pangbourne,  in  order  to  get  more  specimens  of 
Iheris,  and  some  other  plants.  (N.B. — Go  to  the  "Elephant  and 
Castle"  Inn).  Walked  over  the  same  district  as  on  June  27th,  but 
extended  my  walk  to  Goring,  where  there  is  a  curious  Norman 
turret-stair  in  the  church.  The  plants  of  Orchis  militaris  left  in 
flower  on  the  27th  June  were  now  quite  burned  up  and  dead. 

July  2.     To  London  and  Cambridge. 

July  5 — 7.  The  Installation  of  Prince  Albert  as  Chancellor  of 
the  University.  He  arrived  with  the  Queen.  I  did  not  attempt  to 
go  into  the  Hall  at  Trinity  College  to  see  the  Address  presented. 
There  was  a  great  crush  at  the  door.  Nor  did  I  go  into  the  Senate 
House. 

July  6.  Horticultural  Show  in  Downing  Grounds.  Went  there 
at  11  a.m.  to  judge  the  "specimen  plants  in  pots."  A  great  crowd 
of  people  in  the  afternoon.  Between  9  and  10,000  tickets  sold,  and 
many  people  got  in  without,  either  over  the  fences  or  through  the 
gates,  which  Avere  forced  open  by  the  press,  and  obliged  to  remain 
so  for  some  time.  The  Queen  went  there.  We  dined  together  in 
a  tent  after  it  was  all  over. 

July  7.  Public  Breakfast  in  the  walks  of  Trinity  and  St.  John's, 
united  by  a  bridge  thrown  over  the  river  at  the  narrow  point. 
Feeding  in  Trinity  Cloisters,  and  a  sad  scramble.  Dancing  in 
St.  John's  walks  in  a  large  tent  put  up  in  front  of  the  new  court 
towards  the  western  end.  A  showery  day,  but  beautifully  fine  in 
the  evening.  3600  tickets  sold  at  21s.  each,  some  tickets  26s.  each, 
at  the  later  time ;  and  many  believed  to  have  got  in  without,  or 
with  the  same  ticket.  It  went  off  very  well.  Very  hot  weather 
during  the  following  week. 

July  29.     University  Election  continued  until  Aug.  3rd. 

Aug.  4.     Went  to  Ely  to  meet  the  Archaeological  Institute,  and 


1847]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING  IN  WALES.  141 

hear  Willis'  Lecture  on  the  Cathedral.     Botanized  in  the  neighbour- 
hood before  and  after,  and  returned  to  Cambridge. 

Aug.  9.  Left  Cambridge  with  Newbould,  by  Avay  of  Thrapston 
by  coach,  then  rail  to  Blisvvorth  and  Birmingham,  and  then  by  coach 
to  Shrewsbury,  where  we  arrived  at  9.30  p.m. 

Atig.  10.  Breakfasted  and  spent  the  day  with  Leighton.  We 
went  to  Bomere,  and  found  Scheuchzeria  palustris  in  the  old  place. 

Aug.  11.  By  coach  to  Capel  Curig.  Met  Wollaston  at  Cerrig- 
y-druidion  on  his  return  from  Wales.  Examined  the  rounded  hill 
opposite  to  the  turn  to  Capel  Curig  from  the  main  road  to  see  if  we 
could  find  Cotoneaster,  said  by  Kingsley  of  Sidney  to  grow  there,  but 
could  find  nothing  like  it,  except  a  Salix.  Do  not  believe  that  it 
grows  there,  as  it  is  not  a  likely  place  for  it. 

Aug.  13.  Early  this  morning  we  took  a  car  to  Llanberis, 
intending  to  put  up  at  the  "Vaynol  Arms,"  but  found  that  the 
old  keepers  of  that  house  had  gone  to  America.  We  went  to 
the  Dolbadarn  Inn,  and  found  excellent  quarters.  Immediately 
after  we  arrived  we  started  for  the  lower  parts  of  Snowdon.  We 
examined  the  whole  range  of  the  lower  and  middle  part  of  Clogwyn- 
ddur-Arddft,  and  found  Lloyclia  serotina  at  the  base,  near  the  lower 
end  of  the  great  hollow,  in  a  very  accessible  place.  I  crossed  the 
hill  above  Bwlch-y-cwmbrwynog  to  see  what  the  country  was 
beyond.  Returned  along  the  west  side  of  Cwmbrwynog  under 
Moel-y-cynghorion. 

Aug.  14.  Went  to  Bwlch-y-cwmbrwynog,  and  descended  to 
Llyn-fFynnon-y-Gwas.  Went  round  the  hollow  under  Y-Wyddfa 
by  Llyn  Glas,  Llyn  Goch,  and  Llyn-y-nadroeth ;  then  up  Llechog, 
and  over  Bwlch-y-main  to  the  summit  of  Snowdon,  returning  home 
by  the  usual  route  from  the  summit. 

Aug.  15.  Sunday.  Took  a  quiet  walk  round  the  lower  lake. 
Went  to  church  in  the  club  room,  and  after  dinner  walked  up  the 
lake  as  far  as  the  bridge  near  to  the  church. 

Aug.  16.  Spent  the  day  in  the  lower  grounds  examining  Ruhi, 
etc.  We  went  by  the  old  road,  which  passes  at  some  distance  above 
the  lake  on  the  hill  side,  as  far  as  Bryn  Gwyn,  then  joined  the 
turnpike  road,  and  examined  the  marshes  at  Cwm-y-Glo,  where  we 
found  Isoetes,  Subularia,  Alisma  natans,  etc.,  returning  by  the  north- 
east side  of  the  lake.  Far  the  best  view  of  Snowdon  is  from  that 
side  of  the  lake. 

Aug.  18.  Went  up  to  Llyn-y-cwm,  in  a  thick  cloud  on  the 
mountain ;  we  saw  Twll  Dhu  to  great  advantage,  both  from  above 
and  below.  I  gathered  one  fruited  plant  of  Lloydia  a  little  before 
reaching  the  lower  opening  of  Twll  Dhii. 

Aug.  19.  We  went  up  to  Glydr  Vawr,  ascending  to  the  top  of 
Esgair  Felen  (?)  along  it  to  the  summit,  on  to  Glydr  Vach,  near  to 


142  .    CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1847 

which  is  the  best  view  of  Trefan  which  I  have  seen.  A  little  below 
the  summit  we  descended  into  Cwmffynnon,  then  by  the  lake  to  the 
head  of  the  pass  down  which  we  came  home.  We  got  no  plants  of 
value. 

Aug.  20.  Ascended  Snowdon  as  far  as  the  Bwlch  Glas,  then 
across  to  the  top  of  Clogwyn-ddftr-ArddA,  then  down  the  slope  to 
the  base  of  Crib-y-ddysgyl,  and  along  its  base  to  near  the  slope  of 
grass  by  Crib  Goch.  Found  Car  ex  atrata,  Aspidium  lonchitisy 
Sausurea,  etc.     Returned  down  the  watercourse  through  Cwm  Glas. 

Aug.  21.  Went  by  the  quarries  round  the  base  of  Elidyr  Vach 
to  Marchlyn  Mawr,  over  Bwlch-y-brechan  by  the  top  of  Foel  Goch, 
and  near  to  the  summit  of  Gam,  then  back  by  Cwm  Dudodyn,  and 
round  the  head  of  the  upper  lake. 

Aug.  22.  Sunday.  Took  a  short  walk  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  lakes. 

Aug.  24.  Went  by  car  to  the  "Penrhyn  Arms  "  at  Bangor.  Walked 
to  the  Menai  Bridge  and  tried  to  find  Rosa  Wilsoni,  but  without 
success.  Inspected  the  works  for  the  Britannia  Bridge,  on  the 
Anglesea  side. 

Aug.  26.  Called  upon  Mr.  John  Roberts,  the  botanist.  Went 
to  Conway  by  coach,  and  walked  to  the  Orme's  Head  and  back. 
Saw  Newbould  off  by  coach, 

Aug.  27.  Walked  alone  to  Capel  Curig.  Was  much  disappointed 
in  the  Llanrwst  valley.  Near  Gwydir  I  found  Thlaspi  alpestre  by 
the  road  side. 

Av^.  28.     Walked  to  Dolbadarn. 

Sept.  5.  Sunday.  Heard  Mr.  Williams,  the  Rector  of  Llanberis, 
in  the  Dolbadarn  club  room,  for  the  fourth  time,  and  was  much 
pleased  with  his  preaching. 

Sept.  6.  Found  Centunculus  and  Callitriche  pedunculata  vera  on 
the  mud  of  an  old  reservoir  at  Lord  Newborough's  slate  quarries. 
(^]^,B. — Ranunculus  Lenormandi  is  quite  common  in  the  clear  running 
streams  with  a  muddy  bottom  in  this  valley.  I  have  seen  no 
R.  hederaceus.) 

Sept.  7.  Cleared  up  in  the  afternoon,  and  I  walked  to  Dinas 
Dinorwig,  which  is  a  fine  and  perfect  earthwork  with  two  lofty 
banks  all  round,  except  where  the  hill  is  so  steep  as  not  to  require 
them.  There  is  a  very  fine  view  from  it  of  the  mountains,  and  also 
of  Anglesea,  and  both  the  seas.  In  a  little  stream  on  the  way 
to  it  grows  the  R.  hederaceus ;  the  place  is  about  a  mile  beyond  the 
bridge,  at  the  foot  of  the  lower  lake,  and  quite  out  of  the  mountains. 

Sept.  9.     By  car  to  Carnarvon,  and  then  by  mail  to  Chester. 

Sept.  10.     To  Gloucester  by  rail. 


1847—48]    JOURNAL— LEAVES  WALES  FOR  LONDON,  Etc.  143 

Sept.  11.  To  Lyston  by  coach.  Found  there  Mr.  Henry  Hugget 
of  Bury,  Suffolk. 

Sept.  20.  Went  to  Pontrilas,  and  called  upon  Mr.  Bentham. 
Also  walked  along  the  Monmouthshire  side  of  the  Monnow  as  far  as 
Grosmont,  where  there  are  the  ruins  of  a  very  fine  castle,  and  a  fine 
church.  The  view  from  the  castle  is  very  fine.  A  beautiful  chimney 
remains  in  the  castle. 

Sept.  22.     By  coach  to  Gloucester,  and  rail  to  Cambridge. 

Nov.  2.     Went  to  London  for  Linnean  Meeting Slept  at 

Kothery's. 

Nm.  3.  Went  to  Kew  to  consult  Dr.  Planchon  about  the  sup- 
posed Udora  from  Leicestershire.  Dined  at  Hooker's,  after  spending 
some  hours  in  the  Botanic  Garden.  Rothery  introduced  me  to 
Mr.  MacDonald,  the  new  Governor  of  the  Gambia. 

Nov.  4.     Returned  home. 

1848.     Jan.  18.     Went  to  London  to  the  Linnean  Meeting. 

Jan.  19.     Geological  Meeting. 

Jan.  20.  Returned  to  Cambridge.  February  and  March  were 
peculiarly  wet  months,  but  mild. 

April  11.  Walked  to  Fulbourn  with  J.  Statter.  Found  Fumaria 
micrantha  at  the  north  end  of  a  field,  and  Vinca  minor  in  plenty  at 
the  south-east  corner  of  the  same  field,  in  a  thicket.  Went  on  to 
the  Fleam  Dyke  and  found  Anemone  Pulsatilla  in  flower.  On  our 
return  in  the  wood  near  the  mill-house  we  got  Viola  sylvatica  in 
beautiful  flower.  Gathered  Ranunculus  trichopfiyllus  in  Coe  Fen  in 
flower. 

April.  18.     Went  to  London  to  Linnean  Meeting. 

April  19.     Geological  Meeting. 

April  28.  Rev.  A.  Bloxam  came  here,  and  remained  until  the 
28th  May. 

May  13.  Newbould,  Townsend,  Lukis,  Statter,  and  I  went  to 
Fulbourn,  and  the  Fleam  Dyke,  where  the  Anemone  Pulsatilla  was 
in  seed,  and  Hippocrepis  just  in  flower;  through  Great  and  Little 
Wilbraham,  across  Wilbraham  Fen,  by  the  Long  Drove  to  Quy 
bridge,  and  home. 

May  20,  Statter,  Townsend,  and  I  went  to  King's  Hedges, 
Impington,  where  we  found  Chenopodium  Bonus-Henricus  in  flower ; 
Histon,  Westwick,  and  Long  Stanton.    We  returned  by  the  railway. 

May  26.  By  railway  to  Long  Stanton.  Visited,  with  J.  J.  Smith 
and  others,  Willingham  Church,  where  there  are  an  interesting 
chantry,  a  fine  old  roof  to  the  nave,  and  other  curious  points.  Also 
Balsar's  Hill,  a  large,  nearly  circular  encampment,  which  has  been 


144  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTOX.  [1848 

greatly  lowered  since  the  enclosure,  and  seems  likely  to  be  soon 
almost  totally  destroyed  by  the  plough.  Then  to  Rampton,  where 
we  inspected  a  very  curious  quadrangular  mound,  defended  by  a  deep 
and  broad  ditch,  and  an  outer  bank  on  three  sides.  It  is  highly 
deserving  of  a  careful  examination.  Returned  from  Oakington 
station. 

May  27.  Townsend,  Lukis,  Newbould,  and  I  went  by  rail  to 
Dullingham.  Walked  and  botanized  on  the  Devil's  Ditch,  and  in 
Wood  Ditton  Park  wood.  Geranium  sanguineum  and  Orchis  ustulata 
in  flower.     Returned  by  rail. 

June  1.  Henslow's  Gamlingay  party.  We  found  Malaxis  paludosa 
in  a  little  patch  of  remaining  bog. 

June  3.  I  went  with  Townsend  and  Woodhouse  to  Brandon, 
and  walked  to  Thetford.  The  greatest  variety  of  plants  near  the 
former. 

June  24.  Newbould  and  I  went  to  Coldham  Common,  Cherry 
Hinton,  and  home.     We  found  nothing  curious. 

June  27.     To-day  we  went  to  Fen  Ditton  and  Baitsbite. 

July  4.  Newbould  and  I  went  to  Brandon.  We  found,  just  out 
of  the  town  on  the  way  to  Thetford,  Crepis  foetida.  We  then  crossed 
the  country,  finding  nothing,  to  Redneck  Heath,  where  we  got  a 
great  quantity  of  Apera  interrupta,  especially  in  a  pit  at  about  half- 
a-mile  from  the  Elvedon  road.  We  also  found  there  Alsine  tenuifolia 
fi  viscida  amongst  the  corn  in  plenty.  On  walls  in  Thetford  Galium 
anglicum  and  Foa  suhcompressa. 

July  15.  Newbould  brought  me  Orobanche  Picridis  from  Comber- 
ton.  I  went  there  with  him  and  gathered  plenty  of  it  in  a  field  just 
within  the  parish  of  Toft,  at  the  end  of  a  field  lane  to  the  left  of  the 
road. 

Jtdy  27.  Went  to  Saffron  Walden  to  meet  Borrer.  Went  with 
G.  S.  G-ibson  and  Joshua  Clarke  to  Linton,  and  near  Hildersham 
was  shewn  plenty  of  Filago  Jussiaei.  We  then  went  to  Comberton 
and  gathered  Orobanche  Picridis.  Newbould  returned  to  Cambridge 
with  us,  and  we  got  Potamogeton  zosterifolius  in  the  ditch  behind 
Queens'  College,  and  a  ditch  on  the  east  side  of  Sheep's  Green. 

July  28.  Borrer,  Newbould,  Gibson,  and  I  went  to  Thetford. 
We  gathered  Apera  Spica-venti  near  the  town,  A.  interrupta  in  the 
old  place,  Melilotus  arvensis  near  the  town,  Filago  apicidata  by  the 
Apera  pit,  SclerantMts  perennis  and  Silene  otites  near  Redneck  Farm, 
Galium  anglicum  on  walls  near  the  town. 

Aug.  1.  Churchill  Babington  brought  me  Filago  Jussiaei  from 
the  Hills  Road,  and  Knautia  arvensis  integrifolia  from  Cherry  Hinton. 

Aug.  2.  I  went  alone  and  found  the  Filago  plentifully  by  the 
Hills  Road,  especially  near  the  house  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  near  the 


1848]  JOT] RNAL— EXCURSIONS   IN  WALES.  1:45 

chalk  pit,  also  Melilotus  arvensis  in  many  places,  Lychnis  nostiflora  in 
field  on  the  top  of  the  hill.  At  Cherry  Hinton  the  Knautia  arvensis 
integrifolia  and  Carduus  eriophorus. 

Aug.  7.    Left  Cambridge,  and  slept  at  Dr.  Lankester's  in  London. 

Aug.  8.  By  rail  to  Bristol,  and  then  by  steamer  to  Swansea; 
arrived  at  the  Mumbles  at  8.30,  and  did  not  reach  Swansea  until  12 
at  night.  At  last,  at  about  1  a.m.,  we  got  into  a  house,  furnished 
for  the  meeting  (British  Association). 

Aug.  9.  First  day  of  the  meeting.  Newbould  and  Kushton 
came  and  joined  us. 

Aug.  10.  Lankester  and  I  dined  with  Mr.  Dillwyn,  and  met 
Mr.  Eodgers,  the  American  Professor,  and  Sir  David  Brewster. 

Aug.  12.  K.  W.  Falconer,  Lankester,  Newbould,  and  I  walked 
to  the  Mumbles  Head,  then  along  the  coast  as  far  as  Pennard  Castle  ; 
■dined  at  the  Cower  Inn,  and  back  again  to  Swansea ;  in  all  about 
twenty-six  miles. 

Aug.  13.  Falconer  and  I  went  in  a  gig  by  the  road  Cefn  Bryn 
to  Stout  Hall  in  Cower,  the  residence  of  his  brother-in-law,  Mr. 
Wood.    Oxalis  strida  a  common  and  troublesome  weed  at  Stout  Hall. 

Aug.  17.  Left  Swansea  at  5.30  a.m.,  and  had  a  very  rough 
voyage  to  Tenby.  Bowerbank  and  Mr.  Woodward  were  with  us. 
Spent  the  afternoon  with  them  in  the  caves  in  St.  Catharine's  rock, 
examining  zoophytes,  sponges,  etc.  (N.B. — Saw  a  sponge,  Cliona 
cellata,  contract  greatly  when  touched.  A  remarkable  fact).  Saw 
Bowerhanhia,  Grantia,  and  many  other  animals.  Bowerbank  and 
Woodward  exhibited  the  animals  with  the  microscope. 

Aug.  18.  Went  to  Ciltar  Head.  Found  in  an  old  quarry  Oro- 
ianche  Picridis,  on  the  inner  side  of  the  ridge  of  hill  running  inland 
from  the  Head. 

Aug.  19.  Went  to  Manorbier  Castle.  On  a  sandy  cliff  over 
the  sea,  in  the  bay  formed  by  Lydstep  Point,  and  opposite  to  it,  we 
found  Matthiola  sinuata  in  plenty. 

Aug.  22.  In  a  car  to  Haverfordwest.  Walked  to  Milford, 
where  we  saw  Eubus  incurvatus.  Noticed  that  the  churches  had 
lofty  narrow  square  towers  with  windows  at  the  top,  and  often 
only  loop-holes  below.  Walked  from  Haverfordwest  to  St.  Davids. 
Country  rather  uninteresting.  Castle  at  Koch  worth  notice,  a 
single  tower,  much  ruined. 

Aug.  24.  St.  Davids  a  very  poor  place,  a  mere  village.  Cathedral 
well  worth  a  visit.  Bishop's  Palace  a  most  beautiful  ruin.  Early 
English.  Walked  to  Whitesand  Bay,  and  then  to  Fishguard  by  a 
dreary  road. 

10 


146  .     CHARLES  CARD  ALE   BABINGTON.  [1848 

Aug.  25.  Along  the  coast  to  Dinas,  where  we  examined  the 
entrenchment  of  the  island.  Called  upon  the  Rev.  Watkin  Thomas, 
the  incumbent,  whom  I  had  known  in  1846  in  Cambridge.  He 
much  wanted  us  to  stop,  but  I  had  not  time.  Crossed  the  hill,  and 
returned  by  the  valley. 

Aug.  26.  Examined  the  bay  and  marshes  to  the  west  of  the 
town.  In  the  afternoon  went  by  coach,  in  the  rain,  to  Cardigan, 
through  a  most  beautiful  country,  well  deserving  a  careful  exami- 
nation. 

Aug.  27.  Sunday.  Took  a  quiet  walk  after  church  to  the 
Warrens,  near  the  mouth  of  the  river. 

Aug.  28.  Having  sent  our  things  on  by  a  fish-carrier  to 
Aberystwyth,  we  walked  twenty-three  miles  to  Aberaeron,  through 
a  dreary  and  uninteresting  country.    That  is  a  nice  clean  little  town. 

Aug.  29.     Walked  to  Aberystwyth,  sixteen  miles. 

Aug.  30.  We  went  by  coach  to  the  Devil's  Bridge.  Falls  far 
best  seen  from  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  from  the  inn.  Well 
pleased.  Walked  back  by  the  new  road.  All  this  country  very 
beautiful. 

Aug.  31.  Newbould  returned  home.  I  spent  the  day  in 
exploring  near  the  town. 

Sept.  I.  By  coach  to  Carnarvon.  A  most  beautiful  day.  (N.B. — 
A  good  place  to  stop  at  would  be  the  inn  called  "Braugh  Coch," 
between  Machynlleth  and  Tal-y-Llyn). 

Sept.  4.     To  the  Dolbadarn  Inn,  Mrs.  Evans,  at  Llanberis. 

Sept.  6.  Met  with  Franks,  and  went  about  the  neighbourhood 
with  his  mother  and  himself. 

Sept.  7.  Found  that  Hort  was  at  the  lodgings  near  to  the  inn, 
as  a  pupil  of  Mathison  of  Trinity  College.  He  and  I  went  to  Twll 
Dhii. 

Sept.  10.     Dined  with  Mathison  and  his  party. 

Sept.  11.  To  Carnarvon  to  attend  the  meeting  of  the  Cambrian 
Archaeological  Association. 

Sept.  12.  Went  with  a  party  to  Anglesea.  Visited  Newborough, 
where  we  failed  in  getting  into  the  church ;  Llangadwaladr,  where 
we  saw  the  ancient  inscription  to  Catamanus ;  a  supposed  cromlech 
at  Henblas,  most  likely  a  natural  heap  of  rocks ;  the  church  of 
Llangristiolus ;  the  cromlechs  at  Plas  Newydd ;  and  the  old  house 
of  Plas  Coch. 

Sejjt.  13.  Excursion  to  Clynog  Vawr  to  see  the  church,  cromlech, 
and  well ;  and  to  Llanelhaiarn  Church  ;  and  the  top  of  the  "  Rivals  " 
to  the  British  fort  of  Tre'r  Ceiri,  which  is  a  most  interesting  place, 
with  extensive  walls  standing,  and  numerous  foundations  of  houses. 


1848-49]  JOURNAL— WALES  AND   CAMBRIDGE.  147 

Sept.  15.  Visited  with  the  members  the  remains  of  Seguntium. 
Mr.  Hartshorne  took  us  round  the  castle,  and  illustrated  it  most 
excellently. 

Sept  16.     Went  to  Bangor. 

Sept.  18.  Crossed  Garth  Ferry,  and  visited  Llanfair  churchyard, 
the  Britannia  bridge,  Llandissilio  churchyard,  and  the  eastern  slope 
of  the  Straits. 

Sept.  19.  Up  the  valley  of  the  Ogwen  by  Llanllechid,  and 
back  by  the  other  side  of  the  valley. 

Sept.  20.  Went  to  Conway,  and  spent  the  day  on  the  Orme's 
Head ;  saw  the  church  and  the  monuments  in  it. 

Sept.  21.  Had  a  most  interesting  walk  on  the  mountains  ; 
visiting  Castel-caer-Lleion,  circles  behind  Penmaenmawr,  and  the 
fort  upon  its  top. 

Sept.  23.     Home  to  Cambridge. 

Oct  5.  With  Newbould  to  Thetford.  Went  by  the  west  of 
Elvedon,  by  Summer-pit  farm,  along  the  Duke's  ride  to  Barnham 
St.  Gregory,  and  back  to  Thetford.  Found  plenty  of  Artemisia 
campestris  and  Silene  otites  still  in  flower  by  the  Duke's  ride. 

Oct.  7.  Went  to  Chesterford  by  rail  to  meet  J.  J.  Smith,  and 
assist  him  in  measuring  and  planning  the  Roman  buildings  at 
Ickleton. 

Nov.  10.  Went  with  Willis,  J.  J.  Smith,  Franks,  Townsend, 
and  Lukis  to  Bottisham,  and  spent  some  hours  in  the  careful 
examination  of  the  church,  under  Willis'  direction. 

Dec.  19.     Went  to  London. 

Dec.  21.  Went  from  London  to  Hertford,  where  Mr.  Webb  met 
Mr.  Coleman  and  me,  and  we  walked  to  a  wood  where  Coleman 
found  what  he  supposes  to  be  Barharea  stricta,  and  also  Mentha 
pratensis.     We  then  went  in  Webb's  carriage  to  Essendon. 

Dec.  22.  After  spending  the  morning  in  the  examination  of  the 
Rubi  of  the  "  Hertfordshire  Flora,"  we  walked  for  a  few  miles  round 
the  country. 

Dec.  23.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

1849.  March.  During  the  first  half  of  this  month  the  weather 
was  unusually  mild,  and  many  of  the  usual  spring  flowers  shewed 
themselves  in  great  abundance  long  before  their  usual  season  of 
flowering. 

April  10.  To  London  and  Hungerford  by  railway.  Then  in 
F.  W.  Collings'  carriage  to  East  Garston. 

April  11.     School  feast  at  East  Garston. 


148  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1849 

April  12.  Drove  to  Tottenham  Park.  The  gardens  poor,  except 
a  fine  hedge  of  rhododendrons.  We  went  for  some  miles  about  the 
forest. 

April  16.     Took  a  long  walk  above  the  Chalk  Downs. 

April  18.     To  Cambridge. 

May  2.  Hort  and  I  went  to  the  Gogs;  very  little  in  flower. 
Viola  hirta-calcarea  and  Muscari  racemosum. 

May  24.  Gamlingay  party,  seventeen  in  number.  Found  Sagina 
ciliata  on  a  bank  near  to  the  old  hall,  in  the  lane  going  towards 
brick  pits. 

May  29.  Walked  to  Arbury  Camp  and  King's  Hedges  with 
Mr.  Arthur  Taylor,  K.  Taylor's  brother. 

May  31.  With  the  same  antiquary  to  Grantchester  to  make  out 
the  Eoman  remains  there. 

June  4.  Walked  to  Barton,  and  nearly  as  far  as  Haslingfield, 
to  look  for  Chara  polysperma,  which  I  gathered  there  in  1833,  but 
could  not  find  it.  Then  by  an  occupation  road  to  Long  Brook,  and 
over  the  fields  to  Lord's  Bridge,  in  the  old  channel  to  the  south- 
east of  which,  I  gathered  Chara  syncarpa  /3.  Then  to  Comberton  by 
the  brook-side,  and  Newbould  returned  to  Cambridge  with  me.  By 
the  side  of  the  occupation  road,  opposite  to  the  public  house  at  the 
end  of  Barton,  I  gathered  a  Eanunculus,  usually  called  hirsuttts,  but 
with  much  broader  nectaries. 

June  14.     To  Bath. 

June  18.  Went  over  Bath  wick  Hill  to  the  Dundas  Aqueduct, 
then  up  to  Conkwell,  through  the  wood  to  Monckton  Farleigh, 
Bathford,  and  home.      Ornithogalum  pyrenaicum  not  in  flower  yet. 

June  20.  My  aunt  Bedford  went  to  Clevedon.  I  went  by  rail. 
...  for  a  few  days. 

June  21.  Walked  by  the  ruins  of  Walton  Church  (little  more 
than  a  tower)  and  Walton  Castle  (a  late  building  of  no  interest) 
along  the  Downs  by  the  Pigeon  House  and  Farley  to  Portishead. 
On  the  right-hand  bank  of  the  lane,  a  little  beyond  Farley,  I  found 
one  patch  of  Sagina  ciliata.  Returned  by  Weston  and  Walton, 
Weston  Church  is  good.  A  valley  to  the  north  of  Weston  is  worth 
a  visit.     It  is  deep,  narrow,  and  wooded. 

June  22.  By  rail  to  Weston-super-mare,  a  place  much  increased 
of  late.  Examined  the  British  fort  of  Wortlebury,  and  then  followed 
the  top  of  the  hill  to  Kewstoke.  Along  the  shore,  sandy,  to  the 
Middle  Hope  Hill.  Near  Sand,  found  Cerastium  atrovirens,  Alsine 
media,  Sagina  procumbens  marina.  At  Woodspring  is  a  farm-house, 
formed  In  the  church  and  buildings  of  a  priory.  The  tower  perfect 
and  fine,  well  worth  a  careful  examination.  By  a  footpath  to 
St.  Lawrence  Wick,  where  there  is  a  fine  foot  of  a  cross  raised  high 


1849]  JOURNAL— SOMERSET  AND  NORTH  DEVON.  149 

above  the  ground,  to  Waterman's  Row,  along  a  footpath  to  Frith 
Bridge,  and  Kingston  Seymour,  and  Kenn,  and  by  the  road  to 
Clevedon.     A  very  long  and  hot  walk. 

June  23.  Along  the  sea-bank  to  the  south  as  far  as  Hookyar, 
in  a  deep  ditch  opposite  to  which,  found  Ceratojphyllum  demersum  in 
fruit.     Back  along  the  lane  by  Dowlas  farm. 

June  24,     Sunday.     To  old  church. 

June  25.  Along  the  road  by  Clevedon  Court  (a  fine  old  mansion), 
...  to  the  top  of  the  hill,  to  Cadbury  Camp,  then  down  the  hill  to 
Walton  Drove,  and  home. 

June  26.  By  rail  to  Bridgewater,  and  coach  to  Dunster,  to 
spend  a  few  days  with  W.  H.  Coleman,  who  is  temporarily  settled 
there.  In  the  evening  went  to  Boniton,  and  gathered  by  the  lane- 
side,  a  little  before  reaching  that  house,  Eiibus  Leesii;  through  Dunster 
Park  home. 

June  27.  Along  the  top  of  Grabbist  Hill  (on  the  ascent  of 
which,  found  Scigina  ciliata),  by  Wootton  Courtney  and  Brockwell, 
to  the  top  of  Dunkery  Hill.  Descended  by  Bincombe  ravine,  and 
along  the  valley  home. 

June  28.  To  Nettlecombe  by  Withycombe,  and  dined  with 
Sir  W.  and  Lady  Trevelyan.  Back  by  Cleeve  Abbey  (well  Avorthy 
of  a  visit,  church  gone,  fine  hall,  etc.,  remaining)  and  the  public  road. 

June  29.     Examined  the  marshes  and  beach  as  far  as  Minehead. 

June  30.  Along  the  coast  by  Blue  Anchor  to  Watchet,  back  by 
Old  Cleeve.  On  the  top  of  the  wooded  cliffs  between  Blue  Anchor 
and  Warren,  we  found  a  Prunus  in  flower,  which  we  could  not 
determine. 

July  1.     Sunday.     To  Withycombe  Church. 

July  2.  Went  by  Boniton  up  Langcombe,  and  back  by  Broad- 
wood.  In  the  evening  we  went  to  tea  at  Minehead,  with  Capt.  and 
Mrs.  Gifford. 

July  3.  Went  by  Wootton  Courtney,  Huntsgate,  and  Luckham 
to  Horner.  There  are  Flemish  chimneys  in  most  of  these  places 
just  like  those  in  Pembrokeshire.  Then  up  the  Horner  valley 
for  about  three  miles  (it  is  beautifully  wooded,  very  deep,  and 
picturesque),  over  the  hill  to  Porlock,  and  Porlock  Weir,  at  which 
last  place  we  put  up  for  a  few  days,  at  the  "  Anchor,"  a  nice  little 
inn.  In  the  evening  walked  a  little  way  westwards  along  the  coast, 
and  found  plenty  of  Sedum  rupestre. 

July  4.  To  Culbone,  along  a  road  through  the  woods,  over  the 
sea.  Owing  to  a  slip  in  one  place,  we  had  to  climb  up  through  the 
woods  with  some  difficulty,  in  order  to  get  on.  From  the  solitary 
little  church  of  Culbone,  we  descended  by  a  precipitous  and  deserted 
path  to  the  sea  (the  latter  part  of  the  old  path  having  fallen  away,  we 


160  CHARLES   CARDALE   BABINGTON.  [1849 

had  to  descend  with  some  trouble  over  the  remains  of  an  ancient 

landslip),  then  along  the  rough  shingles  as  far  nearly  as  Glenthorn, 
then  up  through  the  wood  and  fields  to  the  turnpike  road.  A  little 
to  the  east  of  G-lenthorn,  and  above  the  wood,  was  the  only  real  cliflF 
that  we  saw  in  that  district.  It  seemed  as  if  the  front  of  the  hill 
had  fallen  forwards  and  left  a  deep  rocky  hollow  behind  it.  We 
returned  down  the  old  road  from  the  hill,  and  found  it  scarcely 
passable. 

July  5.  Along  the  hill-top  and  down  to  Oare,  up  that  valley  to 
its  head,  and  back  over  Lucott  Hill.  In  the  Oare  Valley,  found 
Myriophyllum  alterniflorum.  On  Lucott  Hill,  Puinuncvlus  Lenwrnandi ; 
also  found  a  circle  of  stones  in  a  pretty  perfect  state.  Rossington 
Beacon  is  a  half-circle  of  stones,  arranged  pretty  regularly,  and 
inclosing  a  semi-circular  space  bounded  by  a  perpendicular  wall. 

July  6.  By  Eossington,  over  North  Hill,  to  Minehead  and 
Dunster. 

July  7.     To  London  and  Cambridge. 

July  25.  Went  by  early  train  to  Broxbourne,  where  Webb  and 
Coleman  met  me,  and  we  went  to  St.  Margarets  and  Stanstead 
Abbotts  and  examined  Bonnington  (?)  Wood,  finding  Eubus  Bahing- 
tonii,  and  many  others.     Then  to  Hertford  and  Essendon. 

July  26.  To  Millward  Park  Wood,  calling  on  a  Mr,  Church 
(brother-in-law  to  T.  J.  Selby),  by  the  way.  The  wood  is  full  of 
Eubus  Sprengelii  and  R.  Giintheri  and  others.  (N.B. — A  remarkable 
thunderstorm  this  day  in  London). 

July  27.  Went  by  Hatfield  to  St.  Albans,  where  I  spent  a 
considerable  time  in  the  Abbey  Church,  and  then  returned. 

July  28.  Back  to  Cambridge.  In  the  evening  presided  at  a 
meeting  for  the  formation  of  a  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club. 

Aug.  2.  With  Newbould  to  Mr.  Gibson's  at  Saffron  Walden, 
where  we  met  Mr.  Borrer  and  went  to  Heydon,  where  we  got  many 
plants,  and  back. 

Aug.  6.  Went  to  Bottisham  Fen  with  Hort  and  W.  Mathews, 
but  found  the  country  so  dry  that  we  got  very  little. 

Aug.  11.  Hort,  Mathews,  and  I  went  to  Thetford  by  an  early 
train,  and  met  there  W.  L.  Hose,  who  came  from  Norwich.  We 
went  to  the  edge  of  Redneck  Heath,  then  by  the  rectory  at  Elvedon 
to  Barnham,  returning  to  the  town  by  the  river  side. 

Aug.  20.  Hort,  Newbould,  and  I  went  to  Lynn.  We  followed 
the  sea-bank  as  far  as  North  Wootton,  finding  very  little.  Hort 
found  in  the  mud  Spartina  strida ;  he  also  found  Atriplex  deltdidea. 
We  then  went  to  Castle  Rising,  where  there  is  a  most  beautiful 
Norman  church,  especially  its  west  front ;  also  an  old  Norman  castle 
surrounded  by  enormous  mounds  and  ditches.    In  one  of  the  mounds 


1849]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING   IN   SUSSEX,   Etc.  151 

a  former  church,  probably  Saxon,  has  been  discovered,  it  has  an 
apsidal  chancel  with  three  small  windows  formed  partly  of  Roman 
bricks.  Their  openings  are  very  small,  and  the  arch  formed  of  two 
stones  cut  into  that  form.  Returned  to  Lynn  by  Gaywood,  and 
back  by  rail. 

Aug.  26.     To  London  in  the  evening. 

Aug.  27.  I  went  direct  by  rail  to  Chichester  to  meet  Borrer  and 
G.  S.  Gibson.  We  went  to  Selsey  Church,  and  found  near  the  first 
coast-guard  station,  Dianthus  prolifer.  At  Sidlesham  Comnopus 
didymits.     Rounding  the  Bill,  we  returned  to  Chichester. 

Aug.  28.  To  West  Wittering  and  the  mouth  of  the  creek,  finding 
A  triplex  Utoralis,  Statice  Limonium,  and  Bahusiensis,  Pyretlirwn  mari- 
timum ;  then  to  Dellquay  where  we  got  Zostera  nana  and  angustifolia. 
Then  we  went  down  between  the  two  heads  of  the  creek,  to  near 
Hole's  farm,  and  got  Oenanthe  pimpinelloides.  Then  by  rail  to 
Emsworth,  where  we  again  saw  the  two  Zosteras,  and  back  to 
Chichester. 

Aug.  29.  By  rail  to  Arundel.  Near  the  station  saw  Zanniehellia 
pedicellata.  On  walls  at  Arundel  Sedum  turgidiim,  by  the  river  side 
Scirpiis  carinatus.  We  went  over  the  hill  to  Houghton  Bridge,  and 
got  there  S.  carinatus,  Ceratophyllnm  demersam  ;  to  Amberley,  where 
Leersia  oryzoides,  Scirpus  triqueter,  Fotamogeton  acutifolius,  Lonicera 
Xylosteum ;  then  to  Henfield. 

Aug.  31.  Went  to  Shoreham,  and  saw  plenty  of  Trifolium 
stellatum  dried  up.  Hunted  a  long  time  for  Triticum  acutum,  but  did 
not  find  it.     Mr.  Gibson  went  away,  and  I  returned  to  Mr.  Borrer's. 

Sept.  1.  At  Henfield  got  Leersia  on  the  right  hand  side  of  the 
drove  in  the  level. 

Sept.  3.  To  Box  Hill  by  rail  to  meet  Woods  and  Kippist.  On 
the  top  of  the  hill  EpiloUum  angustifolium ;  in  a  valley  descending  to 
the  north  on  its  east  sides  Teucrium  Botrys,  Ajuga  CJiamaepitys, 
Bromus  arvensis,  Foterium  muricatum.     Back  to  Henfield. 

Sept.  5.  Returned  to  Cambridge.  In  London  called  at  the 
Linnean  to  make  acquaintance  with  Dr.  Hartman,  son  of  the  author 
of  a  "Scandinavian  Flora." 

Sept.  \\.  To  Peterborough.  Walked  about  the  city,  and  looked 
at  the  cathedral. 

Sept.  12.  With  W.  P.  Wilson  to  Birmingham,  to  the  British 
Association  Meeting.  Quartered  at  the  "Red  Lion"  in  Church 
Street,  with  E.  Forbes,  Lankester,  Ibbotson,  Munby. 

Sept.  15.  Went  to  Warwick,  and  saw  the  castle  and  church. 
Then  to  Kenilworth,  and  spent  some  time  in  the  ruins  of  the  castle 
with  Lord  Adare.  (Was  a  member  of  the  Committee  of  recommen- 
dations at  this  meeting.) 


152  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1849—60 

Sept.  20.     To  Lyston  to  spend  a  few  days  with  Lingwood. 

Sept  22.     To  Hereford,  and  saw  the  works  at  the  Cathedral. 

Sept.  24.  Spent  some  time  in  the  examination  of  the  Church  of 
Llanwarne,  and  the  contents  of  the  parish  chest  in  it.  Found  in  it 
the  bill  for  casting  the  bells  200  years  since ;  also  imperfect  copies 
of  the  works  of  Jewell  and  Erasmus,  in  black  letter. 

Sept.  25.  To  Orcop  Church.  Small,  and  rather  curious.  Old 
oak  seats.  Old  timber  upper  part  of  tower.  Also  to  St.  Weonards, 
a  fine  restored  church. 

Sept.  26.  With  the  Rev.  Mr.  White  and  Vernon  to  Pencoyd  and 
Hentland ;  near  the  former  an  old  moated  house  with  vaulted  cellars^ 
with  an  armed  stone  figure  in  them.  Hentland  Church  is  being  well 
restored. 

Sept.  27.  With  the  same  to  Garway  Church,  and  the  Pigeon 
House  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John  {see  the  "  Archaeologia  ").  Then 
over  the  top  of  Garway  Hill,  a  splendid  view  from  it,  and  back  along 
the  tops  of  the  hills. 

Sept.  28.  To  Ewyas  Harold  and  Rowlstone  to  see  the  church. 
It  has  a  singular  Norman  chancel  arch,  with  a  beautiful  carving  on 
the  side  of  each  of  its  capitals  of  two  figures,  one  Avinged  and  holding 
a  cross  in  one  hand,  and  a  book  in  the  other ;  and  the  other  a 
pilgrim  perhaps  ;  on  the  south  side  the  figures  are  placed  (originally) 
on  their  heads.  Also  to  Abbey  Dore,  where  the  transepts  and  choir 
of  a  fine  monastic  church  are  in  good  preservation. 

Oct.  5.     To  Cambridge  again. 

Dec.  6.  Meeting  at  my  rooms  to  confirm  the  rules  and  elections 
and  fix  the  meetings  of  the  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club  for 
1849.     We  dined  at  the  "Red  Lion." 

1850.  April  2.  To  London  to  the  Linnean  Meeting.  Visited 
the  Exhibition  of  Mediaeval  Art  at  the  Society  of  Arts. 

April  3.  Spent  some  part  of  the  morning  at  the  same  exhibition. 
In  the  evening  went  to  Bath. 

April  5.  Walked  with  Hort,  who  was  visiting  Bath,  to  the 
station  for  EuphorUa  palustris.  Over  Coombe  Down  to  the  mill 
below  Midford  Castle,  along  the  canal  by  the  Dundas  Aqueduct, 
over  the  river  at  Warleigh,  by  Bathford  and  Batheaston,  behind 
Little  Salisbury  Hill  to  Bath. 

Apiil  8.  Went  with  Hort  to  visit  C.  E.  Broome  at  Batheaston. 
We  then  walked  up  the  Rocks  Valley.  Hort  left  us,  and  I  dined 
with  Broome,  and  back  to  Bath  in  the  evening.  Met  a  Mr.  Walton, 
of  Grosvenor  Place,  Bath,  a  geologist. 

April  9.  Hort,  Broome,  and  I  crossed  Lansdown  to  a  spot  of 
limestone  west  of  Tracy  Park,  where  we  found  Gagea  lutea  in  flower. 


1850]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING  IN  CAMBRIDGESHIRE.  15a 

Then  visited  a  group  of  stones  which  once  formed  a  cromlech  (two 
stones  are  standing,  the  rest  is  a  mass  of  ruin),  and  so  to  the  top 
of  the  Wyck  Rocks.     Back  by  the  Swainswick  Valley  to  Bath. 

April  10.     Dined  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hort  at  14,  Brock  Street. 

April  13.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

April  27.  Went  with  J.  B.  Wilson  up  the  Hobson's  Watercourse 
to  the  Nine  Wells.  Found  between  the  first  and  second  bridges 
beyond  the  Via  Lambertina  one  mass  of  Chara  pohjsperma.  It  was 
in  fructification. 

May  3.  Hort  and  I  went  by  the  Hills  Road  to  Shelford  to 
measure  the  camp  there. 

May  4.  Wilson  and  I  went  by  Coton  to  Hardwick,  and  examined 
the  meadows  and  thickets  at  the  head  of  the  brook. 

May  9.  The  first  meeting  of  the  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists^ 
Club.  Linton.  Went  through  the  meadows  to  Little  Linton,  then 
to  the  Rivey.  To  Baitlow,  and  returned  to  Linton  through  the 
meadows  on  the  south  side  of  the  river. 

May  18.  Hort  and  I  went  to  Bottisham  Fen.  We  examined 
carefully  the  usual  ground,  hoping  to  find  Viola  stagnina,  of  which 
we  got  none. 

May  21.  The  party  to  Gamlingay.  A  larger  number  than 
usual,  taking  a  coach  and  fly.  Hort,  Townsend,  Lukis,  and  I  went 
by  Everton  and  the  Hasells,  then  over  Sandy  Heath  to  Snow  Hill, 
by  Potton  Mill  to  Gamlingay  Heath  and  the  brick  clamp,  and  back 
to  the  "  Green  Man."  All  the  heaths  are  inclosed,  and  most  parts 
brought  into  cultivation.  We  found  all  the  usual  plants  of  the 
district,  and  in  the  Gamlingay  brick-clamp  pits  Chara  syncarpa. 

June  5.  I  went  with  Adams,  Reyner,  Overton,  and  Cooper  to 
Bottisham  Fen.  We  did  not  find  many  plants,  but  got  plenty  of 
Viola  stagnina,  which  had  just  commenced  flowering. 

June  6.  This  was  the  meeting  of  the  Cambridge  Naturalists' 
Club  at  Ramsey.  The  day  was  rather  cold,  and  I  spent  most  of 
the  time  in  trying  to  make  out  the  Roman  station  on  Bury  Hill, 
and  in  the  examination  of  Bury  Church. 

June  8.  To  St.  Margarets,  Southelmham,  by  rail  to  Norwich, 
and  coach  to  Bungay.     Rev.  E.  A.  Holmes. 

June  10,  11.  Went  with  Holmes  (rural  dean)  to  visit  the 
churches  in  the  Wangford  Union. 

June  13.  Walked  by  Flixton  Hall  and  Homersfield.  Trifolium 
glomeratum  grows  on  the  slope  of  the  hill  at  the  latter,  and  Alsine 
tenuifolia  on  the  ruins  of  the  chancel  at  the  former. 

June  14.     Visited  some  more  churches  near  St.  Margarets. 


154  CHARLES   CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.     '  [1850 

June  15.     Came  back  to  Cambridge. 

June,  18.     Went  to  London  to  the  Linnean  Meeting, 

June  19.  To  Oxford,  to  the  meeting  of  the  Archaeological 
Institute.  Stopped  at  the  "King's  Arms."  Was  asked  to  take 
rooms  at  Christchurch  (bj"-  Hill)  and  Magdalen  College  (by  Daubeny). 

June  20.  Breakfast  at  Daubeny's,  and  visited  the  library  of 
Magdalen  College  with  Dr.  Bloxam.  Was  shewn  a  lot  of  notes, 
etc.,  for  a  second  edition  of  "Lobel's  Herbal,"  which  had  been 
neglected  and  nearly  lost.     Dined  in  Magdalen  College  Hall. 

June  21.  Dined  with  Daubeny,  and  met  Mrs.  Hamilton  Gray, 
the  authoress  about  Etruria. 

June  22.  Went  to  Silchester  with  a  party  by  special  train.  A 
peculiarly  hot  day.  The  Roman  wall  is  very  perfect,  twelve  to 
fourteen  feet  high,  and  nearly  two  miles  in  circuit.  i)ined  with 
Dr.  Acland. 

June  24.     To  Bridgewater,  where  I  met  a  Mr.  F.  Cell,  of  C.C.C. 

June  25.  After  walking  about  Bridgewater,  I  was  joined  in  the 
middle  of  the  day  by  W.  W.  Newbould  and  W.  H.  Coleman,  and 
we  went  by  coach  to  Dunster.  Went  in  the  evening  to  the  station 
of  Sagina  ciluita,  at  the  south-east  end  of  Grabbist,  Eubus  Leesii 
near  Boniton,  and  Lastrea  foenisecii  up  the  coombe  to  the  left  from 
there. 

June  26.  Went  by  the  beach  to  Blue  Anchor  and  the  station  of 
Prunus  capitata.  Found  plenty  of  the  bushes,  but  very  few  flowers. 
Frunus  capitata  MSS.  is  a  plant  very  like  F.  spinosa  in  habit,  and  is 
perhaps  a  state  of  it.     Returned  by  Old  Cleeve. 

June  27.  To  the  top  of  Grabbist  Hill  to  see  the  British 
amphitheatre.  The  amphitheatre  is  placed  on  the  top  of  the  hill, 
open  to  the  south  on  the  precipitous  face  of  it,  and  approached 
from  below  by  a  zigzag  ascending  path,  formerly  having  a  loose 
retaining  wall  of  stones  on  its  upper  side.  It  forms  a  deep  semi- 
circular hollow,  with  an  arc  of  about  one  hundred  paces,  and  chord 
of  fifty  paces.  A  path  descends  into  it  at  the  east  end  from  the 
level  of  the  hill.  Hillside  below  the  nearly  straight  open  side.  At 
a  distance  of  about  eighty  paces  back  from  it  there  is  a  boundary 
ditch.  Depth,  sixty  or  eighty  feet.  Down  by  Parsonage  to  the 
Dunster  Marshes,  where  we  found  Banuncuhis  confusits,  Trifolium 
maritimum,  Sagina  maritima,  etc.  Went  to  Minehead,  and  called  on, 
and  spent  the  evening  with,  Capt.,  Mrs.,  and  Miss  Giflford. 

June  28.     To  Porlock. 

June  29.  To  Culbone  .  .  .  below  the  church  we  found  Meconopsis 
■cambrica. 

June  30.  Sunday.  To  church  at  Porlock.  In  the  afternoon  we 
went  to  Culbone,  but  found  that  there  was  no  service. 


1850]     JOUENAL— SOMERSET,  N.  DEVON,  AND  EDINBURGH.        155 

July  1.  Crossed  the  head  of  the  bay  to  Hurlstone  Point,  finding 
near  to  the  latter  place  Verhascum  Lychnitis,  Anthemis  arvensis,  and 
Mentlm  rotundifolia. 

July  2.  Went  above  Whitestone  Park  and  descended  into  the 
next  valley,  then  ascended  to  the  upper  part  of  Lucott  Hill,  and 
found  Ranunculus  Lenormandi  at  the  head  of  a  stream  descending  to 
the  north-east,  then  crossed  the  upper  part  of  the  Horner  valley  to 
the  top  of  Dunkery. 

July  3.  By  the  old  road  to  the  Whitestones,  then  to  Oare,  and 
down  the  valley  to  Brendon,  and  over  the  hill  to  Ilford  Bridges, 
from  whence  we  descended  the  East  Lynn  to  Lynton  ("Valley  of 
Rocks  "  Hotel).  In  the  evening  to  the  Valley  of  Rocks  and  back  by 
the  path  by  the  sea. 

July  4.  By  East  Ilkerton  to  Sadler's  Stone  and  Wood  Barrow 
on  the  way  to  Moles'  Chamber,  but  there  was  so  much  rain  and 
cloud  on  the  hills  that  we  could  not  find  our  way  ;  got  wet  through, 
and  returned ;  then  deviated  to  Ilford  Bridges  and  hunted  for  Ruhus 
Leesii,  without  success.  Descended  the  right  hand  side  of  the 
river  to  Lynton.  Found  EuphorUa  hiberna,  Melittis  Melissophyllum, 
Meconopsis,  Rubus  suberedus,  Lingua,  and  GUntheri. 

July  5.  By  Lee,  Slattenslade,  Martinhoe,  Cherriton,  and 
Kimacot  to  the  valley  of  the  Heddon ;  along  it  to  Trentishoe,  in 
the  chance  of  finding  Mrs.  Grifiiths  there.  Rubus  Schlechtendalii, 
Trentishoe,  R.  carpin^olmm  (Blox.)  on  the  upper  parts  of  the  hills; 
ascending  the  highest  of  any  of  them.  R.  plicatus,  valley  of  West 
Lynn.  Then  by  Heale  to  the  Ilfracombe  and  Lynton  road,  and 
home. 

July  6.  By  coach  to  Bridgewater,  and  rail  to  London  and 
Cambridge. 

July  15.     W.  H.  Coleman  came  to  spend  a  few  days  here. 

July  16.  Coleman,  Newbould,  and  I  went  to  Bottisham  Fen, 
and  found  Viola  stagnina  in  fruit  in  plenty,  also  Chara  tenuissima. 

July  24.  Started  for  the  north,  and  went  as  far  as  Lincoln. 
Walked  in  the  evening  to  Boultham  Church.  Found  in  a  ditch  by 
the  footway,  Anacharis  Alsiimstrum  in  flower. 

July  25.  Went  to  the  cathedral.  To  Hull,  but  missed  the 
steamer  for  Leith.     To  Normanton. 

July  26.  To  Edinburgh.  Quartered  at  Professor  Balfour's,' 
2,  Bellevue  Crescent. 

July  27.  In  the  Botanic  Garden  met  James  Backhouse,  jun., 
on  his  way  to  Clova. 

Jidy  30.     Dined  with  the  medical  faculty  in  the  Senate  Hall. 

July  31.     British  Association  Meeting  began. 


156  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1850 

Aug.  3.  Dr.  Walker,  Arnott,  Gourlie,  and  I  went  to  Berwick- 
upon-Tweed  with  Dr.  Johnston.  We  gathered  Sisymhrium  Irio  in 
perfection  on  the  walls.  Dr.  Johnston  shewed  us  in  the  White-adder 
river,  above  the  bridge  near  its  mouth,  the  Anacharis  Alsinastrum 
in  the  utmost  abundance,  and  full  of  female  flowers.  He  stated  that 
it  was  unknown  there  four  years  since,  and  that  now  it  extends 
almost  continuously  for  eleven  miles  along  the  river  in  a  marginal 
mass  of  at  least  eight  feet  wide.  A  small  state  of  Ranunculus  fluitans 
is  also  there.     Eeturned  to  Edinburgh  in  the  evening. 

Aug.  6.  We  had  our  only  "Ked  Lion"  dinner  to-day  at  the  Caf6 
Koyal. 

Aug.  8.     By  rail  and  coach  to  Crieff. 

Aug.  9.  By  coach  along  the  shore  of  Loch  Earn,  and  Glen  Ogle 
to  Killin,  where  I  met  Lingwood  (Mrs.  and  Miss  Lingwood  were 
with  him). 

Aug.  10.  He  and  I  took  a  car  to  the  farm  of  Inch-hurich,  in 
Glen  Lochay,  and  ascended  Mael  Nachdar,  where  we  got  in  a  ravine 
of  black  rock  near  its  west  end  Cystopteris  montana,  and  upon  its  face, 
Bartsia  alpina.  Came  back  along  the  top  of  the  ridge  terminating 
just  above  the  hotel  at  Killin. 

Aug.  12.  We  went  to  Ben  Lawers,  taking  a  carriage  part  of 
the  way  there  and  back  again.  We  found  Saxifraga  Qiviilaris,  and 
S.  cernua,  and  Draba  rupestris.  We  examined  the  rocks  above  Loch- 
na-Gat,  but  could  not  find  Woodsia. 

Aug.  13.  Lingwood  and  his  party  started  for  the  west,  and  I 
went  to  Inverarnon,  and  spent  the  afternoon  in  Glen  Ealloch. 

Aug.  16.  To  Glasgow.  Cathedral  restored  very  nicely.  Dined 
with  Arnott,  and  met  Gourlie,  Mackay  of  Dublin,  and  Murray  of 
the  Glasgow  Garden  there. 

Aug.  17.  By  rail  to  Ardrossan,  where  I  spent  most  of  the  day. 
In  the  evening  to  Lamlash,  Arran,  and  joined  Balfour's  family  at 
Seafield  House  there. 

Aug.  20.  By  the  road  to  Lag  and  Struay  rocks  and  sands.  At 
the  latter  we  found  Triticum  laxum,  etc.  Took  a  track  across  the 
mountains  back  again  to  Lamlash  ;  lost  it,  and  had  a  very  hard 
walk  in  a  direct  line  over  moorland,  home.  Removed  my  quarters 
to  the  Lamlash  Inn,  which  is  a  nice  one.  Sprained  my  left  calf 
slightly  on  the  hills. 

Aug.  21.  Walked  quietly  about  to  cure  my  strain.  Found  T. 
laxum,  etc.,  on  the  beach  at  Lamlash. 

Aug.  24.  Walked  to  Brodick,  and  to  the  top  of  Goat  Fell,  along 
the  ridge  to  the  head  of  Glen  Sannox,  and  down  Glen  Eosa,  and  so 
back  to  Lamlash.  The  hill  is  very  barren,  but  the  view  beautiful. 
The  route  along  the  ridge  is  very  difficult  from  the  rocky  and  narrow 
form  of  the  ridge. 


1850—51]     JOURNAL— BOTANICAL  &  ANTIQUARIAN  NOTES.  157 

Aug.  30.     To  Cambridge. 

"  Sept.  6.  Mathews  and  I  went  to  Hardwick,  to  the  pit  containing 
the :  supposed  Potamogeton  sparganiifolius,  and  found  it  in  fruit 
partially,  but  mostly  in  flower.  We  then  went  to  Comberton, 
to  Newbould's.     Found  near  his  lodgings  Eubus  Walilhergii. 

Sept.  13.  Newbould  and  I  went  to  Saffron  Walden,  and  spent 
the  day  with  Mr.  Gibson.  He  shewed  me  the  Carduus  dubius,  also 
the  two  Fumarias,  parviflora  and  Vaillantii.  We  also  (without 
Newbould)  went  to  see  the  Roman  villa,  lately  found  by  Mr. 
Neville,  by  the  river  Bourn,  opposite  to  Linton. 

Oct.  2.  Went  to  Huntingdon,  and  walked  round  the  station  at 
Godmanchester.  Also  up  the  Roman  Way  towards  Sandy,  as  far 
nearly  as  Burlieu  Gap,  then  crossed  to  the  Ermyn  Street,  and  back 
to  the  town.  It  seems  probable  that  the  Sandy  Way  and  the  Via 
Devana  passed  west  and  east  of  the  station  respectively,  whilst  the 
Ermyn  Street  entered  directly  into  it.  The  Sandy  Way  is  reduced 
now  to  a  bridle  track  for  much  of  its  course,  and  no  trace  (?)  of  the 
Roman  Road  remains.  On  the  Ermyn  Street  there  are  manifest 
traces  of  the  Romans. 

Oct.  3.  To  Biggleswade  to  meet  the  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists' 
Club.  We  crossed  the  river  Ivel,  and  followed  the  road  as  far  as 
Beeston,  then  along  the  bank  of  the  river,  and  crossed  it  at  Sandy 
Mill.  Went  to  "Caesar's  Camp,"  a  British  fortification,  through 
the  plantation  on  the  tops  of  the  hills,  to  the  stone  quarries  and 
camp  upon  Gaily  Hill,  back  by  Stratford,  and  along  the  meadows 
of  the  Ivel  to  Biggleswade. 

Oct.  8.  Went  to  Pampisford  Hall,  and  followed  the  whole  line  of 
the  Brent  Ditch.  There  is  no  trace  of  a  bank  on  the  eastern  side 
of  it,  and  only  faint  ones  on  the  west.  The  western  side  is  uniformly 
rather  higher  than  the  other.  There  is  nothing  to  shew  that  the 
ditch  was  filled  up  in  order  to  allow  the  Roman  Road  to  pass  over 
it.     The  filling-up  between  the  road  and  railway  is  modern. 

Oct.  9.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

Nov.  18.  To  London  to  a  special  meeting  of  the  Committee  of 
the  Ray  Club,  and  returned  on  Wednesday,  20th. 

1851.  Feb.  21.  Went  to  London  to  attend  the  meeting  of 
Geological  Society,  when  W.  Hopkins  was  elected  President  of  that 
body.     Dined  with  the  Society. 

Feb.  22.  Returned  to  Cambridge.  Sent  the  third  edition  of 
my  Manual  to  the  press. 

March  26.  My  aunt  Bedford  died  of  bronchitis,  aged  74,  at 
7,  Beaufort  Buildings,  East,  Bath. 

April  1.     Funeral  at  Broughton  GifFord. 

May  6.     Left  Bath,  and  gave  up  the  house. 


158  .  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1851 

May  7.     Eeached  Cambridge. 

Maij  21.  Newbould  and  I  went  on  my  first  botanical  walk  for 
the  season.  We  went  by  train  to  Chesterford,  went  by  the  possible 
line  of  the  Roman  Way  to  Strethall,  then  by  Freewood  to  Elmdon, 
where  we  found  Juniper,  and  visited  a  tumulits,  and  the  church  there 
in  the  course  of  a  complete  restoration. 

May  30.  Corrected  the  last  proof  sheet  of  the  third  edition  of 
my  Manual. 

June  13,     Went  to  Bottisham  Fen  with  Stratton  and  Hort. 

Jime  17.  To  London.  Zoological  Society,  and  saw  the  young 
elephant.     Linnean  Society  in  the  evening. 

June  18.  Spent  the  whole  morning  in  the  Great  Exhibition  in 
Hyde  Park.  Dined  with  Lankester,  and  went  with  him  to  see 
Wild's  Great  Globe  in  Leicester  Square. 

June  19.  Again  at  Exhibition.  Royal  Society.  Admitted  a 
Fellow. 

June  20.     Exhibition.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

June  25.     With  Stratton  to  Gogs  and  Cherry  Hinton.     Found 

Fumaria  parviflora  and  F.  Vaillantii. 

July  2.  Went  to  Ipswich  by  way  of  Bury,  to  which  place 
Sedgwick,  G.  G.  Stokes,  MacCoy,  and  I  went  by  coach.  British 
Association. 

July  5.  Excursion  to  Felixstowe,  and  up  the  Woodbridge  river 
to  Ramshott,  to  see  the  junction  of  the  two  strata  of  Crag  by  steamer. 
Lankester,  Huxley,  Dr.  Smith  (author  of  "Class.  Diet."),  and  I 
landed,  and  slept  at  the  Hotel  at  Felixstowe. 

July  6.     Huxley  and  I  walked  back  to  Ipswich  in  the  evening. 

July  9.     To  Thetford. 

July  10.     Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club  Meeting  at  Thetford. 

July  15.  Went  with  Newbould,  Wauton,  and  Stratton  to  Water- 
beach,  then  walked  by  the  river  side  to  Upware,  and  along  the 
Spinny  bank  across  the  fen  to  a  house  near  Wicken.  Examined 
Wicken  Fen,  finding  Lathyrus  palustris,  Stratiotes,  Arundo  Calama- 
grostis,  Cladium,  etc.     Returned  by  the  same  way. 

July  16.  W.  Mathews  and  I  went  to  Cherry  Hinton,  but  found 
very  little  in  the  way  of  plants. 

July  28.  A  very  dark  day  prevented  the  very  large  eclipse  of 
the  sun  being  seen. 

July  29.  Went  to  London  and  Bristol  to  attend  the  Meeting  of 
the  Archaeological  Institute. 

Aug.  1.  Manning  and  I  walked  to  Leigh  Court  and  back.  Very 
fine  pictures  there. 


1861]  JOURNAL— SOMERSET.  159 

Atig.  4.  Party  by  steamer  to  Chepstow,  rail  to  Newport,  omni- 
bus to  Caerleon.  Cold  collation  in  the  amphitheatre,  given  by  the 
Caerleon  Archaeological  Society.  Walked  from  Caerleon  to  a  church 
upon  the  hill  top  (Christ  Church),  where  there  is  a  stone  effigy,  to 
which  miraculous  virtues  are,  or  were  attributed. 

Aug.  6.     Went  to  Wells  to  visit  W.  T.  Collings. 

Aug.  7.  In  the  morning  I  walked  to  Dulcot  Church  Hill,  and 
found  a  singular  branching  thistle,  allied  to  Carduus  acaulis. 
(N.B. — Saw  the  same  the  next  day  at  North  Wootton,  but  cut 
down.)  In  the  afternoon  went  in  the  carriage  to  Glastonbury,  and 
visited  the  ruins  of  the  abbey. 

Aug.  8.  Walked  alone  by  Worminster  and  North  Wootton  into 
the  East  Sedgmoor ;  returned  by  Lancherley  Cross  and  Woodford. 
In  the  evening  went  to  a  camp  on  the  top  of  Mendip,  and  hunted 
for  a  Roman  road,  but  could  not  find  it. 

Av^.  9.  Walked  alone  to  Wookey  Hole  and  Ebber  Rocks. 
Went  up  through  the  latter,  which  is  a  miniature  and  very  inferior 
copy  of  Cheddar.  In  the  afternoon  by  Castle  to  Lower  Grodney ;. 
returned  over  West  Hay  Moor,  by  Henton  and  Wookey.  (N.B. — 
This  moor  seems  well  worthy  of  more  examination). 

Aug.  11,  By  coach  to  Bath.  Bristol ;  by  coach  to  Chepstow  to 
spend  a  few  days  with  Hort  and  his  family  at  Hardwick  House. 

Aug.  12.  Looked  about  the  grounds  and  the  banks  of  the  Wye 
below  them.  In  the  evening  went  to  Caldicot  Castle,  which  is  highly 
interesting  from  its  finished  architecture,  combined  with  strength ; 
and  Caerwent,  where  much  of  the  Roman  walls  exist. 

Aug.  13.  Visited  the  railway  works,  for  the  bridge  over  the 
Wye.  Went  to  the  top  of  the  Bannager  Rock,  then  below  the  cliffs 
opposite  Piercefield,  near  Lancant.  Along  a  footpath  under  the  cliffs 
to  near  Penmoyle.     Back  by  road. 

Aug.  15.     To  Swansea. 

Aug.  16.     By  coach  to  Tenby,  by  Llanelly  and  Carmarthen. 

Aug.  18.  Went  to  Giltar  Head  by  the  sands,  on  which  I  found 
a  Hieracium  like  umbellatum,  but  perhaps  different.  Did  not  see  the 
Asparagus  at  the  Head.  Along  the  cliffs  to  Lydstep  Haven. 
Returned  by  Whitewell  and  Trelloyan  (an  old  ruined  mansion) 
and  Holloway,  where  I  saw  Inula  Selenium. 

Aug.  19.  Took  lodgings  at  Mr.  Clark,  the  grocer's.  .  .  .  Went 
to  Scotsborough  (a  ruined  mansion  of  no  interest)  and  Gumfreston, 
where  there  is  a  curious  church. 

Aug.  20.  Examined  the  marshes  near  Tenby,  and  found  Eanun- 
culus  confusus.  Followed  the  lane  by  the  marsh  side  and  up  the 
Ridgeway  from  Holloway.     Returned  by  Penally  and  the  Burrows, 


160  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1861 

where  Triticum  laxum  is  in  vast  abundance,  and  quite  erect.  First 
-evening  meeting  of  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association  in  the 
Assembly  Eooms. 

Aug.  21.  Excursion  to  Penally,  Manorbier,  and  Hodgeston. 
The  church  at  the  second  peculiarly  interesting.  Made  acquaintance 
with  Mr,  Freeman,  the  author  of  books  on  LlandafF,  etc. 

Aug.  22.  Excursion  to  St.  Florence  (a  curious  church)  and 
Carew  Castle,  and  Church  and  Cross.  Visited  Gumfreston  (church 
with  an  old  sanctus  bell — a  very  fine  tower)  where  there  is  a  chaly- 
beate spring  in  the  churchyard,  closely  adjoining  another  of  pure 
water. 

Aug.  23.  To  Lamphey  Palace,  Pembroke  Castle,  Monckton 
Priory,  and  Pembroke  Dockyard. 

Aug.  24.  Sunday.  Bishop  of  St.  Davids  (Thirlwall)  preached 
an  excellent  sermon.  Dined  with  Mr.  Dillwyn  Llewellyn,  and 
walked  to  Giltar  Head  with  Mr.  Moggridge  and  Mr.  Llewellyn's 
son.  Saw  the  Asparagus  at  Giltar  Head,  or  rather  half-way  between 
it  and  Lydstep  Haven. 

Aug.  25.  Botanised  during  the  morning  on  the  south  sands, 
and  the  marsh  opposite  Penally.  On  the  rock  near  the  sea  there  is 
Polygonatum  officinale.  The  marsh  is  like  the  rough  parts  of  the 
Cambridgeshire  Fens,  producing  Myrica  Gale,  etc.  Here  is  Lastrea 
Thelypteris,  Carex  panicvlata,  C.  Oederi,  and  other  deep  marsh  plants. 

Aug.  26.     The  conclusion  of  the  Archaeological  Meeting. 

Aug.  27.  Went  by  coach  with  the  Archaeological  party  to  Hobbs' 
Point,  and  then  in  a  government  steamer,  kindly  placed  at  our  dis- 
posal, to  St.  Davids.  We  landed  at  Solva.  The  Rev.  Canon 
Melvile  kindly  gave  me  a  hospitable  welcome.  We  had  not  time 
to  do  anything  that  evening. 

Aug.  28.  Visited  Penlan  Castle,  a  curious  earthwork,  part 
Roman,  part  British.  Then  attended  Freeman's  lecture  at  and  in 
the  cathedral,  and  returned  by  the  same  mode  of  conveyance  to 
Tenby.  Fine  weather  both  going  and  returning,  and  I  was  much 
pleased  with  the  fine  rocky  coast. 

Aug.  29.  Went  to  Gumfreston  and  spent  some  hours  with  the 
Rev.  G.  Smith,  the  rector.  His  family  gave  me  a  few  localities  of 
plants. 

Aug.  30.  Went  by  Rowston  and  Roadwood  to  Saundersfoot, 
then  along  the  coal-rail  under  Hean  Castle  to  Wiseman's  Bridge, 
and  some  distance  up  the  valley  there.  Back  behind  Hean  Castle 
to  St.  Issells,  and  then  to  Saundersfoot  again,  and  by  GriflSthston, 
Hollybush,  Daisy  Bank,  Ashridge,  Cornish  Mill,  Scotsborough, 
Marsh  House,  Tenby.  On  the  sands  at  Saundersfoot  are  the  same 
plants  as  at  Tenby.     The  valleys  about  St.  Issells  very  pretty. 


1851]  JOURNAL— WELSH  TRIPS.  161 

Sept.  1.  Went  to  Penally  to  call  upon  the  Rev.  John  Hughes, 
the  vicar,  and  his  brother,  the  Rev.  Henry  Hughes,  of  Manorbier. 
Afterwards  went  by  Holloway  to  Gumfreston,  and  towards  St. 
Florence ;  returned  by  Causeway  Mill,  on  the  bridge  at  which  Crith- 
mum  grows  beautifully.  Mr.  Mason  wants  me  to  edit  an  appendix 
of  natural  history  matter  for  the  "  Archaeologia  Cambrensis." 

Sept.  2.  Went  by  Pembroke  to  Stackpole  Court  (Lord  Cawdor). 
Met  Mr.  Fox-Strangways  there. 

Sept.  3.  Mr.  Strangways  and  I  were  sent  in  a  carriage  to  the 
Wash,  and  then  walked  along  the  top  of  the  cliffs.  Saw  the  Stacks, 
Bosheston  Mere,  Huntsman's  Leap,  St.  G-owan's  Chapel,  and  back 
by  Bosheston. 

Sept.  4.  Mr.  Strangways  and  I  went  to  Cheriton  Church.  I 
went  on  to  East  Freshwater  Bay,  and  then  followed  the  coast  by 
Crrenala  Point  and  Camp,  Stackpole  Quay,  and  Warren  to  Broad 
Haven,  and  back  through  the  Park. 

Sep)t.  5.  Spent  the  morning  in  the  Gardens.  Afterwards  went 
to  St.  Petrox  and  St.  Twinnel's  Churches,  intending  to  visit  a  camp 
near  Warren,  but  heavy  rain  came  on  and  compelled  me  to  take 
shelter  in  the  porch  of  the  latter  church.  Met  Mr.  Vivian  of 
Swansea  at  Stackpole ;  he  asked  me  to  visit  him  on  my  return,  as 
also  had  done  Mr.  Dillwyn  Llewellyn. 

Sept.  6.  Walked  by  St.  Twinnels  to  Castlemartin  (the  church 
very  interesting)  and  examined  a  camp  (perhaps  Roman)  near 
Warren  by  the  way.  Then  behind  Brownslade  to  a  camp  (perhaps 
British)  at  Warman's  Hill.  A  little  to  the  east  of  it  there  is  a  small 
square  entrenchment.     Returned  by  Warren. 

Sept.  7.  Sunday.  Church  at  St.  Petrox.  Lord  Cawdor  shewed 
me  a  camp  on  a  hill  between  two  arms  of  the  lake  near  Bosheston. 
It  is  very  strong,  and  not  in  the  Ordnance  map. 

Sept.  8.  Went  with  Lord  Cawdor  to  Cheriton  Church,  which  is 
in  the  course  of  rebuilding.  Walked  to  the  rocks  and  St.  Gowan's 
Chapel. 

Sept.  9.  Went  with  the  Rev.  James  Allen  to  Pembroke,  and 
then  with  him  to  his  parsonage  at  Castlemartin. 

Sept.  10.  Met  the  Misses  Mirehouse,  and  went  with  them  to 
Angle,  a  curiously  retired  village  at  the  mouth  of  the  Haven.  A 
chapel  in  the  churchyard,  old  tower  of  house,  etc.  Parted  from 
them  and  went  to  the  North  Hill,  from  which  there  is  a  most 
beautiful  view.  Returned  by  Pill,  North  Studdock,  and  the  Green, 
to  the  Castlemartin  Corse,  which  I  followed  to  Castlemartin. 

Sept.  11,  By  Kitewell,  Woganstone,  and  Hentland  to  PwUcrochan 
(Rev.  Mr.  Cartmell),  to  West  Pennar,  and  along  the  south-west  side 
of  Pennar  Water  (mud  and  sand ;  plenty  of  Statice  Bahusiensis)  to 
Lambeath  Mill.     Returned  by  Wallaton  Cross  and  Kitewell. 

11 


162  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1851—52 

Sept.  12.  To  Linney  Burrows  and  Down,  camp  on  south  coast, 
Pen-y-holt  Stack  (curious  curved  strata  near  to  it),  Flimston  Chapel 
(now  a  barn),  by  Ancey's  Down  to  Bosheston  (Rev.  W.  Allen)  back 
by  the  direct  road  at  night. 

Sept.  13.  About  Castlemartin.  Called  upon  the  Mirehouse 
family  at  Brownslade. 

Sept.  14.     Sunday.     At  Castlemartin. 

Sept.  15.  Went  to  the  Industrial  School  at  Warren.  To  Rhos- 
crowther  and  Bullwell,  then  by  the  ferry  to  Milford. 

Sept.  16.  To  Haverfordwest,  intending  to  go  on  to  Fishguard, 
but  found  the  coach  gone.  To  the  station  for  Ranunculus  tripartituSy 
but  too  late  for  it.  In  the  afternoon  took  a  pleasant  walk  through 
some  fields  above  Prendergast  Church  near  the  banks  of  the  river. 

Sept.  17.  To  Fishguard.  Went  to  Goodwick  Sands,  then  to 
Manorowen  and  back.  Mr.  John  Fenton,  of  Glynamel  shewed  me 
a  Pynis  (probably  torminalis)  in  his  grounds,  upon  the  top  of  a  rock. 
Took  tea  with  him. 

SejJt.  18.  Went  along  the  coast  northwards  as  far  as  Aberhes- 
gwyn,  then  to  Dinas  Parsonage  to  call  upon  Mr.  Thomas.  He  not 
being  at  home,  returned  by  the  turnpike  road. 

Sept.  19.  Walked  about  Fishguard.  Mr.  Thomas  called  upon 
me.     Returned  to  Haverfordwest. 

Sept.  20.     By  mail  to  Swansea,  and  rail  to  Chepstow. 

Sept.  21.  Sunday.  Dined  and  spent  the  day  with  the  Hort 
family  at  Hardwick  House. 

Sept.  22.     To  London  and  Cambridge  by  railway. 

Oct.  13.  Went  to  London  to  be  present  at  the  conclusion  of  the 
Great  Exhibition  of  Industry.  Spent  all  the  afternoon  in  the 
Exhibition, 

Oct.  14.  Also  at  the  Exhibition.  Dined  with  Lankester,  and 
met  Stanger,  Huxley,  etc. 

Oct.  15.  At  the  concluding  form  of  the  Exhibition.  Returned 
to  Cambridge. 

Oct.  23.  Newbould,  Stratton,  and  I  went  to  Newmarket. 
Walked  by  Saxon  Street  to  Wood  Ditton  Park  Wood,  and  returned 
from  the  Dullingham  Station.  We  went  in  the  hope  of  finding 
many  Bubi  in  that  wood,  but  did  not  do  so.  Nearly  all  plants  were 
too  far  advanced  to  be  of  any  use  to  us. 

1852.  Feb.  14.  Went  with  Mr.  Hamond  to  Pampisford  Hall, 
and  stayed  with  him  until  Monday,  16th,  when  returned  to  Cam- 
bridge. 

April  14.     To  Loddon. 


1852]  JOURNAL— BOTANIZING  NEAR   CAMBRIDGE.  163 

April  15.  The  Kev.  J.  J.  Smith  took  me  to  Norwich.  Attended 
a  meeting  of  the  Archaeological  Society,  and  was  introduced  to 
Mr.  Harrod,  Mr.  Fitch,  and  Mr,  Johnson. 

May  15.  Mathews  and  I  went  by  rail  to  Shepreth.  Walked 
along  the  road  to  Foulmire,  across  Foulmire  Common  and  Meldreth 
Common  to  the  head  of  the  brook,  where  there  are  several  springs. 
The  common  is  now  become  very  dry,  owing  to  the  perfect  drainage 
recently  formed.  At  the  spring-head  we  found  the  commencement 
of  the  Bran  Ditch,  which  we  followed  as  far  as  the  line  of  the 
Icknield  Way.  We  then  turned  towards  the  east  along  it,  and 
leaving  the  track  at  Chrishall  Grange,  kept  across  the  tields  direct 
to  Ickleton.  The  south-easterly  point  of  the  wood  at  Chrishall 
Grange  is  formed  of  Laburnum,  and  the  turf  under  the  trees  seems 
rich  in  chalk  plants.  Returned  to  Cambridge  by  rail  from  Chester- 
ford. 

May  25.     Botanical  party  to  Gamlingay ;  forty-three  in  number. 

June  2.  Wauton,  Stratton,  and  I  went  to  Dullingham  Station, 
then  to  the  Devil's  Ditch,  along  which  we  went  to  its  southern  end, 
where  in  the  last  field  we  found  Ophrys  muscifera  in  plenty,  and  in 
the  ditch  quite  at  the  end  Veronica  montana.  We  then  went  to 
Dttton  Park  Wood,  and  returned  to  the  railway  station. 

June  29.  Went  with  Newbould  by  Quy  Bridge,  across  Wilbraham 
Fen  to  Little  Wilbraham,  by  Hawk  Mill  to  Fulbourn,  by  Cherry 
Hinton  Church,  and  home.  The  fen  is  now  so  much  drained  as  to 
produce  no  plants  of  interest.  On  the  western  bank  of  the  Quy 
water,  above  Hawk  Mill,  there  was  plenty  of  the  Ophrys  apifera. 
Between  that  place  and  Fulbourn,  on  the  opposite  side  of  a  ditch, 
we  saw  Rhamnus  frangula. 

July  5.  A  very  hot  day.  Thermometer  here  in  the  shade  85°, 
at  Chiswick,  near  London,  97°. 

July  15.     Went  to  Peterborough,  and  so  to  Eugby. 

July  16.  To  Nuneaton,  and  voted  for  Craven  and  Skipwith,  the 
losing  candidates  for  the  county.  Then  walked  to  Bulkington,  and 
returned  by  rail  to  Rugby. 

July  17.     Cambridge. 

July  28.  Went  to  Newmarket  with  Hort  and  Newbould. 
Walked  by  the  avenue  to  Chippenham  Park,  and  round  the  out- 
side of  it  to  the  east.  Found  on  the  wall  Galium  parisiense.  In  the 
fields  between  Chippenham  and  Badlingham,  we  found  Apera  inter- 
rupta  in  tolerable  plenty.  Then  to  the  gravel  pit,  where  we  found 
Medicago  falcata  and  M.  sylvestris,  both  apparently  indigenous.  In 
the  brook  just  by  the  bridge  is  Banunculus  Drouetii{1).  Then  by 
Kennet  Heath,  and  back  to  Newmarket. 

July  29.  To  Snailwell  Fen,  and  by  Landwade  and  Exning  back 
to  Newmarket.     To  Cambridge. 


164  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1852 

Aug.  5.  Went  to  Thetford,  as  a  meeting  of  the  Cambridgeshire 
Naturalists'  Club ;  only  Newbould  and  I  went  in  the  morning,  but 
we  were  joined  at  dinner  by  Thurnall  and  Clarke.  We  two  went 
by  the  turnpike  road,  through  Elvedon,  as  far  as  a  point  opposite  to 
Howlit's  Hurst,  then  turned  to  the  right,  and  crossed  the  heath  on 
a  course  a  little  to  the  north  of  east,  until  reaching  the  line  of  the 
Icknield  Way.  Between  this  point  and  the  Elvedon  and  Barnham 
road  it  is  very  manifest,  in  the  usual  depressed  form  of  British 
roads.  To  the  south  of  Albemarle  Plantation  we  found  plenty  of 
the  true  Thijmus  Serpyllum,  for  the  first  time  I  believe  that  it  has 
been  found  in  Britain. 

Aug.  9.  Stratton  and  I  went  to  Little  Trees  Hill,  round  the 
Park,  and  by  Cherry  Hinton. 

Aug.  18.  Mr.  Borrer,  his  son  Linfield,  and  daughter  Isabella, 
having  come  yesterday,  we  went  to  Bottisham  Fen,  where  he  wanted 
to  see  Viola  stagnina,  now  in  seed. 

Aug.  24.  Stratton,  Newbould,  and  I  went  to  Dullingham 
Station.  To  the  Devil's  Ditch,  and  went  along  it  towards  the 
south-east  as  far  as  the  end.  Returned  by  Stetchworth  to  the 
same  station.  On  the  lower  inner  slope  of  the  ditch  between  the 
railroad  and  Stetchworth,  we  found  the  true  Thymus  Charimedrys, 
while  on  the  main  bank  there  seemed  to  be  only  Thymus  Serpyllum. 
In  the  corn-fields  on  the  footway,  from  the  ditch-end  to  Stetchworth, 
we  found  A  triplex  ereda. 

Aug.  31.  Left  Cambridge,  and  reached  Liverpool  in  the  evening. 
Sailed  by  "Vanguard"  steamer  at  11.30  p.m. 

Sept.  1.  Reached  Belfast,  after  a  tolerably  pleasant  passage,  at 
1.30  p.m.  Was  invited  to  the  house  of  W.  J.  C.  Allen,  Esq., 
8  Wellington  Place,  and  very  hospitably  received  by  him.  First 
day  of  British  Association  Meeting. 

Sept.  2.  Dr.  Dickie  took  Dr.  Arnott,  Balfour,  and  myself  to  a 
hedge  by  the  road-side,  one-and-a-half  miles  before  reaching  Holy- 
wood,  and  shewed  us  Eosa  hibernica  in  plenty. 

Sept.  3.     Breakfasted  with  Professor  W.  P.  Wilson. 

Sept.  4.  Mr.  Whitla  took  Dr.  Walker-Arnott  and  me  to  Colin 
Glen,  and  shewed  us  Equisetum  MacTcaii  in  the  open  ravine  above 
the  waterfall  and  plantations.  It  is  plentiful  on  both  sides  of  the 
stream.  The  Aspidium  lobatum  and  aculeatum  are  peculiarly  fine. 
Saw  many  Rubi  on  the  way  to  and  from  the  glen,  but  had  not  time 
to  examine  them. 

Sept.  5.  Went  by  railway  with  Wilson,  Stokes,  etc.,  to  Armagh  ; 
dined  with  Cuillemard  of  the  college  there.     Returned  at  night. 

Sept.  8.  Went  by  car  with  Adams,  Stokes,  Wilson,  and  four 
ladies  to  the  Giant's  Ring  (a  cromlech,  surrounded  by  a  large  space, 


1852]  JOURNAL— BELFAST  AND  NEIGHBOURHOOD.  165 

enclosed  by  a  lofty  earthen  embankment).  The  farmer  told  us  that 
some  years  past  he  used  a  subsoil  plough  in  the  area,  and  found  it 
to  be  full  of  interments ;  and  that  under  the  cromlech  there  was  a 
Kistvaen.  We  then  went  on  to  the  Round  Tower  at  Drumbo, 
of  which  only  the  base  is  standing.  There  are  traces  of  a  small 
church  having  been  by  it.  Returned  by  car  to  Shaw's  Bridge,  and 
then  walked  along  the  banks  of  the  river  Lagan  to  Belfast.  The 
whole  of  this  district  is  very  beautiful. 

Sept.  9.  Started  at  9  a.m.  by  rail,  with  a  large  party  (150)  for 
Antrim.  Went  in  a  line  of  forty-eight  cars  through  the  town  to 
Shane's  Castle.  Newbould  and  I  examined  the  shore  of  Lough 
Neagh,  west  of  the  castle,  below  the  cliff,  and  found  Agrimonia 
odorata  and  Arundo  strida  in  plenty,  but  both  of  them  rather  too  far 
gone  into  seed.  Returned  to  the  town  and  were  shewn  the  beautiful 
Italian  grounds  of  Massareene  Park  by  his  Lordship.  He  then  gave 
us  a  most  excellent  lunch.  Then  went  to  the  landing  place  on  the 
Lough,  and  also  to  the  Round  Tower,  said  to  be  the  most  perfect  in 
Ireland.  Walked  about  the  upper  end  of  the  town,  and  returned  to 
Belfast  by  rail. 

Sept.  10.  Left  Belfast  at  10  a.m.  by  railway  to  Carrickfergus 
with  Newbould.  Went  on  by  car  through  Larne  and  Glenarm  to 
Cushendall,  where  we  arrived  at  6  p.m. 

Sept.  11.  Walked  up  the  north  side  of  Glenariff  as  far  as  the 
fork  of  the  river,  then  went  to  the  waterfall,  which  much  resembles 
on  a  smaller  scale  that  at  High  Force  in  Teesdale ;  then  up  the 
south  side  of  the  valley  to  its  head.  Returned  down  the  south  side 
to  the  sea.  Returned  to  Cushendall  by  the  old  road.  Found 
several  Hieracia  and  Eiibi. 

Sept.  12.  Sunday.  Took  a  short  walk  to  the  sea  shore. 
Cushendall. 

Sept.  13.  Went  to  Garron  Point,  but  found  no  plants  of  interest 
there.     Losb  Newbould  for  three  hours. 

Sept.  15.  Newbould  left  for  England.  I  went  with  Stokes, 
Adams,  and  Wilson  to  Carrick-a-Rede,  but  did  not  cross  the  bridge. 
Left  them  and  returned  alone  near  the  coast  to  Bally  castle. 

Sept.  16.  Went  by  the  coast  to  Fair  Head.  Ascended  the  cliffs 
near  the  head,  and  went  along  the  top  of  them  over  the  highest  part. 
Descended  by  the  Grey  Man's  path,  and  went  over  the  rocks  at  the 
foot  to  Murlogh  Bay.  Returned  to  Ballycastle  by  the  inland  road. 
A  very  fine  day,  and  the  views  both  near  and  distant  beautiful. 

Sept.  17.  Went  to  Bushmills.  Visited  the  Causeway,  and 
walked  along  the  top  of  the  cliffs  for  some  distance  towards  the  east. 
No  rare  plants. 

Sept.  18.  AVent  to  Ballintrae,  a  very  pretty  little  port  and 
bathing  place  ;  then  to  Dunluce  Castle,  which  I  saw  without  a  guide. 


166  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1852—53 

A  little  beyond  the  castle  there  is  a  high  point  jutting  out 

into  the  sea  from  which  the  view  is  beautiful,  and  the  white  rocks 
near  to  it  are  most  curiously  formed.  Went  on  along  the  new  road 
to  the  sand  hills  at  about  a  mile  from  Port  Rush,  then  turned  inland 
by  a  road  that  crossed  that  from  Coleraine,  at  right  angles  near 
Beardiville,  and  returned  by  the  latter  to  Bush  Mills.  Near  the 
chapel  there  is  an  interesting  ravine  through  which  the  river  flows, 
and  a  pond  occupying  a  hollow  formed  apparently  by  a  sinking  of 
the  basaltic  stratum.  Near  the  upper  bridge  on  the  left  as  you 
approach  the  town  are  some  fine  rude  and  massive  basaltic  columns. 
Found  a  Thalidrum  on  the  Port  Rush  sands  in  plenty  in  one  small 
spot,  also  a  Violet,  apparently  V.  lutea  amoena  in  the  same  place,  but 
generally  diffused  over  the  sands.  Saw  no  other  plants  of  interest. 
A  beautiful  and  interesting  walk. 

Sept.  20.  Went  by  public  car  to  Coleraine,  a  neat  town.  Stayed 
there  about  two  hours,  and  then  went  by  coach  through  Ballymoney 
to  Ballina,  and  by  rail  to  Belfast. 

Sept.  23.     To  Cambridge. 

Nov.  13.  After  a  long  continuance  of  wet  weather,  and  two 
whole  days  rain,  with  a  northerly  wind,  the  river  rose  higher  than 
it  had  done  for  many  years.  It  reached  the  lower  edge  of  the  fifth 
stone  below  the  cornice  on  the  east  side  of  the  western  arch  of 
St.  John's  bridge,  was  over  the  road  at  Newnham,  so  as  to  stop  foot- 
passengers,  over  the  footpath  behind  Trinity  Walks,  over  the  stone- 
work of  the  new  sluice  at  Jesus  Piece.  My  bedmaker,  living  in  the 
last  house  in  Fisher's  Lane  near  the  great  bridge,  had  two  feet  of 
water  in  her  house. 

1853.  Did  not  sleep  away  from  home  during  the  winter,  the 
earlier  part  of  which  was  singularly  mild.  The  month  of  March  was 
on  the  contrary  more  than  usually  cold,  with  heavy  falls  of  snow. 

May  5.  Hiley  and  I  went  to  the  station  of  Muscari  racemosum 
at  Cherry  Hinton,  and  found  plenty  of  it  in  flower. 

May  10.  First  meeting  of  the  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club 
at  Brandon.  Carter,  Newbould,  and  I  started  in  the  rain,  and  were 
joined  at  Ely  by  Marshall.  We  breakfasted  at  Brandon.  We  took 
the  Norfolk  side  of  the  country.  Turning  to  the  left  at  the  forking 
of  the  road,  just  after  passing  the  railway,  we  examined  with  success 
the  hedge  banks,  etc.  Turning  again  to  the  left  we  passed  through 
the  fir  wood,  and  across  the  open  fields  to  the  point  where  the 
Hockwold  road  crosses  the  Foss.  (The  Foss  was  not  a  road  but  a 
boundary  line  similar  to  those  in  Cambridgeshire,  with  the  ditch  on 
the  eastern  side.)  Then  went  northwards  along  the  latter  to  where 
the  Lynn  road  crosses  it  at  about  the  eighty-first  milestone.  Returned 
along  that  road  and  visited  the  old  castle  at  Weeting,  which  is  the 
rather  extensive  remains  of  a  moated  tower  with  slight  outworks. 


1853]     JOURNAL— EXCURSIONS  IN  NORFOLK,  GAMES.,  Etc.        167 

It  is  not  very  ancient.  It  had  a  vaulted  ground  floor,  having  the 
•chief  room  or  hall  above  it.  We  also  examined  the  church  of 
All  Saints,  which  seems  to  have  been  originally  Early  English,  with 
a,  Decorated  chancel,  the  whole  much  altered  by  the  insertion  of  late 
Perpendicular  windows.  There  are  very  slight  remains  of  the  old 
•church  of  St.  Mary.  ...  In  the  early  part  of  our  walk  we  noticed 
many  of  the  same  plants  as  are  foiind  at  Garalingay,  such  as  Tees- 
dalia,  Sisymbrium  thalianum,  Arenaria  tenuifolia,  Vicia  lathyrdides. 

May  16.  Henslow's  party  to  Thetford.  I  started  with  a  party 
of  eighteen  and  reached  Thetford  an  hour  sooner  than  Henslow,  who 
•came  from  Hitcham.  In  that  interval  we  visited  the  Danish  fort, 
and  looked  at  the  banks  of  the  Thet  river,  near  to  the  town,  on  the 
Norwich  road.  We  then  went  up  the  Elvedon  road,  and  found 
Veronica  triphyllos  in  the  allotment  grounds  and  also  beyond  them  on 
the  right  hand  side  of  the  road.  Turning  to  the  right  we  examined 
the  plantations,  and  crossed  the  Warren  until  we  arrived  at  the  river 
Ouse,  going  back  along  it,  and  the  road  to  the  town.  My  party  had 
here  left  Henslow's  party  behind,  and  went  up  the  Bury  road  as  far 
^s  Place  Farm,  returning  by  a  footpath  between  the  two  rivers. 
Back  by  train  to  Cambridge. 

May  27.  Went  to  London  to  a  meeting  of  the  Council  of  the 
British  Association  of  Science,  and  returned  in  the  evening. 

May  30.  Hort  and  I  went  to  Denver  to  spend  a  few  days  with 
W.  H.  Stokes,  the  new  rector.  Went  to  Denver  Sluice,  crossed  the 
old  Bedford  river,  and  walked  up  the  south  side  of  Well  Creek  as 
far  as  the  first  lane  in  Nordelph,  which  we  followed  to  its  end,  and 
then  by  footpath  to  the  Bedford  river  bank,  returning  along  it. 
Between  the  above  mentioned  lane  and  a  windmill  we  saw  the  traces 
•of  the  Fen  road  of  the  Romans,  in  the  form  of  a  ridge  crossing  a 
ploughed  field.  In  the  ridge  there  is  plenty  of  flint  gravel,  none  of 
which  is  to  be  found  elsewhere  within  a  long  distance.  A  middle 
aged  labourer  in  the  field  told  us  that  his  grandfather  had  told  him 
■of  a  gravel  road  having  been  found  on  the  line.  In  Well  Creek  we 
saw  Fotaviogeton  praelongus,  and  in  the  ditch  by  the  footpath  beyond 
■the  above-mentioned  lane  Potamogeton  flabellatus.  In  the  afternoon 
went  along  the  lanes  to  Stone  Cross  (where  there  is  the  socket  of  a 
•cross  remaining),  where  I  suppose  that  the  Fen  Road  and  Akeman 
•Street  crossed  each  other.  The  former  seems  to  have  followed  the 
lane  westwards  from  the  cross,  and  may  apparently  be  traced  in  the 
field  leading  towards  Bexwell. 

May  31.  Drove  through  Fordham,  Hilgay,  to  Southery,  and 
went  down  to  the  fen  beyond  Little  London.  The  water  of  the  late 
memorable  flood  had  just  left  this  part  of  the  fen,  but  still  continued 
upon  the  lower  parts  beyond.  Vegetation  was  just  commencing  on 
the  land.  On  the  return  went  to  the  entrance  to  Wood  Hall,  and 
walked  along  the  lane  which  goes  round  the  north-east  angle  of 


168  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [I85a 

Hilgay  Island.  At  Shore  Hall  are  some  monastic  remains  in  a  farm 
house,  presenting  a  picturesque  mass  of  domestic  buildings  on  the 
side  next  to  the  road. 

June  1.  Went  to  call  upon  Thurtell,  the  rector  of  Oxborough. 
Passed  through  Downham  Market  by  Benwell,  Crumplesham,  Strad- 
set,  and  Fincham  to  Barton  Bendish,  where  there  are  two  beautiful 
churches.  In  the  western  church  there  is  a  singular  Norman  door, 
and  under  the  small  piscina,  a  double  one  is  placed  in  the  floor. 
Followed  a  grassy  lane  to  the  south  end  of  the  Devil's  Dyke. 
Examined  it  as  far  as  the  point  where  the  Roman  road  probably 
crossed  it,  and  saw  its  continuance  for  a  considerable  distance.  It 
was  a  boundary  line  similar  to  that  near  Brandon,  not  presenting 
any  trace  of  a  road.  Much  of  it  is  destroyed  by  the  plough,  and  by 
the  filling  up  of  the  ditch  to  level  the  ground.  Ditch  towards  the 
east.  Bank  about  seven  feet  high  without  the  ditch,  which  seems  to 
have  been  shallow.  There  is  a  difference  of  several  feet  in  the  level 
of  the  country,  along  its  line,  the  west  being  the  higher  district. 
Passed  by  the  three  churches  at  Beechamwell,  and  examined  a  nice 
piece  of  fen  land  on  the  way  to  Caldecote.  It  is  rich  in  Carices  and 
other  fen  plants.  At  Caldecote  is  a  remarkable  mound,  surrounded 
by  very  aged  pollarded  elm  trees,  which  was  the  site  of  the 
church.  Thence  to  Oxborough  ;  returned  by  Stoke  Ferry  and  West 
Dereham. 

June  2.  Measured  a  large  horsechestnut  tree  in  the  grounds  of 
West  Hall  at  Denver ;  at  four  feet  from  the  ground,  five-and-a-half 
feet  in  diameter.  The  house  has  an  old  and  singular  gable  with 
inscriptions  in  panels.  Walked  through  winding  lanes  to  the  right 
of  the  sluice-road  to  the  common,  crossed  it,  and  passed  through 
fields  with  fine  oak  trees,  across  the  railway  to  the  North  Mill  on 
the  Catchwater,  then  along  its  bank  to  Stone  Gravel  Mill,  and 
returned  by  Fordham.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

June  7.  The  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club  met  at  Royston. 
Hort  went  with  me  as  a  visitor,  and  we  took  the  early  train  at 
7  a.m.  Nobody  else  went  so  early,  and  we,  after  breakfasting,  went 
along  the  Icknield  Way,  westwards  for  about  a  mile,  and  then  by 
a  footpath  passing  Limbury  Hill  to  Litlington.  Then  to  Bassing- 
bourn,  Kneesworth,  and  back  to  Royston.  It  was  very  hot  during 
the  latter  part  of  this  walk.  After  resting  for  a  short  time  we  went 
towards  Barley  as  far  as  the  neighbourhood  of  Burloes  Hill,  and 
found  there  Fumaria  Vaillantii,  F.  parvi/lora,  and  F.  micrantlia  in  the 
fields.  After  dinner  we  visited,  with  the  other  members  of  the  Club, 
the  cave  under  the  cross  in  the  town. 

June  21.  Stratton  and  I  went  to  Gamlingay.  We  went  over 
the  old  pond,  the  bit  of  bog  above  it,  and  part  of  the  heath.  Also 
the  brick  pits,  and  some  ground  near  the  brook  on  the  way  to  Potton. 
I  made  a  list  for  the  "Flora."  On  the  way  back  we  spent  an  hour 
at  Eltisley,  and  I  made  a  list. 


1853]  JOUENAL— TOUES  THEOUGH  CAMBS.,  SUSSEX  &  BATH.     169^ 

June  23.  Went  in  the  afternoon  with  Carter,  in  his  gig,  to  Shudy 
Camps,  and  made  a  list  of  plants  there. 

July  5.  Cambridgeshire  Club  Meeting  at  Ely.  Mr.  Marshall 
took  us  to  the  West  Fen,  which  is  now  nearly  all  under  cultivation. 
Afterwards  we  had  a  barge  and  examined  the  Clay  Pits,  Roswell 
Hill. 

July  12.  Left  home,  and  reached  Chichester  in  the  afternoon  to 
attend  the  Meeting  of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  beginning  this- 
day.     I  was  lodged  by  Dr.  N.  Tyacke  in  North  Street. 

July  13.  Willis  lectured  on  the  Cathedral.  A  party  at  the 
Bishop's. 

July  14.  Went  with  the  Sussex  Archaeological  Society  to  Bor- 
grove  Priory,  Halnaker  House,  and  Goodwood.  I  did  not  go  into 
the  latter,  but  attempted  with  Dr.  Tyacke  to  go  to  the  Roman  camp 
on  the  hill,  but  was  driven  back  by  torrents  of  rain. 

July  15.  Looked  about  the  city  in  the  morning.  In  the  after- 
noon went  with  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Tyacke  to  West  Wittering  to  look  for 
Matricaria  viaritima,  but  only  found  a  few  bits  of  what  may  be  it. 
Walked  along  the  coast  as  far  as  East  Wittering ;  at  about  half  way 
found,  in  a  damp  field  behind  a  hedge  of  Tamarisk,  Lythrum  Hyssopi- 
folia  in  small  quantity  on  a  restricted  spot.  At  East  Wittering,  on 
the  bank  on  the  left  going  to  the  sea  (behind  it),  I  found  plenty  of 
Sagina  ciliata  apparently. 

Jidy  16.  Excursion  to  Pevensey.  The  early  part  of  the  day 
was  wet,  but  it  cleared  up  on  our  arrival  at  Pevensey,  and  gave  us 
an  opportunity  of  examining  the  fine  Roman  walls  of  the  old  town. 
All  passed  off  well. 

July  18.  Dr.  Tyacke  took  me  to  see  a  part  of  the  outer  line  of 
fortifications  to  the  north  of  the  city.  Their  extent  renders  them 
very  unintelligible.  What  I  saw  was  a  lofty  bank  and  an  external 
ditch. 

July  19.  The  Meeting  concluded  this  day  with  a  determination 
to  hold  the  next  at  Cambridge.  Dr.  Tyacke  took  me  and  Franks 
and  Hill  to  Bosham,  to  see  the  Saxon  tower  and  chancel-arch  of  the 
church. 

July  20.     Bath. 

Jiily  21.  Walked  by  the  canal,  and  noticed  that  the  Potamogeton 
which  formerly  gave  me  so  much  trouble  is  the  P.  flabellatus.  Saw 
no  fruit  or  flowers  of  it. 

July  29.  Walked  over  Lansdown,  by  the  Lansdown  Road  to 
Upton  Cheyney ;  in  the  upper  part  of  this  road,  both  before  and  after 
the  fences  commenced,  there  was  plenty  of  Thymus  Chamaedrys ; 
returned  by  North  Stoke  and  the  Bridle  Road  to  Weston,  on  the 
line  of  the  old  Roman  Way. 


170  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1863 

July  30.     Eeturned  to  Cambridge. 

Aug.  2.  Cambridgeshire  Club  at  Newmarket,  Walked  by 
Chippenham,  going  round  the  Park,  and  back  by  Snailwell. 

Aug.  8.  Walked  through  Girton  and  Oakington  to  Long 
Stanton,  and  nearly  to  Rampton;  returning  by  Cuckoo  Lane 
and  Histon. 

Aug.  15.  By  Huntingdon  Road  to  Dry  Drayton;  on  way  back 
went  round  the  outside  of  Madingley  Park,  to  west  and  south,  and 
by  Chalk  Pit  and  Moorbarns  thicket. 

Aug.  22.  Round  Madingley  Wood,  and  across  the  fields  from 
Moorbarns  to  the  Huntingdon  Road. 

Aug.  29.  By  Comberton  footpath  to  Barton ;  back  by  British 
Way  and  Grantchester  Lane. 

Aug.  30.  Went  by  train  to  Waterbeach,  then  by  Middlehill 
Drove  to  Upware  Ferry ;  returning  by  the  north  side  of  the  river  to 
Clayhithe  Lock,  then  to  Horningsey  to  dinner,  and  home  in  the 
evening, 

Sept.  \.  Stratton  and  I  went  by  rail  to  Wimblington.  We 
went  into  Doddington  Wood,  then  through  Doddington  (where  the 
very  neat  gardens  before  the  peasants'  houses  surprised  us  as 
containing  new  and  rare  plants)  to  the  Turf  Fen,  and  by  Carter's 
Bridge  to  Chatteris ;  returning  by  rail  from  there.  Doddington 
Wood  is  a  place  that  promises  much  at  an  earlier  time  of  the  year. 
Also  the  Turf  Fen  is  likely  to  prove  rich  in  June.  In  a  field  to  the 
right  of  the  road,  at  a  short  distance  beyond  Carter's  Bridge,  on  the 
way  to  Chatteris,  we  found  Chenopodium  ficifoUum,  Atriplex  erecta, 
and  A.  deltdidm. 

Sept.  6.  Newbould  and  I  went  by  Peterborough  and  Milford 
Junction  to  Hull  for  the  meeting  of  the  British  Association. 

Sept.  7.  Commencement  of  the  meeting.  I  walked  with  New- 
bould about  a  mile  beyond  the  town  on  the  Hedon  Road,  and  then 
returned  for  business. 

Sept.  8.  Took  the  Chair  of  the  Section  (D)  as  President  for  the 
first  time. 

Sept.  10.  Detained  at  Hull  by  the  Committee  of  Recom- 
mendations. 

Sept.  11.  Sunday.  At  church,  at  the  fine  Trinity  Church.  The 
nave  used,  and  the  choir  empty. 

Sept.  14.  Went  to  see  the  new  Victoria  Docks.  Afterwards 
crossed  the  Humber  at  Hessle  to  Barton,  and  saw  the  church  of  the 
latter.  Walked  to  New  Holland,  where  I  recrossed  the  river  in  the 
evening. 


1853]    JOURNAL— BOTANIZING,  AND  OTHER  ENGAGEMENTS.       171 

Sept.  15.  Excursion  to  Beverley  and  Flamborough  Head.  At 
the  former  saw  Crosskill's  manufactory  of  agricultural  implements. 
.  .  .  Also  the  Minster. 

Sept.  16.  To  York.  Quartered  with  John  Phillips,  but  bed  at 
Mr.  Baines',  in  the  garden  of  Philosophical  Society.  Spent  the 
morning  with  James  Backhouse,  jun.,  in  the  examination  of  Hieracia ; 
also  went  to  see  his  new  garden. 

Sept.  17.  Also  with  J.  Backhouse,  similarly  employed.  Dr. 
Andrews,  Mr.  Thompson  of  Belfast,  and  Mr.  Grove  at  Phillips'. 

Sept.  19.  "Walked  round  the  city  with  Sir  W.  E.  Hamilton  and 
J.  Phillips,  and  visited  several  of  the  churches. 

Sept.  20.     Eeturned  to  Cambridge. 

Oct.  3.  Newbould  and  I  went  to  Wisbech.  A  most  beautiful 
day.  We  walked  by  the  Sutton  turnpike  road  .  .  .  then  along  the 
old  drain  to  Foul  Anchor,  where  we  looked  for  the  plants  recorded 
to  have  been  formerly  found  there.  The  salt  marshes  have  quite 
vanished,  and  therefore  very  few  of  the  plants  remain.  We  saw 
Lepigonum  mariuum,  Bupleurum  tenuissimum,  Aster  tripolium,  Glaux^ 
Plantago  coronopus  and  P.  maritimus,  Scirpus  maritimus,  Sderochloa 
distans  alone,  of  those  recorded  by  Relhan.  We  went  up  the  Shire 
Drain  to  Tydd  Gout,  and  returned  along  the  line  of  the  Roman 
Bank  by  Newton  to  Leverington,  and  then  to  Wisbech.  At  both 
Newton  and  Leverington  we  saw  Althaea  by  the  water-side  plenti- 
fully. 

Oct.  4.  Day  fixed  for  the  Naturalists'  Club  Meeting.  Only 
W.  Marshall  came.  Newbould  and  I  called  upon  Mr.  Algernon 
Peckover,  and  he  went  with  us  to  the  museum.  At  noon  Marshall 
arrived,  and  we  went  along  the  east  side  of  the  great  river  for 
one-and-a-half  miles ;  then  turned  inland,  Walsoken,  and  reached 
Wisbech  by  the  Lynn  turnpike  road.  The  "  sides  "  of  the  river  are 
fio  much  altered  that  most  of  the  characteristic  plants  are  lost.  We 
then  went  up  the  Wisbech  Canal  to  Elm,  and  returned  by  the  other 
bank  of  it.     Back  to  Cambridge. 

Oct.  7.     Went  to  visit  Lingwood  at  Lyston  in  Herefordshire. 

Oct.  8.  Went  to  Hereford.  Saw  Dean  Dawes,  and  was  shewn 
by  him  over  the  library  of  the  Cathedral ;  in  a  very  bad  state.  All 
the  books  fastened  by  chains,  many  apparently  curious.  Also 
visited  the  Cathedral. 

Oct.  9.     Sunday.     At  Llanwarne  Church. 

Oct.  10.  To  Ross,  and  spent  some  hours  with  W.  H.  Purchas 
in  examining  his  plants. 

Oct.  12.  Lingwood,  Purchas,  and  I  walked  to  Treago,  and  after- 
wards to  Pencoyd,  where  we  got  Aspidium  spinulosum  and  Equisetum 
hyemale. 


172  CHAELES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1853-54 

Oct.  13.     To  Orcop  Hill. 

Oct.  14.  In  the  carriage  to  Kilpeck  Church,  which  has  been 
recently  and  nicely  restored. 

Oct.  18.     To  Bath. 

Oct.  20.  Walked  along  the  canal  by  Hampton  and  Claverton^ 
past  the  Aqueduct  to  Brass  Knocker  Hill,  then  by  Coombe  Down 
and  Prior  Park.  Explored  the  valley  behind  the  Old  Widcombe 
Church.  Failed  in  finding  any  fruit  of  either  Fotamogeton  flabellatus 
or  Sparganium,  owing  to  the  weeds  having  been  removed  from  the 
canal. 

Oct.  21.     Spent  the  morning  with  the  Fowlers. 

Oct.  22.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

Dec.  29.     Thermometer  at  5°  last  night.     The  river  frozen  over. 

1854.  Jan.  2.  Thermometer  5°  at  the  New  Botanical  Garden 
in  the  past  night. 

Jan.  3,  4.  The  snow  was  so  deep  as  quite  to  put  a  stop  to  all 
communication  with  London  on  these  days. 

March  6.     Elected  a  member  of  the  Athenaeum  Club  in  London. 

April  7.  Overton,  Hiley,  and  I  went  to  the  Gogs.  We  saw 
Anemone  Pulsatilla  in  full  flower,  but  nothing  besides  it.  The  season 
had  been  remarkably  dry. 

May  20.  Went  with  a  small  party,  Sprague,  Stuart,  Garland, 
and  others  to  Dullingham,  Wood  Ditton,  Saxon  Street,  and  New- 
market to  botanize.     No  plants  of  much  interest  found. 

May  31.  Went  with  Henslow  and  his  class  to  Ely  by  the  rail. 
Mr.  W.  Marshall  met  us,  and  conducted  us  by  the  lane  to  the  outlet 
of  Rossall  Pits.  There  we  obtained  a  barge  and  navigated  the  pits 
in  all  directions,  finding  many  interesting  aquatic  plants.  Fota- 
mogeton praelongus  was  growing  in  the  pit  in  small  quantity.  We 
then  went  to  Turbotsey,  and  gathered  Ophioglossum  in  the  meadows. 
Returned  to  Ely  by  the  road  above  the  Chalk  Pits.  Dined  at  the 
"Lamb."  Afterwards  visited  the  Cathedral,  and  went  back  to 
Cambridge. 

J^me  5.  Went  by  rail  to  Meldreth,  and  walked  by  way  of 
Whaddon  to  the  "Hardwicke  Arms"  at  Arrington,  where  Newbould 
met  me.  Walked  by  Arrington,  Croydon,  Clapton,  to  near  Tadlow 
Tower ;  returning  by  the  "  Downing  Arms,"  by  footpath  to  Clapton, 
up  Croydon  Hill  to  the  Upper  Hamlet,  to  the  church,  and  back  to 
"  Hardwicke  Arms." 

June  6.  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club.  No  member  arriving 
to  join  us  at  an  hour  after  the  time  fixed,  we  went  through  Wim- 
pole  Park,  and  to  the  Mare  Way,  on  the  Eversden  Path,  then  to 
Eversden  Wood,  Great  Eversden  Manor  House,  by  footpath  to  Little 


1854]  JOURNAL— VARIOUS   EXCURSIONS.  173 

Eversden,  and  to  Comberton.  Dined  with  Newbould  there,  and 
walked  to  Cambridge  in  the  evening.  Obtained  no  rare  plants,  but 
■did  good  Avork  in  making  lists. 

June,  7.     Way  and  Hill  with  me  about  the  Institute  Meeting. 

June,  13.  Went  to  Denver  to  visit  W.  H.  Stokes.  Walked  to 
Downham  market. 

June  14.  Stokes  drove  me  to  Nordelph,  going  through  Down- 
ham,  then  along  the  road  by  London  Lode,  and  on  as  far  as  Welney, 
where  there  is  a  nice  new  church.  By  the  side  of  the  London  Lode 
at  one-and-a-half  miles  from  Nordelph,  I  saw  traces  of  the  Roman 
Fen  Way  marked  by  the  yellow  colour  of  the  crop ;  and  in  the  next 
field  (pasture)  by  a  well-marked  ridge  about  fifty-two  feet  wide,  with 
a  depression  upon  each  side.  We  returned  by  the  same  lode.  An 
old  man  working  at  the  drain  opposite  to  where  I  saw  the  last  part 
of  the  road,  said  that  he  remembered  hearing  of  a  gravel  road  on 
that  site  many  years  since,  and  that  it  was  not  the  former  track  by 
London  Lode.  To  the  south  of  the  angle  in  the  lane  leading  towards 
the  south  from  Stone  Cross,  there  seems  to  have  been  an  old  lane, 
and  a  rather  raised  ridge  on  one  side  of  it.  It  extends  into  Riston 
Park  for  some  distance,  in  the  probable  course  of  the  Akeman 
Street. 

June  15.  Went  to  Denver  Common  (by  the  road  to  the  railway) 
and  gathered  the  supposed  new  BatracMum,  also  Ranunculus  hirsutus. 

June  17.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

July  4.  Commencement  of  the  Meeting  of  the  Archaeological 
Institute  at  Cambridge. 

July  7.  Excursion  to  Bury  St.  Edmunds  by  railway.  I  addressed 
a  few  words  to  the  party  from  the  bank  of  the  Devil's  Ditch.  From 
Bury  we  visited  Hengrave  Hall  and  Little  Saxham  Church,  having 
missed  by  a  blunder  two  other  places  laid  down  in  the  plan  of  the 
trip. 

July  8.  Excursion  to  Audley  End  and  Saffron  Walden  by  rail- 
way and  back.  Dined  with  a  large  party  at  the  Lodge  of  Jesus 
College.  This  morning  I  addressed  the  Section  of  Antiquities  for 
forty-five  minutes  about  the  Fens  and  other  parts  of  the  county  in 
ancient  times. 

July  10.  Excursion  to  Ely.  Lunch  at  the  Deanery.  E.  Sharp 
described  the  Cathedral.     Dined  with  W.  Marshall. 

July  18.  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club.  Messrs.  Gibson  and 
Clarke  met  me.  Examined  Doddington  Wood,  passed  through  that 
place  to  the  Turf  Fen,  which  was  very  dry,  and  so  not  productive. 
Went  up  Vermuden's  Drain  to  the  first  cottages,  and  down  to 
Twenty  Foot,  going  by  it  to  Chatteris. 


174  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1854 

July  20.  Went  to  Pampisford  Hall  this  morning  ;  in  the  after- 
noon walked  to  Babraham  and  saw  the  gardens,  and  returned  to  the 
Hall. 

July  21.     Mr.  Hamond  brought  me  back  to  Cambridge. 

July  27.  Professor  Henslow  brought  280  of  his  parishioners  to 
visit  Cambridge.  They  arrived  early  in  the  day,  walked  over  the 
place,  dined,  and  had  tea  in  Downing  College  Hall  and  Combination 
Room,  and  returned  in  the  evening.  I  led  the  party  under 
Henslow's  orders. 

Aug.  8.  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club  Meeting  at  Balsham, 
but  I  only  of  the  members  attended.  I  posted  there  with  Liveing 
and  Sprague  as  my  companions.  We  went  to  the  "Bell"  Inn. 
Visited  the  beautiful  church,  of  which  the  tower  is  singular  from  its 
buttresses.  We  went  to  and  through  Balsham  Wood  and  Borley 
Wood,  then  about  a  mile  along  the  Woolstreet  towards  Cambridge, 
and  back  across  the  fields  to  Balsham.  After  dinner  we  went  to  the 
Balsham  Ditch  at  Oxcroft,  and  as  far  as  a  little  brook  beyond  it. 

Aug.  9.     Went  to  Lowestoft  with  Newbould. 

Aug.  12.  Gathered  Urtica  pilulifera  and  Centaurea  Calcitrapa  on 
the  sands  by  the  lower  town  (both  plentiful  there),  lunched  with 
Dr.  Whewell,  and  went  with  him  to  the  church.  Returned  to 
Cambridge. 

Aug.  21.  Went  with  Sprague  to  Waterbeach  by  rail,  walked  by 
the  river  side  to  Upware  Ferry,  and  returned  by  Middle  Hill  Drove. 
Dined  at  Horningsey.     Walked  to  Cambridge. 

Sept.  7.  To  Lichfield  to  spend  a  few  days  with  my  cousin 
T.  G.  Babington. 

Sept.  9.  Went  to  Etocetum  and  saw,  in  the  field  below  the  church, 
traces  of  the  ancient  wall,  and  in  the  walls  of  a  farm-yard  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  road  with  the  church,  some  very  fine  courses  of 
Roman  wall  of  chiselled  stones. 

Sept.  11.  From  Lichfield  to  Chester  and  Mold  by  railway,  then 
by  coach  to  Ruthin,  for  the  Meeting  of  the  Cambrian  Archaeological 
Association. 

Sept.  12.  By  the  old  road  to  Mold,  to  Y-Foel-Fenlli,  a  very 
extensive  hill  fort  with  strong  double  trenches,  and  in  some  parts 
treble ;  two  approaches,  one  from  Bwlch-pen-Barras,  one  from  Bwlch 
Agricola,  the  former  the  chief  one.  Then  Avent  along  the  hill  tops 
to  Moel  Famma,  upon  which  there  is  a  ridiculous  tower.  Then  to 
Moel-y-Gaer,  a  small  but  strong  hill  fort.  Descended  by  Fron  Ganol, 
Hirwyn,  and  Glybtir  to  the  river  Clwyd,  and  along  the  fields  back 
to  Ruthin.  View  from  the  hills  beautiful.  Saw  the  true  Pyrus 
Aria  on  the  descent  from  Moel-y-Gaer.  Also  the  Arctium  majus  and 
tomentosum  in  several  places. 


1854]       JOUENAL— WALES,  LIVERPOOL,  BIRMINGHAM,  Etc.         175 

Sept.  14.  Spent  in  the  town.  A  curious  mill  of  the  14th  cen- 
tury, church,  castle,  etc.  The  castle  much  ruined  and  altered  to 
form  the  site  of  a  modern  house. 

Sept.  15.  Visited  the  church  of  Efenechtyd,  the  inscription  in 
Pool  Park,  and  many  circles  on  the  hills  about  Bedd  Emlyn. 

Sept.  16.  To  Llanrhaidr,  Denbigh,  and  St.  Asaph.  Lunched 
with  the  Bishop. 

Sept.  17.  Freeman,  Basil  Jones,  and  I  walked  to  the  camp, 
Y-Foel-Fenlli.     Dined  with  Mr.  Turnor,  agent  to  Lord  Bagot. 

Sept.  18.     To  Valle  Crucip  and  Llangollen. 

Sept.  19.  A  wet  day  for  the  most  part,  taken  up  with  meetings 
and  the  museum. 

Sept.  20.  Left  Ruthin  for  Liverpool  to  attend  the  Meeting  of 
the  British  Association.  Took  lodgings  (with  Ramsay).  Dined  at 
the  Town  Hall  with  the  Mayor. 

Sept.  23.  This  evening  Professor  Ramsay  and  I  went  to 
Manchester,  to  Mr.  Ormerod's  house,  Adelphi  Terrace,  Salford. 

Sept.  25.  Returned  to  Liverpool  for  the  rest  of  the  meeting. 
"  Red  Lion  "  dinner  at  the  Waterloo  Hotel ;  much  too  grand,  long, 
and  expensive. 

Sept.  27.     Dined  with  Dr.  Dickenson. 

Sept.  28.  Left  Liverpool  for  Shrewsbury.  Spent  half  the  day 
with  Leighton. 

Sept.  29.  To  Birmingham,  to  the  house  of  W.  Mathews,  jun., 
Edgbaston  House. 

Sept.  30.      Went  to  Bewdley  and  Wyre  Forest;   Lees,  and  a 
Mr.  Thompson,  and  Mr.  Jordan  joined  us.     Forest  all  low  wood 
Full  of  RuU. 

Oct.  2.     To  Clent  Hills  and  Hagley  Park. 

Oct.  3.  Left  Birmingham  for  Mr.  E.  A.  Freeman's  house  at 
Dursley,  where  I  arrived.  Walked  with  him  to  Uley  Bury,  a  very 
extensive  fortification,  taking  up  the  whole  top  of  a  peninsular 
abrupt  hill.  Entrances  at  the  south,  east,  and  north  angles,  or 
rather  just  close  to  them.  North  angle  strongly  defended  by  two 
ditches,  and  ramparts  crossing  the  neck.  Also  further  on  to  a 
tumulus  called  .  .  . 

Oct.  4.  Walked  over  Stinchcombe  Hill  to  Drakestone  Camp, 
which  is  not  a  camp,  but  a  small  space  separated  from  the  rest  of 
the  Down  by  five  or  six  parallel  banks  and  ditches.  Descended 
by  Stancombe  to  N.  Nibley ;  ascended  to  Nibley  Knoll,  and  to 
Blackenbury  Ditches ;  two  fine  ditches  and  trenches  extending 
quite  across  the  hill,  and  one  following  its  brink.     Descended  into 


176  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1854—55 

Spancombe  Bottom,  by  Fordingbridge ;  ascended  to  Break  Heart 
Hill,  and  descended  upon  Dursley.  Saw  Hordeum  sylvaticum  and 
Epilohium  angustifolium  plentifully  in  the  woods. 

Oct.  5.  Went  in  Freeman's  carriage  to  Malmesbury.  On  the 
way  we  visited  a  large  barn,  built  in  1300,  with  a  tower  over  each 
porch,  at  Caldecot.  Also  Beverstone  Castle.  At  Malmesbury  the 
chief  objects  are  the  market  house,  church,  and  the  porch  of  a 
hospital  (?).  Tetbury  is  full  of  fine  17th  century  houses,  and  has  a 
fine  spire. 

Oct.  6.     Went  alone  in  the  morning  to  measure  Uley  Bury. 

Oct.  7.  Went  to  Slimbridge,  and  saw  the  coloured  ball  found 
there,  which  is  drawn  in  the  "Archaeological  Journal."  Then  to 
Wanswell  Court ;  an  old  house  of  Perpendicular  style,  now  a  farm. 
Hall  interesting.    Then  to  Berkeley  Castle,  and  fine  Decorated  church. 

Oct.  9.  Walked  over  Stinchcombe  Hill,  by  Mbley  Green  and 
Starveall  Farm  to  castle  in  Michael  Wood,  which  is  perhaps  the  site 
of  a  mediaeval  house.  Then  to  Tortworth  Eectory.  Saw  the 
church,  and  an  enormous  chestnut  tree  in  a  garden  by  the  church, 
which  is  said  to  be  the  celebrated  one,  although  not  placed  in  the 
spot  marked  on  Ordnance  map. 

Oct.  10.  Went  in  the  carriage  to  Leonard  Stanley,  where  there 
is  a  fine  cross  church,  and  remains  of  other  monastic  buildings. 
Walked  back  to  Frocester,  and  saw  the  old  barn  and  small  church. 
By  Frog  Lane  to  Silver  Street,  between  which  places  we  saw  traces 
of  an  ancient,  perhaps  Roman  Way.  By  Ashmead  and  Cam  Church 
home. 

Oct.  11.     Left  Dursley  for  Bath. 

Oct.  13.  Went  to  Englishcombe,  which  is  full  of  Elizabethan 
houses,  and  has  a  barn,  perhaps  of  the  Perpendicular  period.  Church 
with  central  tower,  but  no  transepts.  Examined  the  AVans  Dyke 
near  Englishcombe,  and  the  fort  near  the  village.  Returned  by 
Twerton. 

Oct.  14.  Went  to  Odd  Down,  and  traced  the  Wans  Dyke  along 
a  stone  wall. 

Oct.  18.  Breakfasted  with  Dr.  Falconer.  Dined  each  day, 
except  Sunday,  with  my  uncle,  Dr.  Whitter,  at  17,  Lansdown 
Crescent. 

Oct.  19.  Left  Bath,  and  returned  to  Cambridge.  Went  for  the 
first  time  to  the  Athenaeum  Club,  on  my  way  through  London. 

1855.  March  9.  Went  with  the  Rev.  S.  Banks  to  his  Rectory 
house  at  Cottenham. 

March  10.  Walked  with  him  to  the  banks  of  the  Old  Ouse,  at 
the  new  steam-mill,  along  the  banks  to  High  Bridge,  thence  by 


1855]         JOURNAL— BOTANIZING   IN   CAMBS.   AND   HERTS.  177 

Mare  Way  to  Balsar's  Hill,  Rampton  (note  that  the  square  entrench- 
ments enclosed  the  ancient  residence  of  the  De  Lisle  family,  the 
Oiant's  Grave  is  behind  it  in  the  form  of  a  long  mound  covered 
with  brushwood),  and  back  to  Cottenham.    Returned  to  Cambridge. 

May  23.  Went  with  Henslow  and  a  small  party  for  a  botanical 
walk.  By  rail  to  Dullingham  Station.  Walked  by  Shuckburgh 
Oastle,  where  there  are  some  promising  gravel  pits  with  furze 
bushes,  etc.,  to  the  great  road  half-a-mile  to  the  west  of  Lordship 
farm,  along  the  road  as  far  as  the  Devil's  Ditch ;  along  the  ditch  as 
far  as  Stetchworth  House  plantations,  to  Dullingham  and  station, 
and  by  rail  home.  The  season  exceedingly  backward,  at  least  a 
month  less  forward  than  is  usual.  The  farmer  is  destroying  the 
ditch  for  a  distance  of  fully  half-a-mile  from  the  toll-gate  towards 
the  south. 

June  8.  Stratton  and  I  went  by  rail  to  Waterbech  and  then 
into  Bottisham  Fen.  Vegetation  very  backward.  We  went  up  the 
fen  to  the  south  of  the  Lode,  nearly  as  far  as  its  extremity ;  then 
crossed  the  Lode,  and  went  to  White  Fen.  Returned  by  Horningsey. 
We  found  only  one  root  of  Viola  stagnina  with  flowers,  and  apparently 
the  others  were  not  far  enough  advanced.  On  Fen  Ditton  Church 
we  saw  Asplenium  Adiantum  nigrum. 

June  11.  Went  to  Hatfield,  where  the  Rev.  R.  H.  Webb  met 
me,  and  took  me  to  his  parsonage  at  Essendon.  Went  to  see  Mr. 
Dimsdale's  arboretum  of  pines,  and  also  took  a  walk  round  the 
neighbourhood.  Met  the  Rev.  Mr.  Prescott  of  Digswell,  Mr.  Powys, 
and  Mr.  Church,  junr. 

June  12.  Drove  to  Hatfield.  Walked  through  the  park,  and 
saw  the  ancient  garden  laid  out  in  yew-tree  walks,  called  "The 
Vineyard."  Left  the  park  at  the  north  side,  and  went  by  Legge's 
farm,  near  to  which  we  found  a  Ranunculus  by  the  lane  near  Allimore 
Hall,  then  along  new  line  of  railway,  towards  the  Great  Northern 
Railway.  Found  in  a  wood  plenty  of  Turritis  glabra.  Crossed  the 
Great  Northern  Railway  to  Sherrard's  Park  Wood,  which  we 
traversed  in  several  directions.  Left  the  wood  near  Ayot  Green, 
and  passing  through  part  of  Brocket  Park,  reached  Lemsford  Mills. 
Then  along  the  meadows  on  the  east  bank  of  the  river  Lea  to 
Stanborough,  near  which  we  saw  another  fine  Ranunculus  in  the 
river.     Returned  by  the  road  to  Hatfield,  and  back  to  Essendon. 

June  20.  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club  at  Six  Mile  Bottom. 
Went  to  Allington  Hill,  across  the  fields  by  Upper  Hare  Park,  to 
Four  Mile  Stables.  By  road  to  Spring  Hall,  Bottisham,  across  the 
fields  to  Temple  Wilbraham,  back  to  "Green  Man."  Found  in 
a  field  between  the  Spring  Head  at  the  Temple  and  Streetway 
Hill,  one  plant  of  Bunium  Bulbocastanum,  also  Fumaria  parviflora. 
In  the  field  below  the  south  side  of  Allington  Wood  grew  Fumaria 
Vaillantii  and  F.  micrantha.  Also  went  half-a-mile  along  the  Chester- 
ford  road,  then  turned  to  the  left,  and  examined  a  new  and  an  old 

12 


178  CHARLES   CARDALE   BABINGTON.  [1856. 

plantation.  At  and  about  the  former  we  found  Herniaria  glabra,  in 
the  latter  Cineraria  carapestris.  In  the  field  opposite  to  the  inn  at 
the  station  we  found  Alyssum  calycinum.  At  the  point  where  the 
Streetway  crosses  the  road  that  passes  along  the  north-east  side  of 
Little  and  Great  Wilbraham,  it  becomes  only  a  field  track,  open 
upon  one  side  for  a  short  distance,  and  seems  to  be  little  used. 
This  piece  of  the  supposed  Roman  Road  presents  a  manifest 
continuity,  such  as  might  be  expected  if  it  is  justly  believed  to 
be  Roman. 

July  4.  F.  Townsend  being  here,  I  went  with  Newbould  and 
him  in  a  fly  to  Little  Abington.  Walked  to  the  Hildersham  Furze 
Hills,  finding  on  the  first  Fhleum  Boehmeri,  and  on  the  last  Hypo- 
chaeris  maculata,  besides  many  other  plants.  Returned  from  the 
southernmost  of  the  hills  by  their  north-east  side,  along  the  edge 
of  long,  anciently  enclosed  meadow,  until  we  arrived  at  the  road 
from  Bartlow  to  Hildersham,  then  by  the  road  (crossing  the  river 
Bourn  at  Little  Linton),  and  meadows  to  Linton.  Dined  at  the 
"Swan,"  and  returned  home. 

July  6.  Townsend  and  I  went  by  rail  to  Long  Stanton ;  then 
walked  by  Aldreth  Bridge  to  Haddenham,  Wentworth,  Witchford,^ 
and  Ely.  Returned  home  by  rail.  The  country  very  bare  and  dry.. 
Found  no  plants  of  any  special  value. 

July  10.  Went  to  the  old  chalk  pit  at  Haslingfield  with  Stratton, 
and  found  plenty  of  Aceras  anthropophora  on  the  broken  slopes  at 
the  far  end  of  it. 

July  19.  Joined  Mr.  Webb  and  Mr.  Powys  of  Hertfordshire  at 
the  railway  station,  and  was  joined  at  Ely  by  the  two  Messrs.  Church 
of  the  same  county.  Went  to  Thetford  to  shew  them  the  peculiar 
plants  found  there.  The  morning  was  very  wet,  but  it  cleared  up 
in  the  afternoon.  Took  only  a  short  walk  towards  Elvedon,  but 
found  all  the  plants  that  we  expected. 

July  26.  Went  to  Gamlingay  with  Stratton  and  Hiley  ;  visited 
the  heath,  the  edge  of  White  Wood,  the  site  of  the  bogs,  etc.  In  a 
lane  by  the  sand  pit  on  the  Potton  Road  we  found  Filago  apiculata, 
and  also  the  same  plant  in  the  road  near  the  site  of  Old  Hall.  The 
bit  of  bog  that  had  remained  until  1853  was  now  drained. 

Aug.  1.  Hiley,  Stratton,  and  I  went  to  Newmarket,  and  by  fly 
to  Chippenham.  Walked  through  Isleham  plantation,  to  the  edge 
of  the  county  at  Freckenham,  up  the  brook  half  back  to  Chippenham, 
across  the  fields  to  Badingham,  back  by  road  to  Chippenham  gravel 
pit.  Returned  to  Newmarket  by  the  east  side  of  the  park  and 
along  the  avenue. 

Aug.  3.  Hiley  and  I  went  to  the  Gogs  and  Cherry  Hinton. 
Found  a  plant  of  Lactuca  virosa  in  the  chalk-pit  close. 

Aug.  6.    Left  home. 


1855]     JOURNAL— EXCURSIONS  IN  WALES  &  SHROPSHIRE.        179 

Aug.  7.  To  Shrewsbury  ...  for  the  meeting  of  the  Archaeo- 
logical Institute. 

Aug.  8.  Went  with  the  excursion  party  to  Wroxeter,  Wenlock, 
and  Buildwas. 

Aug.  10.  Went  to  Ludlow  with  the  party.  Dined  with  the 
Mayor  of  Shrewsbury  in  the  evening. 

Aug.  11.     Walked  to  Haughmond  Abbey. 

Aug.  13.  Excursion  to  Llangollen.  The  boat  on  the  canal 
failed  in  its  work,  and  we  were  thus  much  delayed. 

Aug.  15.     Left  Salop  by  rail  to  Bangor. 

Aug.  16.  With  Eev.  J.  Earle  to  Llanberis.  Went  up  the  pass, 
and  gathered  Arctium  pubens.  Saw  plenty  of  Epilohium  obscurwniy 
but  no  H.  tetragonum. 

Aug.  17.  We  went  to  the  top  of  Snowdon,  and  then  examined 
the  base  of  the  cliff  of  Clogwyn-ddu'r-Arddu. 

Aug.  18.    Ascended  by  Cwm  Patric  to  Llyn-y-Cwm  and  Twll  Du. 

Aug.  19.     Sunday.     Afternoon  service  in  the  school-house. 

Aug.  20.  We  spent  the  whole  day  in  the  valley,  and  went 
round  the  lower  lake,  examining  plants  all  the  way. 

Aug.  21.  We  went  to  Dinas  Dinorwig,  an  exceedingly  fine 
and  strong  work  of  earth  and  stones. 

Aug.  23.  Walked  along  the  old  road  towards  Carnarvon,  as  far 
as  Bryn  Bras.  Then  ascended  Caer-careg-y-tran,  and  carefully 
examined  it.      It  is  an  ancient  walled  fort  of  the  British  period. 

Aug.  24.  A  wet  day.  Only  got  as  far  as  the  other  side  of  the 
lake  to  gather  some  RuU. 

Aug,  25.     Left  Llanberis.     Went  by  way  of  Chester  to  Ludlow. 

Aug.  27.  Went  by  rail  to  Newport  (Mon.),  Llanelly,  Cross  Inn, 
and  in  Lord  Dynevor's  carriage  to  Llandilo  Fawr.  The  meeting 
of  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association  commenced.  Had  a 
bed  at  the  house  of  J.  L.  Popkin,  Esq.,  for  a  week. 

Aug.  28 — Sept.  1.  Went  all  the  excursions  with  the  members. 
Found  under  the  monumental  stone  at  Glan  Sannan  a  plant  of 
Agrimonia  odorata.  Went  with  H.  Longueville  Jones  to  Cardiff, 
and  by  packet  to  Bristol. 

Sept.  2.  Sunday.  Spent  the  day  with  H.  Longueville  Jones 
and  his  family. 

Sept.  3.     To  Cambridge. 

Sept.  20.  At  this  time  there  were  no  undergraduates  dining  in 
the  College  Hall.  An  almost  unheard  of  event.  Hiley,  Stratton, 
and  I  walked  from  Waterbech  Station  by  the  river-side  to  Upware, 


180  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1856 

then  by  Spinny  Bank  to  Wicken  Fen.  Spent  a  long  time  in  the 
rough  fen,  leaving  it  by  the  ditch  side  next  to  Burwell  Fen.  Went 
to  Wicken  Church ;  returned  through  the  main  street,  by  Spinny 
Abbey,  Padney,  and  Fordey  to  Barraway,  by  river  bank  to  Ely. 
Too  late  in  the  year  for  many  plants  to  be  obtained. 

1856.     March  24.     Easter  Monday.     To  London. 

March  25.  To  Newport  (Mon.).  E.  A.  Freeman  met  me  there, 
and  he  and  Mrs.  Freeman  took  me  to  Caerleon.  We  went  to  the 
camp  on  the  hill,  called  Lodge  Farm.  We  then  went  to  his  house, 
Llanrumney,  by  what  is  marked  as  the  Roman  Road  in  the  map. 

March  26.  He  and  I  walked  to  Caerphilly ;  going  and  returning 
by  Lisvane ;  crossing  the  hills  on  our  way  by  a  beautiful  pass,  called 
Bwlch-y-dwy-Llechan.  We  followed  the  turnpike  road  on  our 
return  as  far  as  the  turning  to  Lisvane,  and  examined  a  small  but 
strong  fort,  Castell-mor-graig,  on  the  way.  Caerphilly  well  worthy 
of  a  visit. 

March  27.  Walked  about  the  neighbourhood,  and  went  down 
to  the  edge  of  the  salt-marshes  below  Rumney.  Found  many  of 
the  round  nut-like  gall  upon  the  oaks. 

March  28.  Went  to  Cardiff  and  LlandafF;  examined  the 
cathedral,  etc.  Walked  to  Coedrhiglan,  Mr.  Traherne's  place,  and 
slept  there. 

March  29.  Returned  to  Llanrumney.  Walked  from  Coedrhiglan 
to  the  fine  cromlech  to  the  south  of  Dyffryn  House ;  then  to  St. 
Lythans,  in  the  church  of  which  there  are  some  singular  arches  on 
the  south  side  of  the  chancel ;  then  to  Wenvoe ;  over  the  hill  by 
Cwm  Slade  to  Caernau,  where  the  whole  hill  top  is  strongly 
entrenched ;  then  to  Michaelston-super-Ely  and  St.  Fagans,  where 
the  castle  walls  remain  ;  then  by  river-side  to  Ely  Station,  Pen  Hill, 
and  field-way  to  Cardiff,  where  the  carriage  met  us. 

March  30.  Sunday.  Went  in  the  morning  to  Rumney  Church, 
and  at  6  p.m.  to  St.  Mellon's  Church. 

May  28.  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club  excursion  to  West 
Wratting.  I  went  with  Hiley  and  Elphinstone,  and  met  there 
Clark.  We  went  to  Mill  Wood,  Yen  Hall  Wood,  Brook  Farm,  to 
Wratting.  By  Hall  Wood  through  a  very  pretty  country  to  Weston 
Colville ;  back  by  the  road  to  Wratting.  Found  Ranunculus  flori- 
bundus  and  Melica  uniflora. 

June  25.  Meeting  of  the  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club, 
nominally  at  Sutton,  really  at  Ely.  Went  by  the  windmills  to  near 
Witchf ord,  then  by  Little  Hill  to  Witcham  and  Sutton ;  returned 
by  the  turnpike  road  to  Ely. 

July  1.  Newbould,  Hiley,  and  I  walked  by  Fen  Ditton  and 
Horningsey  to  North  Hill  Farm,  over  the  bridge  at  the  Lode,  along 


1856]      JOURNAL— CAMBS.   &  WEST  OF  ENGLAND   TOURS.  181 

its  north  side  to  the  Cam.  Visited  the  station  of  Acorus,  on  the 
Wash-way.  Returned  all  the  way  by  the  river.  We  noticed  a  very 
large  quantity  of  Lolium  italicum  upon  the  wash  of  the  river  (east 
side)  below  Clayhithe,  doubtless  introduced  by  some  accident. 

July  14.  Newbould,  Stratton,  and  I  went  by  rail  to  Waterbech, 
then  walked  by  Middle  Hill  Drove  to  Upware.  Visited  Wicken 
Fen  to  botanize.  Returned  by  the  river-bank  to  the  railway  station 
at  Waterbech.  A  man  told  us  that  there  was  plenty  of  the  Acorus 
calamus  on  the  wash  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  above  Upware. 

July  23.  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club  at  Cottenham. 
Newbould  and  I  alone.  Went  by  rail  to  Longstanton,  then  walked 
by  Willingham,  Balsar's  Hill,  to  High  Bridge.  Saw  Galium  elongatum 
exceedingly  large  by  the  Mare  Way.  On  the  wash  of  the  old  Ouse 
we  saw  Eumex  pratensis  in  great  plenty.  From  the  draining  mill 
we  went  to  Cottenham.  Could  not  get  any  dinner  there.  Walked 
home  to  Cambridge. 

Aug.  4.  Left  Cambridge.  To  Dr.  Lankester,  8  Savile  Row, 
London. 

Aug.  6.  Dr.  Lankester  and  I  went  to  Cheltenham  for  the  British 
Association  Meeting. 

Aug.  7, 8.   For  the  last  week  the  weather  has  been  exceedingly  hot. 

Aug.  9.  Most  of  this  day  it  rained,  and  rendered  the  temperature 
rather  more  bearable.  As  it  had  given  me  cold,  I  did  not  join  the 
party  to  Cirencester.     Was  sorry  to  be  prevented. 

Aug.  10.  Sunday.  Spent  the  day  with  R.  S.  Lingwood,  Redes- 
dale  House,  and  his  family,  where  R.  M.  Lingwood  was  staying. 
Went  to  Christ  Church,  and  heard  an  excellent  sermon  from  Mr. 
Petitt,  the  celebrated  church  architect. 

Aug.  11.  Was  to  have  dined  with  the  "Red  Lions"  at  the 
George  Hotel,  but  when  we  got  there  we  found  that  many  more 
had  come  than  were  intended,  and  so  finding  no  room,  Balfour  and 
I  and  others  left,  and  dined  elsewhere. 

Aug.  14.  R.  M.  Lingwood  and  I  went  to  Cirencester,  and  saw 
the  Agricultural  College  ;  also  the  Roman  Pavements  removed  from 
the  street  of  the  town,  and  roofed  over. 

Aug.  15.  Joined  a  meeting  of  the  Cotteswold  Club.  We  went 
to  Beckhampton  Hill,  and  to  the  springs  of  the  Thames.  Dined 
with  the  club  at  the  "Lamb." 

Aitg.  16.  Left  Cheltenham,  and  arrived  at  Welshpool  in  the 
evening. 

Aug.  17.     Sunday.     The  church  quite  modernized,  and  spoilt. 
Aug.  18.     Barnwell  and  his  brother-in-law,  B.  Chapman  of  Jesus 
College,  came  to  join  me  in  the  lodgings.    First  day  of  the  Cambrian 
Association  Meeting. 


182  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1856 

Aug.  19,  20,  21.  All  wet  days,  so  that  we  could  not  take  any 
country  excursions.  Only  went  on  Wednesday,  through  the  rain, 
to  Powis  Castle. 

Aug.  22.  A  fine  day.  Had  a  very  interesting  excursion  to 
Montgomery. 

Aug.  23.  The  meeting  ended.  Both  my  friends  left  Welshpool. 
Walked  alone  to  the  top  of  the  park,  from  whence  there  is  a  splendid 
view.  The  whole  of  the  park  is  beautiful.  Descended  to  Castell 
Caer  Einion,  where  the  church  is  modernized.  Returned  by  a  fine 
camp,  called  Pen-y-foel.     Dined  with  H.  L.  Jones. 

Aug.  24.  Sunday.  Heard  the  Rev.  Rowland  Williams  preach. 
In  the  afternoon  walked  by  the  road  to  Kilkewydd  Bridge,  and 
returned  by  the  path  across  the  fields.  Found  close  to  Glan  Hafren 
several  plants  of  Agrimonia  odorata,  in  a  damp  situation ;  all  that  I 
saw  yesterday  in  the  park  was  A.  Eupatoria.  Dined  at  Powis 
Castle.  Afterwards  I  identified  a  plant  that  C.  E.  Parker  finds 
plentifully  at  Belan  near  Welshpool,  with  the  A.  odwata  (on  the 
29th  I  found  plenty  of  it  near  the  Gaer)  in  the  lane  by  Trefnanney. 

Aug.  25.  The  Rev.  F.  W.  Parker,  and  his  brother  C.  E.  Parker, 
joined  me  in  a  walk.  We  went  by  Leighton  New  Church  (very 
expensive,  looks  well  at  a  distance,  but  bad  in  detail)  and  up  the 
hill  to  Caer  Digol.  This  is  a  very  fi  ne  and  large  circular  earth-work, 
consisting  of  one  bank,  and  a  broad  outer  ditch.  The  entrance  seems 
to  have  been  towards  the  south.  As  a  heavy  cloud  had  settled  upon 
the  hill,  together  with  fine  rain,  we  again  descended,  and  went  to 
Buttington,  where  we  called  upon  the  Rev.  D.  P.  Lewis,  who 
returned  to  Pool,  and  dined  with  us  at  Mr.  Parker's.  (N.B. — 
C.  E.  Parker  is  my  old  correspondent  of  Torquay). 

Aug.  26.  Mr.  C.  E.  Parker  walked  with  me  to  Guilsfield,  through 
a  most  beautiful  country.  We  then  ascended  the  valley  for  about 
two  miles,  and  returned  by  the  road  passing  the  Quakers'  Burial 
Ground.     Afterwards  I  went  alone  to  Kilkewydd  Bridge. 

Aug.  27.  Spent  the  morning  in  the  Castle  Gardens  with  Mr. 
Brown,  the  gardener.  Afterwards  walked  with  C.  E.  Parker  to  the 
top  of  the  park,  returning  along  the  summit  of  the  hill,  and 
descending  by  the  park  paling  to  the  road  on  the  northern  valley. 

Aug.  29.  Walked  by  Guilsfield  to  Sarn  Bridge ;  then  along  the 
lane  by  Street  to  Pentre-llaeth-enwyn  and  the  Gaer  near  Trefnanney. 
It  is  very  faint,  owing  to  cultivation,  and  was  probably  never  very 
strong ;  there  is  a  slight  ditch  and  bank  surrounding  part  of  the  hill 
top.  Returned  by  Cae  Mawr  to  Street,  then  along  the  same  lane, 
leaving  it  by  a  footpath  and  other  lane  to  northern  angle  of  Gaer- 
fawr,  which  is  a  very  large  and  strong  hill  fort.  Descended  to  Sarn 
Bridge,  and  returned  to  Pool  by  Pentre  and  Trelydan-Uchaf  and 
Cae  Athro.     This  set  of  lanes  is  perhaps  a  part  of  a  Roman  road. 


1856]       JOURNAL— ANTIQUARIAN  EXCURSIONS  IN  WALES.         183 

Near  Trelydan  Cottage  the  road  is  ridged  much  like  such  a  road ; 
otherwise  there  is  no  sign  of  Roman  work;  the  lane  seems  as  if 
paved  with  small  stones  in  most  of  the  best  preserved  parts,  but  it 
is  often  deeply  sunk  below  the  fields.  It  seems  to  be  certainly 
ancient.     Dined  with  the  Rev.  F.  W.  Parker. 

Aug.  30.  Crossed  the  Severn  at  Kilkewydd  Bridge;  followed 
the  road  to  Forden  Heath,  then  turned  up  the  road  on  the  Long 
Mountain,  by  a  footway  a  little  above  the  Stubbs  to  Trelystan 
Church,  which  is  a  very  curious  wooden  structure  built  like  the 
black  and  white  houses,  panelled  within,  and  plastered  on  the  out- 
side. It  is  now  being  faced  externally  with  a  similar  framework  of 
Oak,  and  the  interstices  filled  in  with  bricks.  The  situation  is 
secluded  and  beautiful.  There  are  several  very  old  yews  in  the 
yard.  Met  there  the  Perpetual  Curate  (Mr.  Judge),  and  walked 
with  him  to  Caer  Digol,  which  we  paced  at  right  angles,  and  differed 
much  in  the  result,  he  stepping  145  and  I  193  paces.  Descended  to 
his  house  at  Leighton,  took  lunch  with  him,  visited  the  interior  of 
the  new  church,  which  is  better  than  the  outside.  Good  painted 
.glass.     Back  to  Pool  by  the  ferry. 

Aug.  31.  In  the  afternoon  I  walked  along  the  turnpike  road  as 
far  as  the  site  of  the  Abbey  on  the  Oswestry  road,  and  returned 
along  the  towing  path  of  the  canal.  Epilohiumpahistre  and  E.  obscurum 
.grow  by  the  canal.     I  have  not  seen  E.  tetragonum  in  this  district. 

Sept.  2.  To  Ludlow.  Walked  through  the  White  Cliff  Wood 
to  Aston,  where  there  is  a  small,  altered,  Early  English  Church, 
with  a  fine  Norman  tympanum  to  the  north  door.  Went  over  the 
hills,  by  a  considerable  round  to  the  south,  to  Richards  Castle  and 
Church.  Of  the  former  there  are  only  a  few  pieces  of  wall  left, 
surrounded  by  a  very  deep  fosse ;  the  latter  a  fine  church  of  Early 
English  and  Decorated  character,  Avith  a  curious  detached  bell- 
tower  at  the  east  end.  Returned  to  Ludlow  by  Moor. Park  and 
Ludford. 

Sept.  3.  To  Stanton  Lacey  (Saxon  church  in  part),  Onibury, 
back  by  south  side  of  river  to  Bromfield,  where  I  accidentally  met 
Burley,  James,  and  Francis  ;  through  Oakley  Park,  where  I  saw  some 
very  old  oaks  behind  the  house  on  the  bank  above  the  river. 

Sept.  4.  To  Titterstone  Clee  Hill.  Walked  by  turnpike  road, 
then  along  road  under  Hoar  Edge.  Ascended  the  chief  hill  from  the 
east,  over  the  entrenchment  of  loose  stones ;  descended  near  Giant's 
Chair  (all  natural  here),  by  Bitterley  Court,  Henley,  to  Salop.  On 
the  top  there  is  a  circle  of  stones  sunk  in  the  ground  twenty  yards 
across. 

Sept.  5.     To  Hereford  and  Lyston  to  visit  Mr.  Lingwood. 

Sept.  6.  Walked  through  the  Mynde  Woods ;  found  Agrimonia 
odarata. 


184  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1856 

Sept.  8.  Went  alone  to  Much  Birch  and  Little  Birch  and 
Landinabo.  Afterwards  W.  H.  Purchas  (now  a  student  of  Durham) 
came,  and  we  three  went  to  the  Mynde  Woods  to  shew  him 
A.  odorata. 

SejJt.  10.  Lingwood,  Purchas,  and  I  went  to  Whitchurch,  on 
the  Wye  below  Boss.  Walked  to  the  Iron  Tower  on  the  top  of  the 
Little  Doward  Hill ;  then  descended  to  the  river  side,  finding  what 
is  thought  to  be  Epipactis  ovalis  by  the  way,  in  the  thick,  stony,  and 
steep  woods.  Examined  the  rocks  near  the  river,  and  then  went 
above  a  long  range  of  lofty  cliffs  on  the  Great  Doward,  where  we 
saw  Tilia  parviflwa  and  T.  grandiflwa  growing  side  by  side  out  of 
the  clefts  of  the  rock,  and  each  apparently  equally  quite  wild.  Got 
some  dinner  at  Whitchurch,  and  returned  to  Lyston  in  the  evening. 
Watkins,  the  Relieving  Officer  of  the  Union,  formerly  a  shoemaker 
of  Monmouth,  a  good  botanist,  walked  with  us. 

Sept.  12.  Went  to  St.  Weonards,  The  tumulus  recently  opened 
by  T.  Wright  is  left  open.  There  is  nothing  now  to  be  seen  except 
a  broad  ditch  extending  to  the  middle  with  heaps  of  stones  in  it. 
Returned  by  Trewathen  Pool  (now  drained),  finding  Carex  pendula 
there,  Old  Hall,  and  Llanwarne  Court. 

Sept.  13.  Drove  to  Kilpeck.  Walked  back  over  Saddleback 
Hill.  Saw  three  oaks,  perhaps  Don's  three  species,  in  the  fields 
below  the  north  side  of  the  hill,  indigenous  certainly. 

Sejjt.  14.     Sunday.     Lingwood  and  I  walked  to  Orcop  to  church. 

Sept.  15.  Saw  plenty  of  Ballota  ruder  alls  at  Lyston  ;  it  abounds 
in  the  neighbourhood,  I  am  told.  Walked  to  and  through  the  Mynde 
Woods ;  the  only  plant  of  interest  there  seen  was  Lastrea  spinulosa. 

Sept.  16.  Went  with  the  Woolhope  Field  Club  to  Abergavenny, 
and  up  the  valley  to  a  waterfall,  quarries  at  Mynydd  Pen  Gwern,. 
Bryn  Mawr,  and  Beaufort.  Breakfasted  at  Abergavenny,  lunch 
with  Dr.  Bevan  at  Beaufort,  dined  at  Abergavenny.  Went  to  and 
from  the  latter  place  by  rail,  to  and  from  Beaufort  by  a  hired  coach. 
A  beautiful  valley ;  above  that,  the  barren  district  of  the  iron  and. 
coal  works.     Saw  coal  quarried  close  to  the  surface  of  the  ground. 

Sept.  1 7.  Left  Lyston  ...  to  Clifton,  to  spend  a  few  days  with 
the  Rev.  H.  Longueville  Jones. 

Sept.  18.     Walked  about  Bristol,  and  saw  the  Library  at  Clifton, 
and  the  old  City  Library.     To  tea  with  the  Rev.  .  .  .  Fen  wick,  a- 
great  book-collector,  above  eighty  years  of  age. 

Sept.  19.  To  the  camps  on  Leigh  Downs ;  back  by  Ashton.  In 
one  of  the  camps  the  river  bank  has  been  grouted  with  mortar,  which 
has  only  penetrated  a  short  distance. 

Sept.  20.  Walked  over  to  Durdham  Down  looking  for  the 
Roman  road  from  Bath  to  Sea  Mills,  but  could  not  find  it.  Returned 
by  the  river  and  the  camp  on  the  top  of  St.  Vincent's  Rocks. 


1856—57]    JOURNAL— CAMBS.  NATURALISTS'  CLUB  TRIPS.  185 

Sept.  23.  Jones  and  I  traced  the  Roman  Way  from  the  point 
where  the  Westbury  and  Shirehampton  roads  divide,  through  the 
reservoir  on  the  Down,  leaving  the  mark  of  the  city  boundary  a 
very  little  to  the  right,  crossing  the  Shirehampton  road  at  a  very 
acute  angle,  to  the  tree  opposite  the  back  gate  of  Durdham  Lodge. 

Sept  24.  Returned  to  Cambridge.  Did  not  sleep  from  home 
during  the  whole  winter. 

1857.  June  2.  Stratton  and  I  went  to  West  Wratting.  Took 
a  walk  through  the  fields  towards  Weston  Colville.  In  Hall  Wood 
we  found  the  fly  Orchis,  and  several  others.  After  an  early  dinner 
we  went  to  Hildersham,  and  examined  the  Furze  Hills,  where  we 
found  Aceras  anthropophmu  and  Hi/pochaeris  macidata  (in  bud) ;  we 
also  hunted  unsuccessfully  near  Hildersham  for  the  Spider  Orchis. 

June  9.  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club  trip  to  Swavesey. 
Newbould,  Hiley,  Carter,  and  I  were  present.  We  went  to  Swavesey 
Church,  then  by  a  lane  and  footpath  to  Fenny  Drayton,  along  the 
side  of  the  great  drain  to  the  Ouse  near  Holywell,  descended  the 
river-side  for  about  mile-and-a-half,  and  returned  to  Swavesey. 
Went  to  Over  Church,  and  returned  home.  Found  no  plants  of 
note.  The  churches  at  Swavesey  and  Over  very  fine  and  interesting. 
Fenny  Drayton  Church  is  also  good. 

June  11.  Hiley  and  I  went  to  Haslingfield.  Found  Aceras  in 
chalk-pit.  Saw  two  or  three  specimens  of  Eanunculus  hirsutus  at 
Barton,  on  our  return,  in  the  old  place  under  the  hedge. 

June  16.  Hiley  and  I  went  by  train  to  Whittlesford  Station. 
Walked  by  Triplow  and  Newton,  and  Hauxton  home.  Found  in 
the  lane  leading  from  the  railway  bridge  near  Meggott's  Mount  to 
Hauxton,  plenty  of  Eanunculus  Drouetii  in  the  ditch  on  the  left-hand 
side  of  the  way. 

June  22.  W.  H.  Purchas  of  Ross  came  here  on  his  way  from 
Durham,  and  had  rooms  in  College. 

June  23.  He,  Newbould,  Hiley,  Stratton,  and  I  went  by  train 
to  Waterbech,  and  then  walked  to  Upware,  and  went  to  Wicken 
Fen.     Found  Viola  stagnina,  etc. 

June  24.  Purchas,  Hiley,  and  I  walked  by  Hills  Road,  and 
returned  by  Wool  Street  and  Cherry  Hinton  Chalk  Pits.  Found 
Hypochaeris  maculata  in  the  old  chalk  pit,  on  Three  Trees  Hill. 

June  26.  Purchas  and  I  went  to  see  Newbould  at  Toft.  Walked 
by  the  fields  to  Caldecot  Church,  by  lane  to  Kingston  Church,  and 
then  back  to  Toft. 

July  14.  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club.  Went  by  rail  to 
Foxton,  and  then  walked  to  Barrington.  Newbould,  Watson, 
Gibson,  Clarke,  and  I  were  present,  also  Mr.  Barrett  as  a  visitor. 
.  .  .  We  visited  the  chalk  range  near  Fox-hole  Down  together. 


186  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1857 

Aug.  11.  Newbould,  Stratton,  and  I  went  in  a  dog-cart  to 
Upware  (Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club),  and  took  a  man  named 
Vipon  (?)  into  Wicken  Fen,  where  he  shewed  us  a  single  plant,  with 
two  stems,  of  Senecio  pahidosus.  It  is  amongst  the  sedge,  not  far 
from  the  drain  next  Upware.  After  dinner  we  went  by  Harrison's 
Drove  to  Reche,  and  then  by  road  through  the  two  Swaflfhams  and 
Bottisham  to  Cambridge.  We  went  to  the  edge  of  the  fen-land  at 
SwafFham  Bulbeck,  but  found  nothing  of  interest. 

Aug.  14.     To  London.     Dined  with  Lankester. 

Aug.  15.  To  Ross,  where  I  met  Barnwell  and  Chapman,  and 
went  to  Monmouth  with  them  by  car.  We  lodged  together  during 
the  meeting  of  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association. 

Aug.  17.  In  the  afternoon  I  walked  along  the  tramway  on  the 
eastern  side  of  the  river  by  Redbrook  to  Cherry  Orchard,  looking 
for  Eubus  imhricatus,  but  am  far  from  being  sure  of  having  found  it. 

Aug.  18.     Went  with  the  party  to  Trelleck  and  Tintern, 

Aug.  19.  Went  with  the  party  to  Buckstone,  Stanton,  St. 
Briavels,  etc. 

Aug.  20.  Raglan  Castle,  where  we  were  received  by  the  Caerleon 
Society  in  a  very  hospitable  manner. 

Aug.  21.     Grosmont  Castle,  etc.     Lingwood  met  us  there. 

Aug.  22.  Went  across  the  country  by  White  Castle  to  Aber- 
gavenny, thence  by  rail  to  Rhyl,  Denbighshire.  Rhyl  is  a  horrid 
place,  no  shade,  no  trees  ;  all  sand. 

Aug.  24—26.  To  Ruthin,  to  visit  Barnwell.  To  Dublin,  for  the 
meeting  of  the  British  Association. 

Aug.  27.     Dined  with  the  Lord  Mayor. 

Aug.  28.  Dined  with  Dr.  W.  R.  Wilde,  of  1  Merrion  Square, 
North. 

Aug.  29.  Breakfast  with  Dr.  Churchill.  Went  to  the  Grlasnevin 
Botanic  Garden. 

Aug.  30.  To  Kingstown  with  Liveing.  Walked  by  the  coast 
to  Dalkey. 

Aug.  31.  Red  Lion  Club  Dinner  at  Jude's  Hotel.  Jukes, 
Chairman. 

Sept.  2.  British  Association  Meeting  ended.  Breakfasted  with 
Jukes.     Dined  in  the  College  Hall  with  Harvey. 

Sept.  3.  Aran  Excursion.  A  party  of  about  sixty-five  went  in 
the  steamer  from  Galway.  We  saw  all  that  was  in  the  plan,  but  not 
exactly  in  that  order,  on  the  first  two  days.  I  saw  no  plants  of 
interest,  all  limestone  species,  except  Allmni  Bahingtonii,  growing  in 
the  crevices  of  the  limestone  on  Inishmaan  Island,  where  it  was 


1857]  JOURNAL— NORTH  WALES,   Etc.  187 

abundant.     After  leaving  the  middle  island,  we  went  to  the  clifiFs 
of  Mohar,  on  the  coast  of  Clare.     Railway  and  steamer  given  gratis. 

Sept.  5.     Returned  to  Dublin. 

Sept.  8.     To  Bangor. 

Sept.  9.  Walked  to  Llanfairfechan ;  then  by  the  back  of  the 
hill  to  Dinas  Pen  Maen.  The  walls  there  are  similar  to  the  Firbolgic 
iorts  in  Ireland.  There  are  two  lines  of  wall  in  most  parts,  some- 
times near  together,  at  others  distant.  A  few  traces  of  Clohaughans. 
Then  to  Carnethau  and  Manan-hirion  on  Moel-fre.  Then  by  Craig- 
boyd  House  to  Bryn-mawr,  and  the  railway  station  at  Penmaenmawr, 
and  back  to  Bangor  by  railway. 

Sept.  10.  To  Ruthin,  to  visit  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Barnwell. 

Sept.  12.  Walked  to  Eyarth  Camp. 

Sept.  13.  Sunday.    Walked  to  the  afternoon  service  at  Llanbedr. 

Sept.  14.  To  a  camp  near  Eyarth. 

Sept.  15.  To  Efenechtyd.     Saw  a  camp  not  noted  in  the  maps. 

Sept.  19.  To  Llanrhaidr.  Found  a  single  flower  of  Linaria  vul- 
garis-Feloria  in  the  meadows  near  the  river. 

Sept.  20.     Sunday.     To  Llanfair  for  the  afternoon  service. 

Sept.  21.  To  Chester.  Saw  St.  John's  Church,  old  houses  in 
Watergate  Street,  and  visited  the  old  and  new  and  railway  bridges. 

Sept.  22.  Went  by  train  to  the  Art  Treasures  Exhibition  at 
Manchester.  Was  much  more  interested  by  the  museum  of  orna- 
mental art  than  with  the  pictures. 

Sept.  24.     Arrived  at  St.  John's  College. 

Oct.  I.  Went  to  Harleston,  and  then  to  St.  Margarets,  South- 
•elmham,  to  visit  E.  A.  Holmes. 

Oct.  2.  Went  to  Stow  Park  Farm,  near  Bungay,  to  see  some 
Roman  remains  of  a  villa  (?)  lately  found.  Had  to  go  to  a  spot  near 
to  the  field-lane  due  south  from  Stow  Park,  but  found  that  the 
excavations  had  just  been  filled  up  for  cultivation.  On  the  way 
back  examined  Flixton  new  Church.  Its  tower  was  Saxon,  or 
very  early  Norman,  and  the  new  one  retains  the  peculiarities  of 
the  old  one. 

Oct.  7.     Humiliation  Day  for  India. 

Oct.  9.  Went  to  see  the  site  of  some  Roman  pottery  found  on 
what  was  lately  Gresher  Green.  Left  St.  Margarets  and  arrived  at 
J.  J.  Smith's  at  Loddon. 

Oct.  10.  Walked  to  Hales  Hall,  where  the  house  is  gone,  but  a 
good  gate-house  and  barn  of  the  Jacobean  period  remain.  Then  to 
Hales  Church,  originally  Norman,  of  much  interest  and  well 
deserving  of  a  monograph. 


188  CHARLES   CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1857-5S 

Oct.  12.  Went  alone  to  Chelgrave  Church.  In  the  afternoon 
walked  to  Heckington,  where  there  are  Norman  traces  in  the  churchy 
and  very  rude  arches  between  the  aisles,  and  to  Norton,  a  beautiful 
Decorated  church. 

Oct.  14.     To  Norwich  and  Cambridge. 

Oct.  24.  A  very  high  flood,  over  the  middle  walk  in  the  College 
walks.  It  was  up  to  the  top  of  the  thick  stone,  below  the  cornice 
on  the  buttress  on  the  east  side  of  the  western  arch  of  the  old  bridge 
of  St.  John's  College,  fully  a  foot  higher  than  the  flood  of  November 
13th,  1852.  It  covered  most  part  of  the  grass  plot  in  front  of  the 
New  Court.  Highest  at  about  6  a.m.  The  exact  height  was  the 
top  of  the  twenty -second  course  of  bricks  above  the  usual  level. 

Nov.  12.     This  day  the  barometer  in  my  rooms  stood  at  30'73. 

Nov.  13.  Went  to  Cottenham  with  Banks,  and  slept  at  his 
rectory  house. 

Nov.  14.  Walked  into  the  fen  to  the  gravel  pits  near  the  edge 
of  Landbech  parish,  where  Roman  pottery  had  been  found.  Saw 
a  few  little  bits  of  it.  Also  a  little  to  the  north  of  the  gravel  pits 
saw  the  line  of  the  Car  Dyke  plainly.  It  is  partly  occupied  in  its 
middle  by  a  modern  watercourse,  and  partly  is  quite  dry,  but  in 
both  cases  its  ancient  banks  are  clearly  to  be  seen.  Returned  to 
Cambridge. 

Nov.  18.     Went  to  London.     Dined  with  the  Linnean  Club. 

Did  not  again  sleep  out  of  College  before  the  end  of  the  year. 

1858.  March  15.  Went  with  Hiley  and  Newbould  to  Peter- 
borough and  Castor  Station  to  see  the  annular  eclipse  of  the  sun. 
It  was  very  cloudy,  but  we  saw  many  hasty  views  of  the  eclipse,  not 
just  the  best  part,  but  very  nearly.  The  darkness  during  a  few 
seconds  most  remarkable,  blackish  throughout.  The  birds  were  still 
during  the  darkest  time  only.  The  sudden  return  of  light  very 
sudden  and  striking.  We  saw  it  from  the  Ermyn  Street.  Saw  in 
a  ditch  the  foundation  stones  of  the  Roman  Way  resting  upon  a 
layer  of  mortar,  made  with  pounded  bricks.  I  never  saw  this  before. 
We  then  went  to  Water  Newton,  and  saw  the  mounds  of  Durobrivae, 
and  the  road  as  laid  down  in  the  Ordnance  map.  Walked  back  to 
Peterborough  in  time  for  the  return  train  to  Cambridge. 

April  12.  Hiley  and  I  went  to  the  Gogs  and  saw  one  flower  of 
Anemone  Pulsatilla  just  opening,  also  buds  of  Muscari  racemosum  in 
the  old  place.  This  day  the  College  and  walks  Avere  closed  against 
strangers.  During  the  past  week  the  old  summer  house  at  the 
corner  of  the  Fellows'  ground  was  pulled  down. 

April  16.  Meeting  with  Bentham  and  Alexander  about  the 
Linn.  Soc.  British  Herbarium. 

May  29.  This  day  the  water  was  let  into  the  pond  in  the 
Botanic  Garden. 


1858]        JOURNAL— ARCHAEOLOGICAL  INSTITUTE,   BATH.  189 

Maij  31.  I  met  the  Vice-Chancellor,  Dr.  Philpott,  and  Mr.  Har- 
wood,  the  Surveyor  at  the  Botanic  Garden,  when  the  latter  told  us 
that,  after  a  careful  examination  of  the  new  and  old  overfalls,  he 
found  that  the  new  one  (letting  the  water  into  the  Garden)  was 
two  hundredths  of  a  foot  higher  than  the  old  one,  which  is  to 
remain  in  the  Trinity  College  Farm ;  and  that  therefore,  when  the 
water  was  running  into  the  Garden,  there  was  a  height  of  water  at 
the  head  which  supplies  the  town  of  two  hundredths  of  a  foot  more 
than  there  was  a  legal  right  to ;  the  height  being  always  regulated 
by  the  old  overfall,  over  which  it  would  continue  to  run,  after  it  was 
too  low  to  allow  of  any  going  into  the  Garden  over  the  new  one. 

June  8.  Cambridgeshire  Naturalists'  Club  Meeting.  Went  by 
train  to  Dullingham.  Visited  Dullingham  Church,  then  by  Burrough 
Green  and  Brinkley  Churches  to  Six  Mile  Bottom.  In  a  field  west 
of  Burrough  Green  Church  there  is  plenty  of  Aquilegki.  By  the 
roadside  between  Brinkley  and  the  Station  we  found  Malva  moschata. 
Hiley  and  I  saw  the  Herniaria  in  the  station  discovered  June  20th, 
1855. 

June  10.  Went  to  spend  the  day  with  Mr.  Clay,  the  Vicar  of 
Waterbech.  We  went  to  Denny  Abbey  and  examined  it  carefully  ; 
then  to  the  Ely  road.  Afterwards  to  the  church  and  site  of  the 
Waterbech  Monastery,  and  to  the  course  of  the  Car  Dyke,  between 
the  village  and  the  railway.  The  upper  part  of  the  dyke  is  an 
exceedingly  deep  and  wide  cut. 

June  11.  Newbould,  Hiley,  Stratton,  and  I  went  by  train  to 
Fulbourn ;  then  botanized  in  the  spinney  between  the  railway  and 
the  Wilbraham  road,  where  we  found  Ophrys  apifera  and  muscifera ; 
then  crossed  the  brook  by  the  railway  bridge,  and  walked  along  the 
bank  as  far  as  Shardelow's  Wells  and  the  Fleam  Dyke ;  returned 
through  Fulbourn,  and  by  the  church  at  Cherry  Hinton. 

July  2.  Hiley  and  I  went  by  Cherry  Hinton  (where  we  found 
Galium  eredum  abundantly  in  the  old  pit  in  the  fork  of  the  road  to 
the  great  chalk  pit),  Teversham,  finding  in  the  lane  Eosa  systyla(1), 
by  the  footway  across  Teversham  Fen  to  Quy  Bridge,  by  the  High 
Ditch  Lane  to  Ditton,  and  the  riverside  to  Cambridge. 

July  19.  Left  Cambridge  and  arrived  at  Bath  .  .  .  with  Dr.  R.  W. 
Falconer.     Meeting  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  to-morrow. 

July  20.     First  day  of  the  Meeting.     Called  upon  the  Fowlers. 

July  21.  In  the  afternoon  walked  to  Hampton  Down  and  saw 
the  Hut  Circles  there  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Freeman.  Walked  back 
and  took  tea  with  them  instead  of  going  to  the  great  dinner  of  the 
Institute.  Dr.  Guest  read  a  splendid  paper  upon  the  boundaries  of 
the  English  and  Welsh,  shortly  before  the  conversion  of  the  former. 

July  22.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Freeman  and  I  went  by  train  to  Brad- 
ford.    We  examined  the  bridge  and  little  chapel  upon  it.     Then 


190  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [185* 

near  the  church  we  fell  in  with  Mr.  Jones  the  Vicar,  and  discovered 
that  the  Free  School  House  was  an  old  little  church  of  the  time  of 
Knut  in  a  very  perfect  state.  We  then  examined  the  fine  church. 
This  took  up  all  our  time.  We  then  went  in  a  fly  to  Westwood  and 
saw  another  fine  church  and  the  old  manor  house,  and  went  on  alone 
to  Norton  St.  Philip,  not  having  time  for  more  than  a  glance  at  the 
Castle  at  Farleigh.  At  Norton  we  dined  at  Mrs.  Gutch's  (the  mother 
of  Mrs.  Freeman),  and  Freeman  and  I  walked  to  Freshford,  and 
returned  by  the  rail  to  Bath.  A  most  successful  day's  trip.  Far 
better  than  going  to  Glastonbury  with  the  Institute. 

July  23.  Went  in  the  afternoon  with  a  small  party  to  Bradford 
to  shew  the  church,  barn,  etc. 

July  24.  Walked  with  Franks  over  Lansdown  to  Langridge  to 
look  at  an  ancient  eflfigy  in  the  church.  Dined  with  Mr.  C.  J. 
Vigne  at  Weston  to  meet  Mr.  Shuttleworth  of  Berne. 

July  26.  Went  with  the  party  to  Stanton  Bury,  Stanton  Drew, 
Keynsham,  and  Bitton. 

July  29.  To  Llanrumney  to  visit  E.  A.  Freeman.  Went  in  the 
afternoon  to  Cae  Castel,  the  site  of  an  old  fort  of  some  strength. 

July  30.  Went  by  the  side  of  the  river  Eumney  up  as  far  as 
bridge  below  Cefn  Mabley.  Saw  an  abundance  of  Antennaria 
margaritacea  on  both  sides  of  the  river  at  intervals,  also  Saponaria, 

July  31.     To  Cardiff  and  back,  also  to  Llandalf. 

Aug.  3.  Went  to  see  the  manufactory  of  coarse  brown  pottery 
at  Eumney  Bridge. 

Aug.  4.     Examined  RuU. 

Aug.  5.  Went  to  the  marshes  below  Eumney.  School-feast  in 
the  afternoon. 

Aug.  9.     Left  Llanrumney,  and  went  to  Milford  Haven  by  rail. 

Aug.  10.  Left  Milford  Haven  at  1.20  a.m.  by  steamer  for 
Waterford.  A  very  calm  but  foggy  night,  so  that  we  had  an 
extremely  narrow  escape  from  running  at  full  speed  upon  the 
Salter  Isles.  We  were  within  two  ships-lengths  of  them  before 
they  could  be  seen.  In  the  afternoon  Newbould  (who  joined  me 
at  Milford  Haven)  and  I  walked  for  two  or  three  miles  up  each  side 
of  the  estuary  above  the  City  of  Waterford,  and  also  through  much 
of  the  town. 

Aug.  11.     To  Killarney  and  Eoche's  Muckross  Hotel. 

Aug.  12.  Newbould  and  I  went  up  some  of  the  watercourses  of 
Turk,  and  along  the  road  as  far  as  the  Long  Eange ;  then  examined 
the  marshes  and  bogs  near  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  back  again. 
Wrote  a  note  to  Mr.  Herbert  this  evening  to  ask  permission  to  go 
over  his  grounds. 


1858]         JOURNAL— VISITS  TO  KILKENNY,   DUBLIN,   Etc.  191 

Aug.  14.  "Went  on  a  car  with  Mr.  Brownrigg  to  the  Gap  of 
Dunloe.  Newbould  and  I  went  to  the  top  of  the  Gap.  We  found 
in  Auger  Lake  a  Sparganium,  like  natans,  but  doubtful. 

Aug.  15.  Sunday.  Went  to  Church  at  Killarney.  Met  Dr. 
Lloyd,  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  at  the  church. 

Aug.  17.  We  spent  the  whole  morning  in  the  Muckross 
demesne.  Saw  Rubus  saxatilis  and  Silene  maritima  on  the  shore 
of  the  lake. 

Aug.  18.  We  went  to  Ross  Island,  and  again  saw  the  same  two 
plants  abundantly.  Met  Mr.  Wright,  the  zoologist,  of  Trinity 
College,  Dublin,  at  the  hotel  this  evening.  He  said  that  there  was 
an  abundance  of  the  Spiranthes  gemmipara  near  Berehaven,  and  also 
that  he  knew  two  or  three  stations  remaining  for  the  Trichomanes 
speciosum,  at  a  distance  from  Killarney,  where  it  is  now  very  nearly 
extirpated. 

Aug.  19.  Newbould  returned  to  England.  I  went  to  Kilmallock 
to  see  the  ruins.  Few  of  the  old  houses  remain ;  the  two  gateways 
are  curious ;  the  Dominican  abbey  beautiful.  Went  on  to  Goold's 
Cross,  and  thence  by  car  (five  Irish  miles)  to  Cashel. 

Aug.  20.  Visited  the  Eock,  and  a  monastery  near  it.  .  .  .  To 
Waterford. 

Aug.  22.     Met  Dr.  Lloyd,  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin. 

Aug.  23.  Went  to  Thomastown  Station,  and  walked  along  the 
line  to  Jerpoint  Abbey,  which  is  now  very  carefully  kept.  ...  To 
Kilkenny. 

Aug.  24.  Found  that  Mr.  Graves  was  from  home.  Saw  the 
Cathedral ;  went  to  the  top  of  the  Round  Tower  for  the  fine  view ; 
then  along  a  walk  by  the  river-side  to  and  beneath  the  walls  of  the 
castle.     Arrived  at  Dublin. 

Aug.  25.  Went  to  the  Glasnevin  Garden,  and  spent  some  time 
there  with  Mr.  D.  Moore.  Then  went  with  him  to  Colonel  Hill's 
beautiful  place  beyond  the  park,  and  overhanging  the  river.  Called 
to  see  the  garden  of  Mr.  Wilkie,  the  park-ranger,  and  also  at  the 
Viceregal  Garden. 

Aug.  26.     In  the  evening  to  Wilde's  house. 

Aug.  27.  College  Botanical  Garden.  With  Wilde  to  Donny- 
brook  Fair. 

Aug.  28.  Went  by  10  a.m.  train  to  Drogheda.  Visited  the 
ecclesiastical  ruins;  walked  to  New  Grange.  Visited  the  large 
ring-fort  at  Netterville,  the  chamber  in  the  tumulus  of  Dowth,  and 
that  of  New  Grange ;  seeing  at  the  latter  all  that  is  mentioned  in 
Wilde's  book  on  the  Boyne.  Wilde  and  Armstrong  came  in  the 
evening,  and  joined  me  at  New  Grange.  We  returned  to  Dublin 
in  company  ...  at  night. 


192  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1858—59 

Aug.  29.  Went  with  Wilde  on  a  car  to  a  cromlech  close  to 
St.  Columba,  and  another  between  that  and  Kingstown,  Dined  at 
Wilde's. 

Aug.  30.  Left  Dublin  .  .  .  reached  Rhyl  for  the  Meeting  of  the 
Cambrian  Archaeological  Association.  Lodgings  with  Barnwell  and 
T.  Wright. 

Aiig.  3L  Had  a  nice  excursion  to  Rhuddlan,  etc.,  and  dined  at 
Colonel  Morgan's,  at  Golden  Grove,  with  the  members. 

Sept.  1.  Excursion  to  Holywell,  Basingwork  Abbey.  Dined 
with  the  party  at  Downing,  with  Lord  Feilding. 

Sept.  2.  To  Conway.  In  the  Chair  of  the  Committee  for  three 
hours  in  the  evening. 

Sept.  3.  Did  not  leave  the  town  all  day,  except  to  call  upon 
Miss  Angharad  Lloyd,  at  Tyn  Rhyl.     Meeting  ended. 

Sept.  4.  Left  Rhyl  with  the  Freemans  ...  to  Bangor.  By  rail 
to  Carnarvon,  and  visited  the  castle  and  walls  of  the  town.  Returned 
to  Bangor. 

Sept.  8.     Reached  Cambridge. 

Sept.  14.  Walked  by  Coton  and  Hardwick,  along  the  Port  Way, 
by  Hardwick  Wood,  to  Caldecot  and  Toft.  Came  back  in  New- 
bould's  carriage. 

Sept.  22.  Went  with  Liveing  to  Leeds  for  the  British  Association 
Meeting.  Hayward  joined  us  there  in  lodgings.  I  am  made 
President  of  Section  D  at  this  meeting. 

Sept.  23.  Dined  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sharpe  (late  Fellow  of 
Christ's),  at  Chapel  Allerton. 

Sept.  25.  Went  to  Kirkstall  Abbey.    Much  pleased  with  the  ruin. 

Sept.  26.     Sunday.     Heard  Dr.  Hook. 

Sept.  27.     Dined  at  Mr.  S.  Hey's. 

Sept.  28.     "  Red  Lion  "  dinner. 

Sept.  29.  Conclusion  of  the  Meeting.  Went  to  York.  Dined 
with  James  Backhouse,  junr.,  and  slept  at  his  father's  house. 

Sept.  30.     Cambridge. 

Nov.  23.  In  the  night  preceding  this  day  the  temperature  fell 
to  13°  Fahr.,  and  the  river  Cam  was  frozen  over  at  St.  John's  College. 

1859.  May  21.  Went  with  Hiley  to  Shelford  to  hunt  for  the 
station  of  Ophrys  aranifera  given  by  Ray.  All  the  old  gravel  pits 
between  Shelford  and  Trumpington  are  ploughed  up. 

June  3.  A  Meeting  of  the  Philosophical  about  the  British 
Association.  W.  Hopkins  took  the  Chair.  Bateson,  Vice-Chancellor, 
moved  that :    "  In  case  the  Committee  of  the  British  Association 


1859]         JOURNAL— GAMES.  &  WEST  OF  ENGLAND  TOURS.  193 

should  think  it  expedient  to  hold  a  meeting  of  the  Association  at 
Cambridge,  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  resident  members  of  the  Univer- 
sity here  assembled,  that  a  friendly  reception  should  be  given  to  the 
meeting,  and  that,  at  the  proper  time,  application  should  be  made 
to  the  Senate  for  the  use  of  such  of  the  public  buildings  as  may  be 
required  for  the  general  purposes  of  the  Association."  Also  "That 
a  deputation  consisting  of  Professor  Adams,  Mr.  Hopkins,  and 
Mr.  C.  C.  Babington  be  appointed  to  communicate  the  purport  of 
the  preceding  resolution  to  the  Association  at  its  next  meeting, 
intended  to  be  held  at  Aberdeen." 

June  13.  Went  in  a  barge,  by  the  invitation  of  Dr.  and  Mrs. 
Cookson  (St.  Peter's  College),  to  Bottisham  Fen  and  Wicken  Fen. 
Dined  at  Upware.  Returned  at  night.  The  Cooksons,  Professor 
and  Miss  Henslovi^,  Major  Barnard,  Mr.  Hiley,  and  two  others  formed 
the  party  as  guests  of  the  Master  of  Peterhouse.  A  nice  day's 
botanizing. 

June  23.  Went  with  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Cookson  to  Chippenham. 
We  visited  the  gravel  pit,  the  fields  towards  Badingham,  finding 
plenty  of  Apera  interrupta,  and  the  park  wall.  We  found  Fapaver 
Lamottei  at  Chippenham. 

June  27.  Went  in  a  fly  with  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Cookson  to  Wicken 
Fen.  Entered  it  near  the  further  angle  in  Spinny  Bank,  and  went 
over  a  very  large  part  of  it,  leaving  near  the  windmill.  Then  went 
to  the  Upware  Quarry. 

July  2.  Whittlesford  by  the  Middle  Moor  to  Little  Shelford  and 
Hauxton.  No  trace  of  a  gravel  pit  between  Little  Shelford  and 
Hauxton  now. 

Aug.  13.  To  Cardigan.  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association. 
Joined  Barnwell  and  his  brother-in-law.  Chapman,  there. 

Aug.  20.     I  remained  to  break  up  the  museum, 

Aug.  22.  Left  Cardigan  and  arrived  at  E.  A.  Freeman's, 
Llanrumney. 

Aug.  23.  Went  with  him  and  Mr.  Binder,  of  Trinity  College, 
Oxford,  to  Chepstow  and  the  WyndclifF. 

Aug.  27.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Freeman  and  I  went  by  steamer  to 
Burnham,  and  then  to  Mr.  F.  H.  Dickenson's  at  Kingweston,  near 
Glastonbury,  to  attend  the  Somerset  Society's  Meeting. 

Sept.  2.     Arrived  at  Cambridge. 

Sept.  12.     Left  for  Aberdeen.     British  Association, 

Sept.  13.     Lodgings  with  Liveing. 

Sept.  18,     Sunday.     At  St.  Andrew's  Church. 

Sept.  19.     "Red  Lion"  dinner.     Owen  in  the  chair. 

13 


194  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1859—60 

Sept.  22.  Two  hundred  of  the  general  committee  went  to 
Balmoral  by  invitation  to  see  Highland  Games,  etc.  Started  at 
6  a.m.  by  train  to  Ballater,  then  by  omnibus  to  Balmoral,  arriving 
there  at  1.30  p.m.  Day  tolerably  fine.  The  Queen,  Prince,  and 
family  walked  about  amongst  us  for  a  long  time.  We  had  an 
excellent  cold  dinner,  and  started  back  again  at  5.45,  reaching 
Aberdeen  at  1.45  a.m. 

Sept.  26.  To  York,  to  James  Backhouse,  junr.'s,  house,  at  Bank- 
side. 

Sept.  28.     Reached  home. 

Oct.  6.  Went  to  Wisbech,  to  visit  Algernon  Peckover.  He 
drove  me  to  the  marsh  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  near  Foul 
Anchor.     Found  next  to  nothing. 

Oct.  7.  This  morning  we  went  to  Boat-inn  Ferry,  opposite 
Guyhirne,  and  returned  along  the  same  south-east  bank  of  the 
river;  also  to  Leverington,  and  the  shore  at  Horse-shoe  corner. 
Afterwards  I  walked  alone  up  the  north  bank  of  the  river,  and 
some  way  down  the  thiid  drove.  Mr.  James  Balding,  a  book- 
binder (?)  came,  and  discussed  many  native  plants.  Returned  to 
Cambridge. 

Oct.  20.  Went  to  Saffron  Walden  for  the  day,  to  attend  a 
meeting  of  the  Essex  Archaeological  Society,  Dined  with  Joshua 
Clarke. 

Oct.  27.  Went  to  Ely  with  Luard,  to  visit  the  Dean  (Goodwin) 
and  meet  C.  W.  Goodwin. 

Nov.  17.     To  London. 

N(yv.  18.  Dined  with  Franks  and  his  mother  at  55,  Upper 
Seymour  Street.  Allowed  him  to  propose  me  at  the  Society ^of 
Antiquaries. 

Dec.  14.  On  the  night  following  this  day,  the  river  was  quite 
coated  over  with  ice.     Temperature  15°. 

Dec.  15.     On  this  night  the  temperature  fell  to  8°. 

Dec.  17.  On  this  night  the  thermometer  sunk  to  4°,  on  the  18th 
to  8°,  and  on  the  night  following,  the  19th,  there  was  an  exceedingly 
rapid  thaw,  but  it  froze  again  at  night. 

Dec.  22.  Went  to  London,  to  attend  my  first  meeting  of  the 
Council  of  the  Royal  Society.  Was  admitted  a  Fellow  at  the 
"Antiquaries"  in  the  evening. 

Dec.  31.  In  remarkable  contrast  with  the  middle  of  the  month, 
the  temperature  on  the  last  night  of  the  year  did  not  fall  below 
48°  Fahr. 

1860.  Feb.  28.  A  hurricane  passed  over  Cambridge  at  12.30 
to  1  p.m.,  blowing  down  many  trees  and  two  stacks  of  chimneys. 
It  came  from  the  west  by  south. 


1860]  JOURNAL— BKITISH  ASSOCIATION  AT  OXFORD.  195 

Feb.  29.  Corrected  the  first  proof  of  my  "  Flora  of  Cambridge- 
shire." 

March  29.  Went  to  London,  to  a  meeting  of  Eoyal  Society 
Council. 

April.     This  was  a  very  cold  and  wet  month,  no  leaves  appeared. 

May  3.  Dr.  Cookson  and  I  went  by  rail  to  Six  Mile  Bottom, 
and  then  walked  to  Westley  Wood  to  get  Primula  elatior,  which  is 
abundant  there,  and  now  in  flower. 

May  4.  Corrected  the  last  revise  of  the  "  Flora  of  Cambridge- 
shire." 

May  22.  Went  with  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Cookson  to  the  thickets  by 
the  brook  near  Fulbourn,  and  saw  a  tolerable  abundance  of  Fly 
Orchis;   also  to  the  Fleam  Dyke. 

June  26.  Went  to  Oxford,  for  the  British  Association  Meeting. 
Put  into  rooms  at  Pembroke  College. 

June  27.  Dined  in  the  Common  Eoom  with  Dr.  Eolleston,  my 
kind  entertainer  here.  Dr.  Sharpie,  Secretary  of  Eoyal  Society, 
one  of  our  party  in  the  College. 

June  29.     Dined  with  Westwood. 

July  2.     "  Eed  Lion  "  dinner. 

July  4.  Meeting  ended.  Newbould  and  I  walked  to  Godstow, 
and  saw  the  Aridolochia  in  flower.  The  Port  Meadow  was  flooded, 
and  we  came  back  along  the  path  by  the  canal. 

July  5.     Left  Oxford  for  London. 

July  6.     Cambridge. 

July  13.  Dr.  Cookson  and  I  went  to  Ely;  walked  to  Stuntney, 
Half-acre  Farm,  Junction  of  Soham  Lode  with  river,  along  the  river 
back  to  Ely.  Found  an  abundance  of  Sinapis  nigra,  forming  the 
prevalent  weed  in  the  fields  and  road-sides. 

July  17.  Went  with  Dr.  Cookson  to  Triplow;  examined  the 
turf -holes,  and  went  to  a  good  piece  of  boggy  land  at  the  Great  and 
Little  Nine  Wells.  Found  there  plenty  of  Epipadis palustris,  Fumaria 
micrantha,  Filago  apiculata,  etc. 

Aug.  27.     To  Bangor,  for  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association. 

Sept.  3.  Went  by  coach  with  Lloyd  Philipps  to  Capel  Curig. 
...  to  Dolbadarn  Castle  Hotel. 

Sept.  4.  Philipps  and  I  walked  to  the  top  of  the  pass  and  back ; 
examining  the  glacial  action,  and  the  blocks  perched  upon  the  crags 
thereby. 

Sept.  6.  I  went  to  Dinas  Dinorwig,  and  examined  it  carefully, 
and  made  a  careful  plan  of  it. 


196  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1860—61 

Sept.  8.     Walked  round  the  lakes  with  Busk, 

Sept.  10.  Went  on  to  the  mountains  above  the  old  road  to 
Carnarvon,  in  search  of  perched  blocks,  and  found  several  very 
large  ones ;  then  to  Dinas  Dinorwig  to  complete  my  plan ;  then  to 
Castel,  near  Plas  Pentre,  a  flat-topped  mound  with  graduated  ascent ; 
then  by  the  slate  quarries  to  Dolbadarn. 

Sept.  11.     About  the  lakes  botanizing. 

Sept.  12.     With  Busk  to  the  Llanberis  Pass. 

Sept.  18.  Went  to  see  a  perched  block  of  quartz  on  the  rounded 
mound  of  rock  by  the  Pen-y-Llyn  toll-gate.  Afterwards  to  one  on 
the  very  edge  of  the  cliffs  between  Derlwyn  and  Pen  Careg-y-fran 
above  Llyn  Peris. 

Sept.  20.     Went  up  Snowdon  with  the  Busks. 

Sept.  24.  Busk,  his  brother  Charles,  and  I  went  with  John 
Roberts,  the  guide,  to  Cwm  Glas,  by  ascending  highly  on  Snowdon, 
and  descending  into  it.  We  went  as  far  as  the  saddle  of  turf  by 
Crib  Coch,  and  descended  into  Llanberis  Pass. 

Sept.  25.     The  same  party  went  to  Twll  Du  and  Llyn-y-Cwm. 

Sept.  28.     To  Somerleaze,  near  Wells,  to  visit  E.  A.  Freeman. 

Sept.  29.  To  Wells  with  J.  H.  Parker  and  Freeman ;  examining 
the  Cathedral  and  Vicar's  close. 

Oct.  1.  Examined  hut-circles  on  Pen  Knowle;  visited  Battle- 
bury,  Castle  Hill,  and  by  Coxley  and  Tilbury  to  Somerleaze. 

Oct.  2.    Gathered  Arctium  tomentosum  by  ditches  near  Battlebury. 

Oct.  3.  To  Evercreech,  to  see  the  church,  and  meet  Parker. 
Visited  the  old  houses,  hall,  and  church  at  Crosscombe  on  the  way 
back. 

Oct.  6.     Cambridge. 

Dec.  25.  The  temperature  fell  to  3^°  at  the  outside  of  my  rooms 
at  8.30  a.m.  this  morning.  (N.B. — This  was  the  frost  which  did  so 
much  harm  to  the  evergreens  at  Cambridge  and  elsewhere).  At 
the  Observatory,  the  lowest  temperature  was  3f°. 

1861.  April  22.  Walked  to  Gogmagog  Hills.  Anemone 
Pulsatilla  in  beauty,  and  great  abundance  in  the  pit  at  Little  Trees 
Hill.  Went  round  to  the  south-east  of  park ;  to  Copley  Hill,  where 
is  an  abundance  of  the  little  Viola  hirta ;  back  by  Woolstreet  and 
Wort's  Causeway.  Went  to  seek  for  Carex  ericetoi'um,  but  found  only 
C.  praecox. 

May  3.  Went  to  London,  to  the  meeting  of  the  Council  of  the 
British  Association,  and  returned  in  the  evening. 

May  28.  Went  the  same  round  as  on  April  22nd,  and  found 
the  Carex  ericetorum,  one  patch,  by  the  south  side  of  the  Woolstreet, 


1861]  JOURNAL— ELECTED  PROFESSOR   OF   BOTANY.  197 

nearly  opposite  to  the  Hills'  Farm.     Saw  plenty  of  OrcJiis  ustulata 
and  Astragalus  hypoglottis,  also  saw  the  Senecio  campestris  in  flower. 

"  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge, 

"Jfay  Uth,  1861. 

"  Sir, — I  beg  leave  to  announce  myself  as  a  candidate  for  the  Professorship 
of  Botany,  which  is  now  vacant,  and  venture  to  hope  for  your  favourable 
consideration,  chiefly  on  account  of  my  having  made  that  science  an  especial 
subject  of  study  during  the  most  part  of  my  long  residence  in  the  University. 
I  strongly  feel  the  inferiority  of  my  qualifications  when  compared  with  those 
of  my  deeply  lamented  friend.  Professor  Henslow,  who  possessed  in  a  pre- 
eminent degree  the  power  of  teaching  the  science  and  of  creating  a  permanent 
interest  in  it  amongst  his  hearers.  Should  I  have  the  honour  to  be  appointed 
the  successor  of  so  eminent  a  man,  it  will  be  my  constant  endeavour  to  fulfil 
the  duties  of  the  office  in  as  efficient  a  manner  as  possible. — I  have  the  honour 
to  be,  Sir,  your  most  obedient  servant,  Chaeles  C.  Babington,  M.A." 

June  12.  Elected  Professor  of  Botany  in  the  University  of 
Cambridge.  No  opposition.  Admitted  the  same  day  by  Mr. 
Neville,  Master  of  Magdalene  College,  Vice-Chancellor. 

June  18.  Went  through  London,  direct  to  Marlborough  College, 
to  help  Mr.  T.  A.  Preston  in  the  determination  of  a  Botanical  Prize. 
Was  lodged  in  the  new  building,  called  the  Sanatorium;  breakfasting 
and  dining  in  the  Common  Eoom  with  the  Masters  of  the  College. 

June  19.  Walked  to  Mildenhall,  and  some  woods  beyond  that 
place,  where  the  Polygonatum  muitiflorum  is  abundant. 

June  20.     To  the  forest,  and  over  fields  to  the  west  of  it. 

June  22.  Went  to  Collingbourne  Ducis,  to  visit  Rev.  W.  C. 
Lukis. 

June  24.  Went  to  the  barrows,  which  Lukis  is  examining, 
above  the  road  from  Everley  to  Ludgershall. 

J'lme  25.  Went  again  to  the  same  barrows,  and  examined  a 
possible  British  settlement  on  the  slope  of  the  hill,  just  under 
Sidbury  Hill  Camp. 

June  27.  To  London.  Went  at  night  to  London  Bridge  to  see 
the  great  fire. 

June  28.  Council  Meeting  of  British  Association.  Returned  to 
Cambridge. 

July  4.  Went  with  Stratton  by  rail  to  Whittlesford.  Found 
in  the  gravel  pit  to  the  west  of  the  station  Tragopogon  pratensis,  for 
the  first  time  in  the  county.  Went  along  the  Royston  road  to  the 
toll-gate,  then  turned  off,  and  followed  the  hedge-row  to  a  pond 
above  the  Little  Nine  Wells,  in  which  Scirpus  lacustris  grows ;  then 
by  Great  Nine  Wells,  and  for  some  distance  down  the  water,  then 
across  the  fields  to  the  road,  and  home  by  Newton  and  Trumpington. 

July  24.  To  Peterborough,  for  the  Archaeological  Institute 
Meeting. 


198  CHARLES  CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1861 

July  25.     Excursion  to  Oakham  and  Stamford. 

July  27.  To  Thorney  and  Crowland.  A  very  stormy  day.  A 
tremendous  hailstorm  at  Peakirk,  which  we  just  escaped ;  hailstones 
like  hazel-nuts  lay  in  heaps  by  the  road-side. 

July  29.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

Aug.  23.  To  CardiflF  and  Merthyr  Tydfil,  to  visit  G.  T.  Clark, 
at  Dowlais  House. 

Aug.  26.    To  Swansea,  for  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Meeting. 

Aug.  30.  We  wound  up  the  meeting  with  a  dinner  at  the  house 
of  the  President,  Mr.  Vivian. 

Aug.  31.     To  Shrewsbury. 

Sept.  1.    Dined  with  Rigg  at  the  school.    Tea  with  Dr.  Kennedy. 

Sept.  2.     Rigg  and  I  went  to  Uriconium. 

Sept.  3.  To  Manchester,  to  stop  with  James  Aspinall  Turner, 
M.P.,  at  Pendlebury  House,  for  the  meeting  of  the  British  Association. 

Sept.  4.  Commencement  of  the  meeting.  I  am  Chairman  of 
Section  D. 

Sept.  9.  It  was  determined  that  we  should  have  the  meeting  at 
Cambridge  in  1862. 

Sept.  12.  Conclusion  of  the  meeting  yesterday.  I  left  this 
morning,  and  went  to  South  Kilvington  Rectory,  near  Thirsk,  to 
visit  W.  T.  Kingsley. 

Sept.  14.  Spent  the  evening  with  J.  G.  Baker,  at  Thirsk, 
looking  over  his  Ruhi. 

Sept.  18.  By  rail  and  omnibus  to  Helmsley,  and  walked  to 
Rievaulx  Abbey. 

Sept.  20.  Went  to  Osmotherley,  the  top  of  the  hill  above 
ArnclifFe,  Mount  Grace  (Carthusian)  Priory.  Lunch  and  tea  with 
Mr.  Henry  Jones,  the  vicar.  Found  Trientalis  at  the  top  of  the 
Arncliife  Woods,  also  Vaccinium  Vitis-idaea  (in  flower  and  fruit  at 
the  same  time). 

Sept.  21.  Mr.  E.  B.  Dennison  came.  We  were  in  Thirsk 
examining  the  clock  and  bells  most  of  the  day. 

Sept.  23.  We  went  in  a  carriage  to  Byland  Abbey,  and  over 
the  hill  to  Rievaulx  Abbey,  and  returned  by  the  way  of  the  White- 
stone-cliff  hill. 

Sept.  26.  Went  to  a  small  black  pond,  embedded  in  wood,  near 
Kirby  Knowe,  formed  about  sixty  years  since  by  a  landslip. 

Sept.  27.  Went  again  to  Mount  Grace,  to  examine  it  with  more 
care  than  we  could  do  before. 

Sept.  28.     Cambridge. 


1861—62]  JOURNAL— BOTANICAL  LECTURES,  Etc.  199 

Nov.  21.     To  London. 

Nov.  22.     Examined  Iso'etes  at  British  Museum.     Cambridge. 

1862.  Commenced  printing  the  5th  edition  of  the  "Manual" 
on  January  4th,  1862,  and  finished  it  on  April  16th. 

A  cold  wet  winter  and  spring.  I  did  not  sleep  out  of  College 
between  November  22nd,  1861,  and  April  14th,  1862. 

April  14.  Bonney  and  I  went  by  rail  to  Six  Mile  Bottom. 
Walked  to  Westley  Wood  to  look  for  Primula  elatior ;  abundance 
of  it,  but  very  little  come  into  flower.  Then  by  Carleton  Grange, 
Linnet's  Hall,  across  the  country  by  Conger's  Well  to  Dungate. 
Had  an  early  dinner  with  Frere,  and  returned  along  the  top  of  the 
Fleam  Dyke  to  Shardelows  Well,  Fulbourn,  Cherry  Hinton  Church, 
to  Cambridge.  Anemone  Pulsatilla  in  fine  flower,  and  abundant  on 
the  Fleam  Dyke. 

May  1.  Commenced  my  first  course  of  botanical  lectures  on 
four  days  in  each  week. 

May  3.  No  lecture  to-day,  so  walked  with  Hiley  to  Gogs  and 
Woolstreet.  Anemone  Pulsatilla  in  flower.  Saw  several  patches  of 
Carez  ericetorum  on  the  last  ascent  of  Woolstreet  towards  Cambridge. 

May  10.  Took  some  of  my  class  to  Coton,  Whitwell,  Madingley 
Wood,  and  back.     Paris  in  plenty,  and  full  flower. 

May  17.     With  class  to  Cherry  Hinton. 

May  24.  By  rail  to  Fulbourn  with  class.  Along  brook  side  and 
Fleam  Dyke. 

May  29.  Concluded  my  lectures ;  seventeen  and  two  field  in 
all.     Term  too  short  for  more. 

Jtdy  22.  Bonney  and  I  went  by  the  new  railway  to  Potton,  and 
visited  Gamlingay.  The  last  little  bit  of  the  bog  was  bearing  a  crop 
of  potatoes.  Every  spot  is  so  thoroughly  under  cultivation  now  that 
the  botanizing  is  poor.  Saw  Arnoseris  pusilla,  Filago  apiculata, 
Papaver  Lamottei. 

Aug.  6.     To  Lichfield,  to  visit  T.  G.  Babington. 

Aug.  11.     To  Bangor.     Newbould  joined  me  there. 

Aug.  12.  We  went  to  Holyhead,  and  found  Helianthemum 
Breweri  abundantly  by  the  roadside  near  the  South  Stack.  Mr. 
J.  Gay,  of  Paris,  joined  us  at  Bangor. 

Aug.  13.  We  three  went  to  "Padarn  Villa"  Hotel.  Found 
Iso'etes  ecMnospm-a  in  the  lower  lake  near  Ynys,  on  left  bank.  Sent 
fresh  specimens  of  /.  echinospoi'a  to  Salter,  to  be  drawn  for  E.  B.  S. 
(N.B. — Sowerby  really  drew  them.) 

Aug.  15.  To  Llyn-y-Cwm.  In  the  smaller  lake  I  got  /.  echino- 
spora.    Mr.  Gay  was  very  much  fatigued  by  his  trip  to  Llyn-y-Cwm. 


200  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1862—63 

Aug.  16.  Newbould  and  I  went  to  Llyndwythwch,  (?)  and  got 
Isoetes  lacustris  with  curiously  hooked  fronds. 

Aug.  18.  "Went  with  Mr.  Gay  and  Newbould  to  the  top  of 
Snowdon.  On  the  descent  I  left  thenx  and  examined  a  part  of 
Clogwyn-ddur-arddu. 

Aug.  20.  Went  with  Newbould  to  Cwm-y-Glo,  and  found  Isoetes 
echinospora  in  the  river,  soon  after  it  issues  from  the  lakes. 

Aug.  21.     To  Ruthin,  to  Barnwell's. 

Aug.  23.     To  Chester,  Birmingham,  and  Exeter. 

Aug.  24.  To  Truro,  for  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association 
Meeting. 

Au^.  28.     Penzance  and  Land's  End. 

Aug.  30.     Meeting  ended. 

Se2}t.  1.  Carn  Brae,  to  try  and  make  out  more  about  it,  but  now 
not  very  successful. 

Sept.  2.  James  Graves  and  I  left  Truro,  and  joined  Warre  and 
Freeman  at  Weston-super-mare,  to  examine  Worle  Hill.  In  the 
evening  we  went  to  Freeman's  house  at  Somerleaze,  Wells. 

Sept.  4.  Freeman  being  unwell.  Graves  and  I  went  to  Glaston- 
bury to  see  the  remains.  Ascended  the  Tor ;  also  spent  some  time 
at  Wells. 

Sept.  13.  Returned  to  Cambridge,  and  immediately  became 
fully  engaged  in  the  arrangements  for  the  British  Association 
Meeting,  being  one  of  the  local  secretaries. 

Oct.  1.     British  Association  Meeting  commenced  at  Cambridge. 

Oct.  4.  Went  with  a  large  party  by  rail  to  Hunstanton.  Found 
in  Holme  Marsh  Statice  caspia,  Chenopodium  botryodes,  Blysmus  com- 
pressus. 

Oct.  6.  Dinner  at  St.  John's  to  a  large  number  of  members  of 
the  British  Association.  (N.B. — A  great  many  were  placed  in  rooms 
during  the  meeting,  and  given  breakfast  in  the  Combination  room 
and  dinner  in  Hall  every  day  from  Wednesday  1st  to  Wednesday 
8th  inclusive.) 

Oct.  7.  A  new  club,  to  be  called  the  "Thorough,"  was  in- 
augurated ;  the  "  Red  Lions "  having  fallen  into  a  diflferent  set 
from  those  who  started  it  under  poor  Edward  Forbes,  and  supported 
it  for  some  time  after  his  death. 

Oct.  8.  The  meeting  of  the  Association  concluded.  Between 
1100  and  1200  tickets  issued.     Very  good  in  all  other  respects. 

1863.  Feb.  4.  Joseph  Power  gave  a  dinner  to  the  members 
and  associates  of  the  Ray  Club. 


1863]       JOURNAL— BOTANIZING  WITH  VARIOUS  FRIENDS.         201 

Feb.  5.  Went  to  London,  to  extract  matter  from  Herbarium 
and  papers  and  books  at  the  British  Museum  for  "Flora  of  Iceland." 

April.  This  has  been  a  singularly  mild  winter ;  no  continuous 
frost,  although  most  nights  have  been  frosty,  and  continue  to  be  so. 
The  lowest  temperature  was  November  13th,  19°. 

April  20.     Commenced  my  second  course  of  lectures. 

April  26.  Bonney,  Hiley  and  I  went  to  the  Woolstreet,  and 
found  in  flower  Potentilla  verna,  Viola  hirta  calcarm,  Carex  ericetorum 
just  producing  its  fruit. 

May  9.  Syme  came  for  the  day.  He  and  I  went  to  the  GrOgs, 
and  found  Anemone  Pulsatilla,  Senecio  campestris,  Viola  hirta  calcarea, 
Potentilla  verna,  and  Carex  ericetorum,  also  Muscari  racemosum. 

May  22.     Concluded  my  lectures. 

May  25.  Went  with  some  of  my  class,  and  also  some  geologists, 
to  Hunstanton  for  the  day. 

Jime  23.  Old  houses  in  St.  John's  Street,  and  the  "  Labyi'inth  " 
of  St.  John's  College  commenced  being  taken  down. 

June  24.  Bonney  and  I  went  to  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  and  then 
to  Icklingham,  where  we  found  satisfactory  quarters  at  a  little  inn. 
We  examined  the  gravel  pits  close  to  the  village,  and  at  Rampart 
Field,  and  obtained  a  few  stone  implements  from  them. 

June  25.  I  botanized,  and  Bonney  again  hunted  for  shaped 
stones.  In  the  afternoon  we  met  Sir  C.  Lyell  and  Mr.  Prigg,  of 
Bury,  at  Rampart  Field,  and  opened  an  ancient  trench,  but  without 
much  success.  Gathered  at  Icklingham  Apera  interrupta,  Scleranthus 
perennis,  Silene  conica,  Veronica  triphyllos,  Medicago  minima,  Silene 
otites. 

July  13.  Bonney  and  I  went  to  Hunstanton  for  the  day.  I 
botanized  on  the  coast,  and  in  the  Holme  Marsh.  Saw  an  abundance 
of  the  Statice  caspia  in  the  uncultivated  part  of  the  marsh,  also  Suaeda 
fruticosa,  Triticum  acutum,  Frankenia  levis. 

Aug.  12.  Left  Cambridge,  and  arrived  at  John  Rigg's  house,  at 
the  Schools,  Shrewsbury. 

Aug.  13.  Meeting  of  the  Caradoc  Field  Club  at  Church  Stretton. 
A  very  large  number  present.  .  .  .  The  day  was  very  hot,  and  we 
did  little  more  than  ascend  Caer  Caradoc. 

Aug.  14.  Rigg  and  I  walked  to  the  marshy  ground,  below  a 
quarry,  on  the  right-hand  of  the  lane  leading  to  Berwick.  The 
place  is  just  on  entering  the  wood.  We  there  found  Bubus  fissus 
and  Pi,,  suherectus,  also  Agrimonia  odorata. 

Aug.  18.  Went  to  Newton  Station,  and  walked  over  the 
Breiddan  to  Criggion,  to  see  L.  Darwall. 


202  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1863—64 

Aug.  24.  To  Kington,  for  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association 
Meeting. 

Aug.  29.  Left  Kington  at  the  conclusion  of  the  meeting.  .  .  . 
Eeached  Carnarvon,  where  W.  W.  Newbould  joined  me. 

Aug.  31.     Llanberis. 

Sept.  1.  We  went  to  Llyn-y-cwm-Ffynnon.  Found  Rubus  Borreri 
and  Arctium  intermedium.  Noticed  that  the  Rubi  ended  abruptly  at 
an  elevation  of  600 — 625  feet. 

Sept.  4.  To  Llyn  Dwythwch,  to  obtain  an  observation  for  the 
altitude.     Saw  the  hooked  state  of  Isoetes  lacustris,  as  last  year. 

Sept.  6.  Sunday.  Newbould  preached  a  good  sermon  at  the 
school-house. 

Sept.  23.     Cambridge. 

Oct.  20.  My  Botanical  Certificate  Examination.  Thirty-nine 
men  examined :  thirty -seven  passed,  of  whom  nearly  all  did  very 
well. 

Nov.  10.  Went  to  London,  to  the  sale  of  the  Linnean  Society's 
collections,  and  returned  by  mail  at  night. 

Nov.  24.  Dined  with  Lord  Powis  at  the  "  Clarendon  "  Hotel,  on 
his  Inauguration  as  High  Steward  of  the  University  of  Cambridge. 

Dec.  17,  18.     Examining  Bubi  at  Kew. 

1864.  April  15.  Elected  a  member  of  the  Council  of  the 
Senate  in  the  place  of  the  new  Bishop  of  Ely. 

May  16.    Went  with  a  few  of  my  class  to  Hunstanton  for  the  day. 

Jidy  28.  Went  with  Hanbury  and  G.  Jones,  of  Queens',  to 
Hunstanton.  We  went  further  along  Holme  Marsh  than  I  have 
previously  done.  We  found  Statice  caspia,  S.  Limonium,  S.  Bahv^iensis, 
and  S.  occidentalis,  in  what  was  the  marsh. 

Aug.  17.     Left  Cambridge. 

Aug.  18.     To  Dowlais  House,  G.  T.  Clark. 

Aug.  19.  Clark  took  me  to  an  old  Manor  House  (now  farm), 
called  Pandy  Llanciach. 

Aug.  22.  To  Haverfordwest,  for  the  Cambrian  Archaeological 
Association  Meeting. 

Aug.  24.     To  St.  Davids  with  Association.     Went  to  the  Head. 

Aug.  27.     Meeting  ended. 

Aug.  29.  Pembroke  Castle  and  neighbourhood.  In  the  after- 
noon to  Stackpole  Court. 

Aug.  31.  The  Bishop  of  Winchester  came  for  the  morning. 
We  went  to  St.  Gowan's  Chapel  (all  round  the  rocks  there,  as  it 
was  low  water),  and  to  the  Huntsman's  Leap,  Stacks,  etc. 


1864—65]  JOURNAL— VISITS  SOUTH  WALES  &  SOMERSET.  203 

Sept.  1.  I  went  to  look  at  the  encampment  at  Warren,  and 
came  back  along  the  hill  by  St.  Twinnel's  and  St.  Petrox  churches ; 
afterwards  walked  all  round  the  cliffs  of  Stackpole  Warren. 

Sept.  2.  Lord  Cawdor  and  I  walked  by  Stackpole  Quay,  along 
the  cliffs  to  camp  at  Greenala  Point,  and  the  south  side  of  East 
Freshwater  Bay;  back  by  Trewent  and  Cheriton.  The  camp  is 
similar  to  the  other  coast  forts.  It  has  three  or  four  banks,  and 
ditches  from  cliff  to  cliflF. 

Sept.  3.  We  went  to  the  Broad  Haven  Sands  and  sand  pit,  a 
remarkable  access  to  a  sandy  bay  through  a  passage  in  the  hill. 

Sunday.     Bosheston  Church. 

Left  Stackpole  Court;   went  to  South  Wales  Hotel, 

To  Tenby  ;  fell  in  with  Lock,  of  Trinity,  and  had  lunch 

To  Chepstow. 
To  Bath. 

Day  with  the  Fowlers. 

To  Swanswick ;  returned  to  dine  with  the  Fowlers. 

Sunday.    Church,  and  day  at  Swanswick,  with  J.  Earle. 

To  5,  Cavendish  Place,  to  stay  during  the  British 
Association  Meeting  with  S.  Sneade  Brown. 

Sept.  14.     Meeting  commenced. 

Sept.  15.  Balfour  and  I  walked  over  the  hill  to  Brass-knocker 
and  Aqueduct.     Returned  along  the  canal  by  Bathampton  to  Bath. 

Sept.  17.  With  large  party  to  Frome.  Saw  Nunney  Castle,  which 
is  small,  fine,  and  interesting.  A  single  massive  tower,  with  round 
•corner  towers.     Took  tea  with  Mrs.  Sheppard  at  Fromefield. 

Sept.  18.     Sunday.     Bath. 

Sept.  21.     British  Association  Meeting  ended. 

Sept.  22.     Left  Bath.     To  Somerleaze,  Wells. 

Sept.  29.     Evening  party  at  the  Bishop's,  at  Wells. 

Oct.  5.     To  Cambridge. 

1865.  Jan.  19.  Commenced  removing  the  Botanical  Museum 
from  the  old  room  by  the  Anatomical  Museum  to  the  rooms  in  the 
New  Museums. 

Feb.  5.  Went  to  Oakington,  to  be  godfather  to  the  Rev.  W.  G. 
Searle's  little  boy. 

A  very  cold,  bad  winter,  until  April  2nd. 


Sept.  4. 

Sept.  5. 
Neyland. 

Sept.  6. 
at  his  house. 

Sept.  7. 

Sept.  8. 

Sept.  9. 

Sept.  10. 

Sept.  11. 

Sept.   12. 

204  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1865 

Apiil  13.  Took  my  first  walk  into  the  country  with  Mr.  Mudd. 
To  Gogmagogs,  Woolstreet,  and  Cherry  Hinton.  Saw  the  Anemone 
Pulsatilla  abundantly  in  flower  in  the  old  chalk  pit. 

April  25.     Commenced  my  lectures  in  the  New  Lecture  Room. 

June  5.  Went  with  ten  of  my  class,  E.  Thompson,  of  Christ's, 
and  Mudd,  the  curator,  to  Hunstanton.  We  had  a  fine  day,  and 
succeeded  very  well. 

June  21.    Went  to  Bath.    (S.  Sneade  Brown,  5,  Cavendish  Place). 

June  22.  Drove  by  Coombe  Hay,  Wellow,  Charterhouse  Hinton, 
Midford,  and  back. 

June  23.     Drove  to  Monckton  Farleigh  and  South  Wraxhall. 

June  25.  Sunday.  Went  to  both  services  at  Swanswick,  and 
spent  the  rest  of  the  day  at  the  rectory  with  the  Rev.  John  and 
Mrs.  Earle. 

June  27.  Drove  over  Lansdown  to  Wyck,  and  back  by  Bridge 
Gate,  Old  Land  Common,  and  Bitton. 

June  29.     Went  with  a  large  party  to  Castle  Coombe. 

June  30.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

July.  Was  occupied  much  of  this  month  with  the  removal  of 
the  library  of  the  Philosophical  Society  from  All  Saints'  Passage  to 
the  New  Museums,  and  in  fitting  up  the  room  for  it. 

July  17.  J.  W.  Salter  came  here  to  draw  Bubi  for  me.  Un- 
fortunately he  was  unwell  most  of  the  time,  and  therefore  did  less 
than  I  had  hoped ;  he  was  here  until  August  5th. 

Aug.  18.     To  Chester. 

Aug.  19.  To  Liverpool,  and  by  steamer  to  the  Isle  of  Man,  in 
five  hours  exactly ;  more  than  600  people  on  the  packet. 

Aug.  20.     Walked  to  Kirk  Braddon. 

Aiig.  21.  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association  Meeting  com- 
menced. 

Aug.  25.     Meeting  concluded. 

Aug.  26.  Botanized  near  the  town  of  Douglas.  Left  by  steamer 
for  Dublin. 

Aug.  27.  Sunday.  Went  to  the  morning  service  at  St.  Patrick's 
Cathedral.  A  very  large  congregation,  but  constant  moving  about 
allowed  on  the  outskirts  all  the  time. 

Aug.  28.     Exhibition  and  Royal  Irish  Academy. 

Aug.  29.     To  Drogheda  and  New  Grange  with  Lloyd  Philipps. 

Aug.  30.  Philipps  left.  I  went  to  Glasnevin  Garden  to 
D.  Moore.     With  him  and  Capt.  Hutton  to  Phoenix  Park,  where 


1865—66]  JOURNAL— MARRIAGE   AT   BATH.  205 

we  found  Hedera  canariensis  growing  on  trees  in  a  wild  part,  and 
really  a  native.     Dined  with  Capt.  Hutton. 

Aug.  31.  Exhibition  again.  Dined  with  Sir  William  Wilde. 
Left  Dublin — to  Holyhead. 

Sept.l.     ToLlanberis.     "  Padarn  Villa  "  Hotel. 

Sept.  2.     Walked  round  the  lake  and  got  Ruhi  for  Salter. 

Sept.  4.  With  Hugh  Lewis  to  a  spot  high  up  on  the  further  side 
of  the  mass  of  mountain  which  projects  into  the  pass  on  the  left 
side  to  see  Asplenium  alternifoUum.  He  shewed  me  one  small  plant 
of  it,  and  knows  of  another.     Saw  plenty  of  A.  septentrionale. 

Sept.  5.  Went  to  Birmingham  for  the  meeting  of  the  British 
Association.  Breakfasted,  and  often  dined,  at  Mathew's  house 
during  the  meeting. 

Sept.  13.     Cambridge. 

Oct.  1.  Sunday.  We  dined  for  the  first  time  in  the  new  Hall 
of  St.  John's  College. 

Oct.  5.     To  Bath. 

Oct.  8.     Sunday.     Spent  it  at  Swanswick  with  Earle. 

Oct.  9.  To  Bristol  to  see  the  Clifton  Suspension  Bridge.  Saw 
remarkably  fine  Ruhus  idaeus  in  Leigh  Woods. 

Oct.  10.  Went  with  S.  Sneade  Brown,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph 
Brown,  and  A.  M.  W,  to  Salisbury,  where  we  saw  the  Cathedral 
well,  then  to  Old  Sarum,  which  we  also  fully  examined ;  then  heavy 
rain  came  on,  and  we  could  not  go  to  Stonehenge,  as  was  intended, 
but  were  detained  at  the  little  inn  until  it  was  time  to  return 
through  heavy  rain  to  the  railway,  which  took  us  back  to  Bath. 

Oct.  13.     Returned  to  Cambridge. 

Dec.  9.     To  Bath,  to  Richard  S.  Fowler's,  6,  Belmont. 

Dec.  26.     To  Cambridge. 

1866.     Jan.  3.     To  Bath,  to  stay  at  R.  S.  Fowler's  house. 

Feb.  2.     To  Cambridge. 

Feb.  19.  Earle  came  to  stay  with  me  in  St.  John's  College  until 
Friday,  23rd. 

March  29.     To  Bath,  to  R.  S.  Fowler's. 

April  3.  Easter  Tuesday.  Married  at  Walcot  Church,  Bath,  to 
my  very  dear  Annie.  .  .  . 

April  24.     To  Cambridge. 

April  26.     Commenced  lectures  with  about  forty-five  men. 

May  6.  Dined  in  St.  John's  Hall  for  the  first  time  as  a  guest  of 
the  College. 


206  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1866—67 

May  30.  Went  to  Linton  with  some  of  my  class,  to  the  Furze 
Hills,  Rivey  Wood,  Bartlow  Hills,  and  Essex  side  of  brook. 

June  21.  To  Stapleford,  to  examine  some  stone  coffins  in  the 
church.  We  took  two  very  short  skulls  from  them  for  the  Ana- 
tomical Museum. 

Jvly  5.    We  went  to  Brandon  to  meet  the  Norfolk  Archaeologists. 

Aug.  21.  We  went  to  Glan  Hafren,  Montgomeryshire,  to  visit 
Canon  and  Mrs.  Herbert. 

Aug.  27.     To  Machynlleth. 

Aug.  28 — 31.  Meeting  of  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Associa- 
tion. I  had  to  take  the  chair  on  each  evening  because  the  President, 
Lord  Vane,  did  not  qualify  or  shew  himself  to  us. 

Sept.  1.     To  Dolgelly. 

Sept.  4.     Llanberis. 

Sept.  8.     We  went  up  Snowdon. 

Sept.  12.     To  Penmaenmawr. 

Sept.  17.  Walked  from  Conway  to  Pen-y-Gaer;  it  is  a  grand 
hill  fort,  wibh  stones  fixed  in  the  ground,  outside  the  trenches.  The 
inner  trench  has  had  a  stone  wall  over  it. 

Sept.  18.     We  went  to  Rugeley  to  visit  Mrs.  Bonney  and  family. 

Sept.  21.     To  T.  G.  Babington,  Lichfield. 

Oct.  2.     To  Allestree  Hall,  T.  W.  Evans. 

Oct  4.     Cambridge. 

1867.  Feh.  15.  We  went  to  Somersham  to  spend  a  few  days 
with  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Pinnock.  Drove  over  by  way  of  Earith  where 
the  Ouse  had  flooded  the  washes  of  the  Hundred  Foot. 

Feh.  16.  I  returned  for  the  day  to  attend  the  prelections  of 
candidates  for  the  Greek  Professorship. 

May  6.     Commenced  my  lectures. 

May  20.  Went  to  London  as  one  of  a  deputation  from  the 
Council  to  the  Representatives  of  the  University,  about  the  right  of 
the  members  of  the  University  to  vote  for  M.P.'s. 

June  3.     Concluded  my  lectures. 

July  1.  We  went  to  St.  Margaret's,  Southelmham,  to  visit  the 
Holmes'. 

July  2.     To  Shipmeadow  and  the  Marshes. 

July  5.     To  Flixton  Marshes. 

Aug.  8.     To  Sir  C.  Lighton's  at  Ellastone. 


1867]  JOURNAL— DEVON  AND   CORNWALL.  207 

Aiig.  9.  To  Alton  Towers,  and  were  greatly  pleased  with  the 
fine  gardens  and  grounds. 

Aug.  10.  To  Dovedale.  A  magnificent  day  for  that  beautiful 
place. 

Aug.  12.    To  Hereford  for  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Meeting. 

Aug.  17.     The  meeting  ended. 

Aug.  19.  To  Glan  Hafren  to  visit  Canon  and  Mrs.  Herbert,  and 
continued  there  until  September  3rd.  To  Swansea,  by  Llanidloes, 
Brecon,  and  the  newly  opened  line  (at  an  elevation  of  c.  1300  feet). 

Sept.  4.     To  Ilfracombe,  a  rough  sea. 

Sept.  6.     To  Barnstaple  and  Bideford. 

Sept.  7.  Drove  to  Clovelly  and  walked  through  the  grounds  of 
the  court.  We  found  Senecio  squalidus  on  a  wall  in  the  town  of 
Bideford. 

Sept.  9.     To  Exeter  and  Penzance. 

Sept.  10.  Walked  along  the  coast  to  Mousehole,  and  back  by 
the  lanes. 

Sept.  11.     Drove  to  the  Logan  Eock  and  Land's  End. 

Sept.  13.     To  Falmouth. 

Sept.  14.  Walked  through  the  town  of  Falmouth,  and  up  the 
water  to  Penhryn,  and  back  by  the  inland  road. 

Sept.  18.  We  went  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Newmarch  to  the  Lizard, 
by  Constantine  and  Gweek,  and  through  Trelowarren  Woods. 
Visited  Kynance  Cove  and  the  Lizard  Head.  Dined  at  the  Hotel, 
and  returned  by  Helston,  where  our  friends  left  us  to  go  back  alone. 

Sept.  20.  Went  by  rail  to  Perranwell  Station ;  walked  by 
Sticken  Bridge,  up  the  valley,  along  the  south  side  of  Edgecombe 
Down  Woods  to  entrance  to  Carclew.  Back  by  the  road  through 
the  woods  to  the  head  of  the  estuary,  and  to  the  station  again. 
Found  a  small  quantity  of  Erica  ciliaris  on  the  left  hand  of  the  latter 
road  and  in  the  wood  there.     Also  found  Lastrea  aemula. 

Sept.  23.  To  Totnes.  Drove  to  Berry  Pomeroy  Castle.  Fine 
situation,  but  the  building  of  very  little  interest. 

Sept.  24.  By  steamer  down  the  Dart  to  Dartmouth ;  the  river 
is  not  nearly  so  fine  as  is  reported.     To  Torquay. 

Sept.  26.     To  Tiverton,  to  visit  Mr.  Hudleston  Stokes. 

Oct.  1.     To  Salisbury. 

Oct.  2.     Drove  to  Stonehenge  and  Wilton. 

Oct.  4.     Cambridge. 


208  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1867—68 

Oct.  14.  Went  to  Whittlesford,  for  Mr.  G.  N.  Maynard  to  shew 
me  the  station  of  Aristolochia  Clemcditis.  It  grows  in  a  garden  and 
hedge  on  the  right-hand  of  the  first  road  to  the  left  of  the  road 
leading  to  Mickle  Moor.  Went  then  to  call  at  Pampisford  Hall, 
and  walked  home  by  Babraham  and  the  Gogs. 

Nov.  21.  We  went  to  Kew,  to  visit  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Hooker,  and 
returned  from  them  on  the  25th.     To  Cambridge. 

1868.  Jan.  28.  Talbot  Bury  came  to  stop  with  us,  about  the 
new  St.  Barnabas  Church. 

Jan.  30.     He  and  I  went  to  Ely. 

April  23.     Commenced  my  lectures. 

May  13.  Walked  with  pupils  up  the  Everton  road,  to  Snow 
Hill,  by  Bunker's  Hill  to  Stratford  and  Sandy.  Dined  together  at 
the  "Greyhound." 

June  3.     To  London,  to  Mr.  Newmarch's,  Clapham  Common. 

June  10.  I  went  with  Mr.  Newmarch  to  see  the  London  Sewage 
Manure  Farm  in  Essex.  Dined  with  Mr.  Hope.  Obtained  in  one 
season  80 — 100  tons  of  Italian  rye  grass  by  the  use  of  5 — 6000  tons 
of  sewage,  from  a  barren,  gravelly  soil. 

June  11.  We  attended  the  Palestine  Fund  Meeting  at  Willis' 
Rooms. 

June  16.  To  York.  Spent  the  evening  with  James  Backhouse, 
junr. 

June  17.     Lunched  with  Canon  Hey. 

June  18.  We  went  by  way  of  Thirsk  to  Ripon,  and  there  took 
a  carriage  to  Studley  Park,  and  walked  through  the  grounds  to 
Fountains  Abbey.  The  most  remarkable  part  of  the  ruins  is  the 
crypt,  under  what  was  the  dormitory  of  the  monks.  The  cathedral 
at  Ripon  is  small,  but  interesting,  and  of  good  architecture.  We 
saw  Wilfrid's  Needle  under  the  church,  the  use  of  which  is  unknown. 
Returned  by  Knaresborough. 

June  19.     To  Filey. 

June  22.  It  is  remarkable  that  there  are  absolutely  no  maritime 
plants  on  this  coast :  the  crumbling  clay  of  the  hills  seems  to  pre- 
vent it. 

June  23.  Went  by  steamer  to  Bridlington,  passing  close  under 
the  cliffs  of  Flamborough  Head.  Visited  the  town  of  Bridlington 
Quay.  Walked  by  the  coast  to  Flamborough,  and  to  the  little  bay 
called  North  Sea. 

June  25.  Went  to  a  little  valley  (Primrose  Valley)  to  the  south 
of  the  town,  half-a-mile  or  so,  and  found  Geranium  sanguineum 
abundantly. 


1868—69]  CAMBRIAN   ARCHAEOLOGICAL  ASSOCIATION.  209 

July  2.     Went  to  Lincoln  by  way  of  Hull. 

July  3.  Spent  most  of  the  day  with  the  Eev.  E.  and  Mrs. 
Venables  (Precentory). 

July  4.     To  Cambridge. 

July  7.     Went  for  the  day  with  J.  T.  Moggridge  to  Hunstanton. 

Statice  caspia  in  flower. 

July  9.     Went  with  him  and  Mudd  to  Wicken  Fen Saw 

wheat  cut  in  a  field  near  Milton.     We  did  not  find  Aster  salignus, 
from  a  mistake. 

July  12.  I  went  to  London,  to  be  photographed  for  the  Royal 
Society  picture,  by  Edwards. 

Aug.  25.  To  Portmadoc,  for  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association. 

Aug.  27.  We  drove  up  the  vale  from  Llanbedr  to  Cwm  Bychan, 
which  is  well-wooded  and  exceedingly  beautiful.  Ascended  the 
famous  steps  in  the  Bwlch-y-Tyddiad,  mis-named  by  some  of  the 
party  Bwlch-y-Drws-Ardudwy,  which  is  at  the  head  of  the  other 
branch  of  the  valley. 

Aug.  28.     To  Eriri  Mons. 

Aug.  22.     To  Criccieth,  to  conclude  the  meeting. 

Aug.  31.     To  Llanberis. 

Sept.  1.     In  our  old  lodgings  with  Mrs.  Griffiths. 

Sept.  5.  Went  up  Snowdon,  and  descended  to  the  top  of  the 
Llanberis  Pass. 

Oct.  9.     Cambridge. 

Oct.  15.  Went  to  see  the  effects  of  the  whirlwind  at  Shelf ord. 
It  blew  down  the  parapet  of  the  railway  bridge,  for  thirty  feet,  and 
twisted  off  about  forty  large  trees. 

1869.     March  22.     We  went  to  Bath. 

March  31.  We  spent  the  day  at  Melksham  with  the  Barnwells. 
Drove  to  South  Wraxhall  Hall  and  Great  Chalfield. 

July  1.     We  went  to  visit  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hort  at  St.  Ippolyts. 

July  3.     Saw  the  old  chestnut  at  Little  Wymondley. 

July  4.  Sunday.  Morning  at  Great  Wymondley;  afternoon 
at  St.  Ippolyts. 

July  6.  We  spent  the  day  at  Hunstanton  with  Professor  and 
Mrs.  Cowell. 

July  20.  To  Cockfield  Rectory  (Churchill  Babington),  for  Royal 
Archaeological  Institute  at  Bury. 

July  22.     Dined  at  Hardwick  House  with  Lady  CuUum. 

14 


210  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1869 

Aug.  5.  We  left  home  for  the  autumn,  and  arrived  at  Somer- 
leaze,  to  visit  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Freeman. 

Aug.  6.     Spent  the  day  at  Wells,  about  the  Cathedral,  etc. 

Aug.  7.     Visited  Glastonbury. 

Aug.  8.     Sunday.     Wookey  Church  and  Wells  Cathedral. 

Aug.  9.  We  went  to  Bridgend,  for  the  meeting  of  the  Cambrian 
Archaeological  Association ;  on  our  way  we  had  time  for  a  visit  to 
St.  Mary  RedclifFe  Church,  Bristol.  The  Earl  of  Dunraven  asked 
us  to  Dunraven  Castle,  but  we  could  not  stay  there  because  of  its 
distance  from  the  town.  The  meeting  ended  on  the  14th,  when  we 
went  to  Pembrokeshire. 

Aug.  19.  I  went  to  Burton,  to  try  and  find  some  avenues  of 
stones  observed  by  Sir  G.  Wilkinson ;  hoping  to  find  the  Rev. 
J.  Tombs  at  home,  and  be  guided  by  him  to  the  place,  as  my 
information  concerning  it  was  very  imperfect.  I  did  not  find  him, 
and  so  saw  nothing  of  the  stones. 

Aug.  23.     We  went  to  Maentwrog. 

Aug.  25.  Spent  the  morning  most  pleasantly  in  the  woods  of 
Plas  Tan-y-Bwlch.     Saw  there  Bubus  suberedus. 

Aug.  26.  Drove  to  Beddgelert.  Met  there  Van  Voorst,  W. 
Francis,  and  David  Forbes. 

Aug.  28.     To  Llanberis. 

Aug.  31.  We  went  with  Canon  and  Mrs.  Crosthwaite  (of  Leeds) 
by  car  to  the  foot  of  Cwm  Patric,  and  then  walked  up  it  to  TwU  Du, 
and  returned  by  the  other  way. 

Sept.  2.  Walked  with  the  Crosthwaites  to  Bwlch-y-Maes-Cwm. 
A  beautiful  day,  and  magnificent  views.  A.  G.  More  came  to  us 
for  a  few  days. 

Sept.  27.  Went  to  Capel  Curig,  and  Bettws-y-Coed,  to  Mrs. 
Hughes,  Llugwy  Cottage.  Walked  to  Ffosnoddyn  (Fairy  Glen), 
just  beyond  the  junction  of  the  Lledr  with  the  Conway ;  there 
the  river  rushes  through  a  narrow  and  deep  cleft  in  the  rock.  It  is 
a  beautiful  spot.  Went  on  along  the  river  bank  by  a  very  rough 
path  to  a  fine  rapid  at  about  half-a-mile  from  this,  up  the  Conway, 
and  had  much  trouble  in  getting  up  to  the  old  road.  Along  that  to 
the  fall  of  the  Conway,  near  the  junction  of  the  Machno  with  it. 
Then  to  the  junction,  and  home. 

Sept.  29.  By  train  to  Llanrwst.  Walked  to  Gwydir,  and  went 
over  the  house,  which  is  very  dark,  and  full  of  old  oak  carving.  .  . 
In  the  afternoon  to  the  moor  on  the  top. 

Sept.  30.     To  Dolwyddelan  Castle. 


1869—70]     JOURNAL— NORTH  WALES   AND   CAMBRIDGE.  211 

Oct.  1.  Ascended  the  very  steep  path  through  the  wood  to 
Llyn-y-Parc,  and  returned  by  the  back  of  the  hill  to  the  Pont-y-Pair 
at  Bettws. 

Oct.  2.     Drove  to  Corwen.     By  rail  to  Shrewsbury. 

Oct.  3.  Breakfasted  with  Mr.  Moss,  and  dined  with  the  Riggs, 
at  the  Schools. 

Oct.  4.  "Went  to  Ludlow  and  back.  Saw  the  castle,  church,  etc. 
Went  to  the  Riggs'  in  the  evening. 

Oct.  5.     Cambridge. 

Oct.  9.     A.  G.  More  came  to  visit  us,  and  left  again  on  the  13th. 

1870.  Jan.  20.  Went  to  London  to  communicate  my  "Iceland 
Flora  "  to  the  Linnean  Society. 

Afril  8.  We  went  to  Bath.  Finished  correcting  proofs  of 
"Iceland  Flora." 

April  21.  Dr.  W.  Fair  lie  Clarke  and  Caroline  Walker  were 
married  at  Walcot  Church. 

April  28.  Commenced  lectures ;  also  Lectures  to  Women  on 
two  days  in  each  week  in  addition. 

May  11.     Talbot  Bury  came  to  us  until  the  14th. 

June  6.     E.  A.  Freeman  came  to  us  for  a  few  days. 

June  8.  We  went  with  Bonney  to  Willingham,  by  High  Bridge 
(in  ruins)  to  Haddenham,  Witchford,  and  Ely,  to  see  the  country  of 
Hereward's  exploits. 

June  11.     Freeman  left  us,  and  Talbot  Bury  came. 

Aug.  11.  We  left  home.  Arrived  at  Canon  Herbert's,  Glan 
Hafren,  Montgomeryshire. 

Aug.  16.  Arthur  Hughes  and  I  attended  to  the  opening  of  a 
trench  across  the  Roman  Road  in  the  field  westwards  of  the  front 
of  this  house.  We  found  a  marked  bed  of  gravel,  although  thin, 
laid  upon  the  naturally  dry  stony  soil. 

Aug.  23.  To  Holyhead.  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association 
Aug.  24—26. 

Aug.  27.  Went  with  Barnwell  to  stay  with  the  Rev.  Hugh 
Pritchard  at  Dinam  Hall.  We  left  the  train  at  Bodorgan  Station, 
and  visited  a  remarkable  British  town,  also  Hen  Bias  cromlech. 

Aug.  28.  Sunday.  Went  twice  to  the  Welsh  service  at  the 
church  near  Dinam. 

Aug.  29.  Visited  a  large  chambered  cromlech,  and  left  for 
Chester  by  train  from  Caer  Wen. 

Aug.  Z\.    To  Lancaster. 


212  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1870 

Sept.  1.  By  train  to  Furness  Abbey  Hotel.  We  examined  the 
ruins  of  the  abbey. 

Sept  2.     To  Windermere,  Ambleside,  and  Grasmere. 

Sept.  5.     To  Coniston. 

Sept.  6.  By  train  to  Drigg.  Took  car  to  Wastdale  Head,  and 
returned  the  same  way.  We  had  a  very  fine  day,  and  the  mountains 
were  magnificently  seen. 

Sept.  7.     To  Keswick. 

Sept.  11.  Sunday.  Heard  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Ryle  preach  twice  at 
St.  John's  Church. 

Sept.  13.  Met  the  Rev.  James  Coleman,  of  Allerton  Rectory,  and 
went  to  Crosthwaite  Church  and  other  places  near  the  town  with 
him.     He  dined  with  us. 

Sept.  14.  We  went  by  the  coach  to  Borrowdale,  over  Honister 
Pass  to  Buttermere  (we  had  to  walk  over  the  Pass),  took  a  boat 
across  Crummoch  Water  to  the  Scale  Force,  then  walked  to  the  top 
of  the  Pass  to  Newlands,  and  back  to  Keswick.  Mr.  Coleman  went 
with  us.  An  enormous  quantity  of  Alchemilla  alpina  on  the  Butter- 
mere  side  of  Honister  Pass. 

Sept.  19.  We  drove  through  the  Yale  of  St.  John's  to  Thirlmere 
and  back.  We  saw  the  Druid  Circle  on  the  way.  It  has  a  curious 
rectangular  enclosure  on  one  side,  too  large  to  have  been  covered  by 
stones. 

Sept.  21.     To  Ulleswater  Hotel,  Patterdale. 

Sept.  22.  We  went  by  the  steam-boat  to  How-town,  on  the  east 
side  of  the  lake,  and  walked  back  by  a  track  along  the  hillside  by 
the  lake.  We  first  went  behind  Hallin  Fell,  to  Sandwick,  then 
through  some  meadows  and  woods  at  the  edge  of  the  water,  and 
afterwards  along  a  path  cut  out  of  the  steep  slope  of  the  mountain. 
The  view  was  beautiful,  and  the  quantity  of  AUosorus  crispics  very 
great ;  also  there  was  a  little  Polypodium  Dryopteris  and  Alchemilla 
alpina.     Many  juniper  bushes  are  on  the  side  of  the  mountain. 

Sept.  23.  We  went  by  a  car  to  the  top  of  Kirkstone  Pass,  and 
walked  back.  It  is  certainly  the  finest  valley  that  I  have  seen  in 
the  Lake  Country.  When  we  got  to  where  the  road  passes  to  the 
west  side  of  the  valley,  we  followed  the  lane  and  track  on  the  eastern 
side,  and  crossed  to  the  other  side  at  Patterdale.  That  way  is  far 
pleasanter  than  the  coach  road. 

Sept.  24.  We  drove  three  miles  up  Grisedale,  then  walked  to 
Grisedale  Tarn,  and  back  again  along  the  other  side  of  the  valley, 
and  at  the  lower  end  crossed  the  hill  to  Glenridding.  A  most 
beautiful  day,  and  a  most  beautiful  and  interesting  walk. 

Sept.  25.     Sunday.     Twice  to  Patterdale  Church. 


1870—71]  JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE   ORPHAN  HOME.  213 

Sept  26.  Drove  to  lower  part  of  Deepdale,  walked  to  near  the 
head  of  the  dale,  then  along  and  over  the  hill  to  Patterdale  Hotel, 
and  home.  We  were  much  pleased  with  the  wild  valley  and  the 
views  along  the  top  of  the  mountain  on  our  return. 

Sept.  27.  By  car  to  Penrith,  and  train  over  the  high  land  of 
North  Yorkshire,  to  Durham. 

Sept.  28.     At  Durham. 

Sept.  29.     York. 

Sept.  30.     To  Whitby  and  back.     Spent  most  of  the  day  there. 

Oct.  1.     To  Beverley  and  back,  to  see  the  Minster. 

Oct.  3.     Cambridge. 

Nov.  7.     Went  out  of  the  Council  of  the  Senate. 

1871.     April  20.     Commenced  lectures. 

May  23.     Finished  my  course  of  twenty  lectures. 

June  7.  Mrs.  E.  Harold  Browne  laid  the  foundation-stone  of 
the  Cottage  Home  for  Little  Orphan  Girls.  I  had  to  address  the 
assembly  on  the  ground.  Talbot  Bury  (architect)  came  to  attend. 
All  went  off  very  nicely.  £17  4s.  M.  was  taken  at  the  gate.  We 
had  twenty-two  at  luncheon,  and  gave  dinner  to  the  St.  John's 
Chorister  Jaoys. 

June  17.  To  lodgings  at  Gipsy  Hill,  Norwood,  for  the  Handel 
Festival.     Mrs.  Herbert  and  Arthur  Hughes  joined  us. 

June  18.  Sunday.  Heard  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  (Wilber- 
force)  preach  at  the  church  at  Gipsy  Hill. 

July  7.  Found  the  Siler  trilohum  on  the  back  bank  of  the 
excavated  part  of  the  field  to  the  south  of  the  Chalk-Pit-Close  at 
Cherry  Hinton. 

July  10.  Dr.  Trimen  and  Mr.  W.  J.  Thiselton  Dyer  came,  and 
I  went  with  them  to  Cherry  Hinton  to  gather  Siler,  and  also  found 
Seseli  Libanotis,  Bunium  Bulhocastanuni,  and  the  other  usual  plants 
of  that  place.     They  left  in  the  evening. 

July  12.  Went  to  Tuddenham  with  W.  Walton  and  Latham,  of 
Trinity  Hall,  and  Brown,  J.  Mills,  and  Dr.  White  met  us  there. 
The  Fen  is  a  very  good  place  for  plants — Cladium,  Schoenus  nigricans, 
Epipactis  palustris,  Orchis  latifolia,  and  others.  On  the  heath  near 
the  angle  of  a  turf-wall  on  the  way  to  Temple  Bridge  was  plenty  of 
Tillaea  muscosa. 

Aug.  1.  To  Edinburgh.  Miss  Selwyn  and  Miss  Rogers  lodged 
with  us  for  the  Meeting  of  the  British  Association,  and  until  the  lith. 

Aug.  4.  Dined  with  Dr.  Christison.  A.  G.  More  was  with  us 
for  some  of  the  days  of  the  Meeting. 

Atig.  7.     We  drove  to  Craigmillar  Castle. 


214  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1871 

Aug.  11.     Saw  the  museum  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries. 

Aug.  12.    Lunch  with  Dr.  Balfour.    Dined  with  Joseph  Goodsir. 

Aug.  15.     To  Dunkeld. 

Aug.  16.  We  went  over  the  Cathedral  and  grounds  of  the  Duke 
of  Athole. 

Aug.  17.  To  Pitlochrie,  and  drove  up  the  south  side  of  the 
Tummel  as  far  as  the  lake  of  that  name.  The  road  passes  along  a 
terrace  above  the  windings  of  the  river,  through  woods  of  birch 
(chiefly)  and  is  very  beautiful.  We  crossed  the  lake  by  a  ferry,  and 
back  along  the  Rannoch  road  to  the  Pass  of  Killiecrankie,  through 
which  we  walked  along  the  old  military  road  to  Blair  Athole. 

Aug.  19.     By  the  Highland  Railway  to  Elgin. 

Aug.  21.  To  Pluscardine  Abbey.  The  steps  from  the  church 
to  the  dormitories  are  curious,  also  much  alteration  in  the  buildings 
after  some  ruin  in  old  times.  Spent  also  much  time  at  the  Cathedral. 
Fine  Early  English  work  with  Decorated  repairs,  which  in  the  quire 
are  under  the  Early  English  clerestory.  Saw  also  the  Grey-friars' 
Church,  quite  in  ruins,  and  of  no  particular  interest. 

Aug.  22.  To  Forres.  Went  to  Sweino's  Stone.  Nothing  else 
ofjinterest  there. 

Aug.  23.  To  Inverness.  Drove  to  the  foot  of  Craig  Phadric 
and  walked  to  the  top.  The  holes  in  the  banks  where  the  vitrifica- 
tion was  exposed  are  nearly  spoiled  by  visitors. 

Aug.  24.  To  Dingwall.  A  wet  day,  and  a  storm  of  wind  in  the 
evening ;  nevertheless,  we  walked  almost  to  StrathpelFer  in  the  rain. 

Aug.  25.  Went  to  Strome  Ferry  and  back.  From  the  top  of  a 
hill  to  the  west  of  the  inn  at  Strome  we  had  a  good  view  of  Skye. 

Aug.  28.  Drove  by  Contin  Bridge  to  Contin  and  Loch  Achilty, 
where  we  saw  Trientalis  close  to  the  lake  side ;  then  to  the  falls  of 
Rogie,  and  returned  by  StrathpefFer. 

Aug.  30.     To  Oban  by  the  canal. 

Aug.  31.  To  Dunstaffnage  Castle,  and  the  Early  English  Chapel 
there,  also  as  far  up  Loch  Etive  as  the  race. 

Sept.  1.     To  Glasgow  by  the  Crinan  Canal. 

Sept.  2.     Visited  the  Cathedral,  and  left  for  Edinburgh. 

Sept.  4.  To  Melrose.  Visited  Abbotsford,  Dryburgh,  and 
Melrose. 

Sept.  5.     To  Carlisle. 

Sept.  6.     Home. 

Oct.  24,  25,  26.  Bazaar  for  the  Cottage  Home  for  Little  Orphan 
Girls  at  the  Guildhall.     Took  £470. 


1871—72]      JOURNAL— CAMBRIDGE  AND   CANTERBURY.  215 

Dec.  12.  To  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  to  see  the  stone 
implements. 

Dec.  14.  Dined  with  Franks  to  meet  J.  Evans,  Colonel  Lane 
Fox,  and  others. 

Dec.  17.     Sunday.     To  St.  Paul's,  to  hear  Canon  Liddon. 

Dec.  20.  Stanley  Howard,  of  St.  John's,  came  to  us  to  be  taken 
care  of  until  he  had  recovered  from  a  bad  haemorrhage  on  the  lungs. 

1872.     Jan.  1.     Opened  Cottage  Home  for  Little  Orphan  Girls. 

Feb.  21.  We  went  with  Stanley  Howard  in  an  invalid  carriage 
to  London  and  Tilbury,  and  crossed  the  river  at  Gravesend. 

Feb.  22.  We  placed  Stanley  Howard  on  board  the  "Lincoln- 
shire" (1100  tons),  for  Melbourne.  He  has  state-room  number  10 
on  the  larboard  side  of  the  ship.  We  saw  him  nicely  established  in 
it,  with  all  his  things  conveniently  about  him.  He  passed  through 
the  change  singularly  well.     We  returned  home. 

March  16.  Anemone  Pulsatilla  was  in  flower  on  the  Fleam  Dyke. 
A  very  heavy  fall  of  snow  in  the  last  week  of  March.  This  year 
the  whitethorn  was  in  flower  on  May  1st ;  nevertheless,  I  had  much 
difficulty  in  getting  flowers  for  lectures. 

Matj  6.     Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  Smith  came  to  stay  with  us. 

May  11.     They  left  us  on  their  way  to  Teneriffe. 

May  23.  Mr.  E.  A,  Freeman,  having  been  appointed  Rede 
Lecturer,  came  to  stay  with  us. 

May  27.     Mr.  Freeman  left. 

June  10.     To  Uckfield. 

June  20.  To  Canterbury  (Fountain  Hotel),  and  carefully 
examined  the  Cathedral  and  St.  Augustine's  College,  and  attempted, 
without  success,  to  get  into  St.  Martin's  Church. 

June  21.  Breakfasted  with  the  warden.  Dr.  Bailey,  at  St. 
Augustine's  College.  To  Margate.  Walked  along  the  coast  to- 
wards Fore  Ness.  Saw  plenty  of  Crepis  taraxacifolia  and  Lepidium 
Draba. 

June  22.     Home, 

Aug.  2.     To  London. 

Aug.  8.  We  spent  the  afternoon  and  dined  with  the  Hookers, 
at  Kew. 

Aug.  26.  We  left  home  for  the  Cambrian  Archaeological 
Meeting  at  Brecon.  Started  at  8  a.m.,  arriving  5  p.m.  We  both 
went  to  the  evening  meeting,  which  was  very  well  attended. 

Aug.  27.  Excursion  by  rail  to  Talgarth,  Bronllys  Castle, 
Llechrhyd,  and  Builth.  A  beautiful  day,  and  a  very  beautiful 
country  on  the  banks  of  the  Wye. 


216  CHARLES   CAEDALE  BABINGTON.  [1872 

Aug.  28.  Visited  the  museum  and  the  town  walls.  In  Mr. 
George  Overton's  carriage  to  Llanddew.  Then  walked  over  the 
fields  to  Peylyn-Gwyn  and  Llandefailog  Church ;  then  to  Pennoyre 
to  lunch  with  Mr.  M.  J.  Ehodes.     Then  home  to  evening  meeting. 

Aug.  29.  Drove  in  Mr.  Overton's  carriage  to  Crickhowel.  We 
went  through  the  fine  grounds,  and  by  the  private  drive  just  above 
the  river  Usk  for  several  miles,  and  returned  through  the  grounds 
of  Buckland.  We  saw  four  or  five  of  the  early  inscribed  stones, 
amongst  them  a  newly-found  stone  in  the  wall  of  Llandetty  Church. 
Lunched  with  Sir  Joseph  Bailey  at  Glan  Usk  Park. 

Aug.  30.  Visited  the  town.  Lunched  with  Garnons  Williams, 
of  Abercamlais. 

Aug.  21.  Left  Brecon  and  went  to  Glan  Hafren  to  visit  Canon 
and  Mrs.  Herbert. 

Sept.  6.     To  Barmouth. 

Sept.  7.  By  the  sands  to  Llanaber.  The  further  you  get  from 
Barmouth  the  better  get  the  sands.  Llanaber  is  a  small  Early 
English  church,  well  repaired.  It  has  a  nave,  clerestory,  and  side 
aisles,  and  long  chancel.  There  is  one  of  the  early  monumental 
stones  in  the  church,  fixed  to  the  wall. 

Sept.  8.  Stonday.  To  the  church  at  Barmouth  twice.  Service 
rather  too  high  to  please  us. 

Sept.  10.  To  Portmadoc.  Went  to  Criccieth,  and,  although  it 
rained  in  torrents  when  we  arrived  there,  we  went  to  the  castle.  .  . 
A  beautiful  view  of  Snowdon  from  high  land  above  the  harbour. 

Sept.  12.     Beddgelert. 

Sept.  14.     Llanberis. 

Sept.  18.  We  walked  up  the  Quarry  road,  and  then  along  the 
top  of  Yr-Alt-wen,  and  down  again  by  a  path  through  the  wood. 
Professor  and  Mrs.  Cowell  walked  over  from  Bethesda,  by  St.  Ann's 
and  Cefn-y-waun,  to  look  after  lodgings. 

Sept.  19.  We  went  round  the  lake  and  found  what  may  be 
Callitriche  obtusangula  on  the  other  side,  near  the  railway. 

Sept.  21.  This  morning  opened  with  heavy  storms  of  rain,  and 
one  severe  hailstorm.  There  was  snow  on  the  higher  hills,  such  as 
Snowdon,  Glydir,  and  Gam.  So,  during  the  day,  there  was  rain, 
hail,  snow,  and  fine  sunshine. 

Oct.  4.  A  heavy  fall  of  snow  on  the  mountains ;  much  more 
than  on  Sept.  22nd. 

Oct.  11.     Cambridge. 

Nov.  28.     Sprained  my  arm  at  the  museum  very  badly. 


1873]  JOIJENAL-WALES,  Etc.,  AND   IRELAND.  217 

1873.  Jan.  19.  Barometer  fell  one-and-a-half  inches  in  twenty- 
four  hours,  down  to  28*50°.  There  were  several  more  sudden  changes 
of  not  quite  so  great  an  extent  in  Jan.  and  Feb. 

April  2.     To  Bonchurch,  Isle  of  Wight. 

April  14.  Went  along  the  Shanklin  Road,  turned  up  on  to  the 
Down,  and  examined  it  carefully.  Saw  much  of  the  true  Ulex  nana 
there. 

Apiil  21.     Commenced  my  lectures. 

Mai/  23.     Finished  my  lectures. 

June  17.    To  Ellastone,  to  visit  Sir  Christopher  and  Lady  Lighton. 

June  20.  To  Alstonfield,  to  see  my  old  friend,  the  Rev.  W.  H. 
Purchas  (formerly  of  Ross).  We  went  by  Ashbourne,  Tissington, 
Mill  Dale,  and  returned  by  Ham  and  Okeover.  He  lives  in  a  very 
wild  and  interesting  country  near  the  upper  course  of  the  Dove ; 
nice  in  summer,  and  not  so  in  winter. 

Aug.  4.  Went  to  Knighton  for  the  Cambrian  Archaeological 
Meeting. 

Aug.  9 — 18.  At  Glan  Hafren  with  Canon  and  Mrs.  Herbert. 
To  Llanberis,  to  stay  a  few  days  at  Plas  Tirion  with  Professor  and 
Mrs.  Cowell. 

Aug.  23.  To  Dublin.  Salt  Hill  Hotel,  Kingstown,  with  Canon 
Cory. 

Aug.  24.  Sundaij.  To  Townsend  Street  Church  morning  and 
evening.  To  the  school  at  the  same  place  in  the  afternoon.  Much 
struck  by  the  number  of  old  people  attending,  and  answering  well. 
Heard  Dr.  McCarthy  teach  the  whole  school.     Most  interesting. 

Aug.  25.  We  visited  the  schools  (Irish  Church  Missions)  in 
Luke  Street,  Townsend  Street,  and  Lurgan  Street.  After  dinner 
we  went  to  the  Bird's  Nest. 

Aug.  26.  We  spent  all  the  morning  at  the  Bird's  Nest.  Cory 
examined  the  children,  who  answered  admirably.  Took  tea  with 
Mrs.  Smyly. 

Aug.  27.  We  went  to  the  Coombe  Schools,  but,  unfortunately, 
the  boys  were  away.  Much  pleased  with  the  state  of  the  whole 
place.  Afterwards  to  the  Grand  Canal  Street  Boys'  Home.  The 
boys  themselves  admirable,  but  the  place  in  not  so  satisfactory  a 
state  as  the  other  institutions  which  we  visited. 

Aug.  29.     To  Galway. 

Aug.  30.  Canon  Cory  and  we  went  in  a  closed  carriage  to 
Spiddal,  to  see  the  institution  there.  We  had  a  beautiful  drive 
along  the  coast,  and  saw  the  Clare  Mountains  and  Aran  Isles  in 
the  distance ;   then  across  the   country  to  Moycullen,  and  so  to 

Oughterard,  where  we  lunched To  Clifden.     Walked  to  the 

orphanage  in  the  evening. 


218  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1873 

Aug  31.  Sunday.  Canon  Cory  preached.  Went  to  evening 
service  at  Ballyconree,  going  over  the  hill  above  Clifden  Castle. 
Had  a  magnificent  view  of  the  Atlantic  and  its  bays. 

Sept.  1.  Walked  along  the  shore-road  with  the  Rev.  W.  D.  Austen. 
A  beautiful  view  of  the  "Pins"  from  the  monument.  Spent  much 
time  at  Glenowen  Orphanage.  We  had  two  nice  teachers  and  Mrs. 
Batty  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Austen  to  tea. 

Sept.  3.  We  went  to  Roundstone,  and  by  the  mission  boat  to 
Moyrus.  It  is  a  wild  rocky  place  with  a  nice  new  church,  parsonage, 
and  schoolhouse.  All  poor  people,  and  very  much  shut  out  from 
the  world.  We  had  a  most  interesting  day  there  with  the  children 
and  the  clergyman's  family.  W^e  did  not  get  back  to  Clifden  till 
about  11  p.m.,  for  the  wind  fell  as  we  were  crossing.  It  reminded 
me  greatly  of  the  Sound  of  Harris  in  Scotland. 

Sept.  4.  Went  to  breakfast  at  Errislannon,  at  the  Rev.  B.  Irwin's. 
To  get  there  we  walked  along  the  shore,  and  crossed  in  his  boat.  It 
took  a  long  time  as  the  tide  was  very  low,  and  against  us.  Drove 
out  in  the  evening  to  Derrygimla,  Errismore,  to  hold  a  meeting,  and 
to  have  a  lecture  from  Cory  in  the  schoolroom.  The  clergyman  is 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Ryder,  who  was  once  a  priest.  It  was  a  most  in- 
teresting visit,  very  similar  to  that  at  Moyrus,  and  of  quite  as 
missionary  a  character. 

Sept.  5.  Examination  of  the  teachers  and  agents  by  Canon  Cory 
and  Dr.  McCarthy.  ...  I  dined  with  the  clergy  at  Glenowen.  An 
admirable  dinner,  cooked  by  the  orphans,  who  also  waited  upon  us. 
Afterwards  went  to  tea  at  Mr.  D'Arcy's  sisters'  (Mrs.  Livingstone 
and  Miss  D'Arcy),  who  live  in  a  nice  house  at  a  mile  off  by  the  sea. 

Sept.  6.  We  drove  to  Kylemore,  lunched  at  Casson's  Hotel,  at 
Letterfrack,  then  went  to  Cleggan  school-treat. 

Sept.  7.  Sunday.  Heard  Cory  at  Ballynakill  Church,  Cleggan 
Schoolroom,  and  Sellerna  Church. 

Sept.  8.  Called  upon  a  poor  man,  Martin  Clisham,  who  has  been 
much  persecuted  for  becoming  a  Protestant.  Dined  with  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  D'Arcy. 

Sept.  9.  To  Roundstone,  where  we  got  nice  quarters,  and  walked 
out  in  the  afternoon.     It  is  a  clean  and  good  hotel. 

Sept.  10.  We  walked  to  the  "Beaches,"  which  are  at  about  one- 
and-a-half  miles  along  the  coast.     Beautiful  granitic  sand. 

Sept.  11.  Went  by  car  to  Craigie  More  to  look  for  Erica  ciliaris, 
but  without  success.  Found  abundance  of  E.  Mackaiana  for  more 
than  a  mile  along  the  road,  and  extending  back  as  far  as  I  could 
easily  get. 

Sept.  12.  Again  to  the  Beaches.  We  now  found  the  further 
one,  and  went  on  to  the  rocks  facing  the  west  beyond  them. 


1873—74]  JOUENAL— VISITS   IN   IRELAND.  219 

Sept.  13.  We  went  by  the  mission  boat  to  Moyrus  (Rev.  J. 
Oonerney). 

Sept.  14.  Sunday.  At  church  at  Moyrus.  Part  of  the  service 
in  Irish. 

Sept.  15.  We  gave  a  treat  to  the  school  children  at  Moyrus ; 
and  walked  on  the  beautiful  beach  of  granitic  sand. 

Sept.  17.  A  gale  of  wind.  Mr.  Conerney  took  us  back  in  his 
■"  Croydon  "  to  Roundstone,  by  the  road  round  the  head  of  Birturby 
Bay,  as  the  boat  could  not  go. 

Sept.  19.  The  only  really  wet  day  which  we  have  had  in 
Ireland.     We  could  not  get  out  at  all. 

Sept.  20.  Went  in  the  morning  to  the  lake  called  Creg-dufF,  to 
hunt  for  JSfaias,  but  the  water  was  so  high,  that  I  could  not  find  it. 
I  found  Eriocaulon  abundantly.  At  Roundstone  we  found  at  the 
hotel  a  young  girl  named  Biddy  Lavelle,  who  had  been  at  the 
Mission  School,  but  taken  away  by  the  priests.  She  had  learned 
much  there,  and  we  took  much  interest  in  her.  She  has  a  sister,  a 
convert  in  service  in  England.  We  hope  that  something  may  be 
•done  for  her. 

Sept.  23.  Left  Roundstone,  and  went  by  Loch  Inagh  to  Lenane. 
A  beautiful  drive. 

Sept.  24.     To  Westport. 

Sept.  25.     Dublin. 

Sept.  26.  Went  to  Glasnevin,  and  lunched  with  Dr.  and  Mrs. 
Moore,  and  saw  the  garden  thoroughly. 

Sept.  27.  To  Bray,  then  by  car  to  Powerscourt  Waterfall,  and 
on  our  way  back  walked  through  the  Dargle. 

Sept.  28.  Sunday.  At  Church  in  Townsend  Street  morning  and 
•evening,  and  at  the  Sunday  School  there. 

Sept.  30.     Left  Dublin.     A  very  rough  passage  to  Holyhead. 

Oct.  1.     Reached  home. 

Oct.  27.  I  was  elected  President  of  the  Cambridge  Philosophical 
Society. 

Nov.  15.  Dr.  J.  H.  Balfour  came  from  Edinburgh  to  visit  us. 
I  presided  at  the  dinner  of  the  C.P.S.  at  Peterhouse  Hall. 

Nov.  20.     Balfour  left  for  Edinburgh. 

Dec.  4.  I  presided  at  a  very  large  Prayer  Meeting  in  the  small 
room  at  the  Guildhall,  to  supplicate  for  Missions. 

1874.  March  7.  The  Rev.  Dr.  C.  F.  McCarthy  came  to  stay 
with  us,  for  the  Irish  Church  Mission  Meetings. 


220  CHARLES   CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1874-75 

March  9.  I  took  the  chair  at  the  I.C.M.  Meeting  in  the  Guild- 
hall.    Snow. 

April  21.  Commenced  lectures.  Admitted  lady  students  for 
the  first  time. 

July  6.  We  went  to  Hunstanton  in  company  with  Professor 
and  Mrs.  Cowell,  and  Miss  C. 

July  7.  Cowell  and  I  went  along  the  coast,  and  saw  plenty  of 
Statice  caspia  on  the  marshy  ground  between  the  sandhills,  and  on 
the  more  distant  part  some  fine  masses  of  Suaeda  fruticosa. 

July  15.     To  Sandringham  and  Castle  Kising. 

July  17.     Home. 

Atig.  24.  I  went  to  "Wrexham  for  the  Cambrian  Archaeological 
Meeting. 

Aug.  26.  We  spent  at  Chester.  Hort  and  I  lunched  with 
Dean  Howson. 

Oct.  26.     Re-elected  President  Philosophical  Society. 

Nov.  17.  Dr.  Barnardo  came  to  hold  meetings  for  East  London 
Juvenile  Mission.  There  was  an  enormous  meeting  in  the  Guild- 
hall. 

1875.     April  15.     Commenced  lectures. 

May  18.  Concluded  lectures.  The  smallest  class  that  I  have 
had. 

July  7.     To  Cromer. 

July  8.  .  .  .  The  whole  coast  is  a  range  of  crumbling  banks, 
miscalled  cliffs,  of  gravel  and  sand,  which  cover  the  shore  with 
loose  sand  and  shingle,  and  do  not  allow  of  roads  to  the  shore. 

July  14.  Runton  Church;  is  fine  Perpendicular,  with  the  win- 
dows modernized,  and  rather  spoiled.  The  south  aisle  is  rather 
later.     There  is  a  piscina,  with  a  curious  ambry  opening  out  of  it. 

July  19.  Canterbury.  Royal  Archaeological  Institute.  I  am 
the  guest  of  the  Warden  and  Mrs.  Bailey  at  St.  Augustine's  College. 
The  Rev.  G.  Williams,  Mr.  Beresford  Hope,  and  Mr.  Hammond  R. 
Bailey  were  also  there. 

July  20.  Walked  round  the  city,  but  saw  very  little.  Had  a 
nice  talk  with  Sir  G.  G.  Scott. 

July  22.  We  went  to  Richborough  and  Sandwich.  The  former 
a  very  fine  Roman  town :  the  walls  almost  perfect,  except  on  one 
side.  There  is  a  curious  platform  in  the  middle  with  a  +  upon  it 
rather  more  raised.  Walked  to  Sandwich,  a  poor  decayed  town, 
with  three  interesting  churches,  and  a  very  curious  chapel. 


1875]  JOURNAL— VARIOUS  EXCURSIONS.  221 

July  23.  An  admirable  discourse  by  Venables  in  the  Cathedral. 
Thunderstorm  prevented  our  hearing  Parker  on  the  other  buildings, 
and  the  outside.  At  9.30  we  went  to  the  Cathedral  for  some  music. 
The  building  was  beautiful,  in  the  very  imperfect  light  of  two  or 
three  candles. 

July  24.  To  Westenhanger  (old  house),  Lynne  (the  Roman 
station),  Hythe  (the  church),  and  lunch  with  the  Mayor,  and 
Lyminge,  where  there  are  the  remains  of  a  seventh-century  (?) 
church  on  the  south  side  of  the  present  church. 

July  26.  Excursion  to  Dover,  etc. 

July  27.  Left  Canterbury. 

July  30.  Cambridge, 

Aug.  2.  Cromer. 

Aug.  6.  Went  with  some  of  the  party  from  Colne  House  to 
the  boggy  common  at  Beeston,  where  we  found  a  considerable 
number  of  bog-plants,  such  as  Farnassia,  Epipadis  palustris,  Aimgcdlis 
tenella,  etc. 

Aug.  16.  By  way  of  Shrewsbury,  to  the  Palace,  Abergwili, 
Carmarthen,  for  the  meeting  of  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Asso- 
ciation. 

Aug.  18.  Had  a  very  interesting  day,  and  tolerably  fine  in  the 
country  towards  the  Precilly  mountains.  We  were  chiefly  occupied 
with  earthworks  and  stones. 

Aug.  20.  To  Kidwelly,  to  see  the  church  and  castle :  to  Llan- 
dilo,  to  visit  Dynevor  Castle. 

Aug.  24.  To  St.  Davids,  with  Barnwell,  and  the  Rev.  D.  R. 
Thomas,  to  stay  with  the  Rev.  James  Allen,  the  Chancellor.  Spent 
all  the  afternoon  in  the  study  of  the  Cathedral  and  ruins.  Much 
progress  has  been  made  in  the  repairs  of  the  former. 

Aug.  25.  To  St.  David's  Head,  and  carefully  examined  the 
ancient  stone  fortifications,  and  circular  foundations  there.  On  the 
way  we  saw  four  sculptured  stones  in  the  walls,  near  to  each  other; 
one  of  them  new. 

Aug.  26.     We  left  St.  Davids. 

Sept.  3.     To  Cromer. 

Sept.  9.  Had  a  walk  along  the  east  shore  with  Mr.  Joseph 
Hoare  and  Canon  Conway.  We  found  the  remains  of  a  large  tree 
of  the  submarine  forest. 

Sept.  10.     Jani  Alii  came  to  stay  with  us. 

Sept.  15.  Church  Missionary  Meeting  in  the  evening.  Dined 
at  Colne  House  for  it.     Jani  Alii  spoke  very  nicely. 


222  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1875-76 

Sept.  20.  Walked  by  the  cliff  to  Beeston  Church  and  the  bog 
(Beeston  Common),  and  catalogued  a  number  of  plants  there. 

Sept.  30.     Home. 

Dec.  14.     Mr.  Gustave  Masson  came  to  us  to  Dec.  22nd. 

1876.  March  13.  The  Eev.  D.  B.  K.  Banham  and  I  appointed 
joint  secretaries  for  the  Cambridge  Local  Association  of  Irish  Church 
Missions. 

May  31.  Went  to  the  Gogs  with  Mr.  T.  B.  Blow,  and  found 
Carex  ericetorum  in  tolerable  abundance  in  the  old  place,  also  many 
of  Anemone  Pulsatilla  and  Senecio  campestris  in  the  pit  under  Little 
Trees  Hill. 

July  13.     To  Cromer. 

July  15.  Went  to  East  Runton  to  take  rooms  for  the  children 
of  the  Cottage  Home  at  the  farm  of  Mr.  F.  Abbs. 

July  27.  We  took  the  Cottage  Home  children  to  have  tea  on 
the  Black  Beacon  Hill,  and  invited  Mrs.  Mortimer's  eight  orphans 
to  join  them.  They  were  all  very  happy,  and  the  evening  went  off 
very  well  in  all  respects. 

July  29.  Found  very  many  plants,  and  added  a  few  (such  as 
Silene  noctiflora)  to  my  list. 

Aug.  14.     To  Abergavenny,  Cambrian  Archaeological  Meeting. 

Aug.  15.     Excursion  to  Llanthony  Priory. 

Aug.  16.  A  very  long  excursion  from  9  a.m.  to  8.20  p.m. 
Visited  White  Castle  and  Church,  Skenfrith  Castle  and  Church, 
and  Grosmont  Castle,  and  the  beautiful  Church  there. 

Aug.  18.  Saw  two  beautiful  rood-lofts  and  screens  at  Bettws 
Newydd  and  Llangwn.  Visited  the  Priory  Church  at  Usk,  and 
Raglan  Castle.  Concluded  the  meeting  in  the  evening.  It  has 
been  a  most  successful  one,  although  without  the  support  of  any 
local  magnates. 

Aug.  19.    Left  for  Somerleaze,  near  Wells,  to  visit  E.  A.  Freeman. 

Aug.  20.  Sunday.  Went  to  church  twice  at  Wookey.  James 
Allen  and  his  daughter,  from  St.  Davids,  came  here  on  Saturday. 

Aug.  22.  Dined  at  the  palace  with  the  Bishop  of  Bath  and 
Wells,  and  there  met  Sir  C.  and  Lady  Bunbury.  Professor  and 
Mrs.  Gurney,  of  Harvard  College,  Cambridge,  U.S.,  came. 

Aug.  26.     To  Cromer. 

Sept.  30.  Dr.  Cookson,  the  Master  of  Peterhouse,  died,  after  a 
very  short  illness. 

Oct.  4.     Cambridge. 


1877]  JOURNAL— ANTIQUITIES   IN  WALES.  223 

1 877.  Feb.  1 3.  "We  had  a  meeting  of  about  sixty  Undergraduates 
to  meet  Canon  Cory. 

July  21.  Went  to  Somerleaze,  near  Wells,  to  spend  a  few  days 
with  the  Freemans. 

Jidy  24.  Lord  Coleridge,  J.C.,  Mr.  Pinney,  the  high  sheriff,  and 
several  other  people  dined  here. 

Aug.  1.     To  Dovercourt. 

Aug.  6.  To  Carnarvon.  I  was  appointed  temporary  President 
of  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association. 

Aug.  8.  To  the  "  Rivals."  Went  to  the  top  of  Tre'r  Ceiri.  We 
visited  Clynnog  Fawr  on  the  return. 

Aug.  9.  We  were  nearly  all  day  in  the  castle,  following  the 
guidance  of  Sir  Llewellyn  Turner,  the  deputy  constable,  who 
shewed  us  everything  in  detail,  in  a  most  interesting  and  instruc- 
tive manner. 

Aug.  10.  The  morning  was  very  wet,  so  the  excursion  fell 
through,  and  we  broke  up  in  small  parties.  I  spent  most  of  the 
afternoon  in  the  castle  examining  mouldings. 

Aug.  12.     Sunday.     Service  too  high  for  me.  .  .  . 

Aug.  13.     Llanberis. 

Aug.  18.  I  carefully  examined  the  prominent  hill  at  the  tenth 
milestone  at  Llanberis,  on  which  Professor  J.  Rhys  told  me  that  he 
was  led  to  suspect  the  existence  of  an  old  fort.  I  found  no  trace  of 
anything  of  the  kind.  It  is  a  very  strong  position,  being  deeply 
divided  from  the  adjoining  mountain,  and  very  steep  all  round. 
From  its  position  in  the  valley  seems  to  have  been  occupied  at  some 
time,  but  to  have  had  no  works  thrown  up  or  built  upon  it. 

Aug  23.     To  Dovercourt. 

Aug  30.  Meeting  irv  the  evening  to  hear  a  lecture  on  the  China 
Mission,  by  Mr.  J.  E.  Cardwell.     I  was  in  the  chair. 

Sept.  4.  Examined  the  sea-shore  and  salt  marshes  for  between 
two  and  three  miles  along  the  sea-banks.  The  vegetation  is  rather 
rich,  although  there  are  no  such  beds  of  the  plants  as  at  Hunstanton. 

Sept.  5.     Jani  Alii  came  to  stay  with  us. 

Sept.  8.  Jani  Alii  and  I  went  to  Ipswich,  and  saw  the  museum 
and  the  house  of  James  I.'s  time.    Had  lunch  with  Admiral  Johnson. 

Sept.  18.  Went  to  the  flats  of  the  Stour  by  crossing  at  the  sluice 
gate  below  Upper  Dovercourt,  and  found  a  number  of  interesting 
plants,  such  as  Spartina,  Statice  alterniflora,  and  S.  Limonium,  Juncus 
maritimus. 

Sept.  19.  I  added  several  plants  to  my  list,  in  the  lane  and  the 
marshes. 


224  CHARLES   CARD  ALE  BABINGTON.  [1877—78 

Oct.  23.     We  returned  home. 

Nov.  20.  Sir  William  Hill  came  to  us  for  a  meeting  in  aid  of 
the  Zenana  Misssion  in  the  Guildhall,  at  which  I  presided. 

Nov.  22.  The  Rev.  H.  E.  Brooke  came  to  us,  and  helped  at  a 
meeting  of  Undergraduates  in  the  evening. 

1878.  Jan.  20.  Dined  with  the  Vice-Chancellor  in  Clare  College 
Hall,  to  meet  H.  R.  H.  the  Prince  of  Wales. 

Jan.  21.  Attended  the  unveiling  of  the  statue  of  the  Prince 
Consort  in  the  Fitzwilliam  Museum  by  the  Prince  of  Wales  ;  also  a 
lev6e  held  by  him  in  that  building. 

April  1.  Heavy  snow  last  night,  and  the  temperature  as  low 
as  21°. 

April  4.  The  assistant  curatorship  of  the  Herbarium  passed  the 
Senate  by  fifty  to  six. 

May  1.  Stanley  Howard  came  back  to  Cambridge  from  Australia 
to  keep  this  term  and  take  his  degree. 

May  7.  A.  Lukyn  Williams,  of  Jesus,  came  with  his  bride  to 
spend  a  few  days  with  us  before  his  departure  to  take  the  headship 
of  Moore  Theological  College,  in  New  South  Wales. 

June  19.  Mr.  Jackson  and  Newbould  came  to  botanize.  We 
were  caught  in  a  thunderstorm  on  the  Gogs. 

July  16,  17.  Assisted  S.  S.  Lewis  in  conducting  the  Leicester- 
shire Architectural  and  Archaeological  Society  to  the  special  points 
in  Cambridge. 

Aug.  7.  Went  to  Cockfield  for  the  Suffolk  Archaeological 
Society's  Meeting. 

Aug.  8.  To  the  meeting  at  Clare,  visiting  Cavendish  Church  by 
the  way.  Remarked  the  communion  table  standing  free  from  the 
wall,  with  a  sort  of  reredos  attached  to  it.  At  Clare  visited  the 
Roman  station,  the  castle,  and  the  priory. 

Aug.  14.     To  Dovercourt. 

Aug.  17.  Started  for  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Meeting  at 
Lampeter.     Reached  Shrewsbury. 

Aug.  18.  Sunday.  Went  to  St.  Alkmund's  Church  in  the 
morning  and  the  evening,  and  heard  Mr.  Wightman  at  the  latter. 

Aug.  20 — 22.     Excursions. 

Aug.  23.  I  went  alone  to  hunt  for  a  camp  on  the  hills  without 
success. 

Aug.  24.     Went  to  Abergwili  to  spend  Sunday  with  the  Bishop. 

Aug.  25.  Sunday.  Went  in  the  morning  to  Christ  Church, 
Carmarthen,  to  hear  Dr.  Kerfoot,  Bishop  of  Pittsburgh,  who  is 
stopping  at  the  palace.  He  also  preached  in  the  afternoon  at 
Abergwili  Church. 


1878—79]  JOUENAL— WELSH  ANTIQUITIES,  Etc.  225 

Aug.  31.     Llanberis. 

Sept.  1.  Sunday.  A  good  sermon  from  the  new  rector.  Prof, 
and  Mrs.  Cowell  are  here.     Prof.  Rhys  here. 

Sept.  6.  Cowell  and  I  examined  Cwm-dwythwch  for  antiquities, 
and  found  six  "  giants'  graves  "  on  the  south-east  side,  three  or  per- 
haps five  on  the  north-west  side,  all  24  feet  by  15  ;  a  circular  house 
close  under  Moel  Eilio,  measuring  10  feet  by  9,  excavated  in  the 
inside,  where  the  walls  are  still  4  feet  high ;  also  a  long  enclosure 
of  doubtful  use,  60  feet  by  15. 

Sept.  10.  Cowell,  Rhys,  Roberts  (Caius)  and  I  went  to  Pen- 
maenmawr,  ascending  from  Llanfairfechan,  also  visiting  the  circles, 
to  the  east  of  it.  Descended  to  the  village  of  Penmaenmawr,  and 
returned  by  train. 

Sept.  13.  Cowell,  Rhys,  Roberts  and  I  went  by  train  to  Car- 
narvon, then  by  road  to  Llanaelhaiarn,  and  went  up  the  "Rivals" 
to  Tre'r  Ceiri.  We  had  a  most  beautiful  day,  and  examined  the 
place  thoroughly.  Also  saw  the  inscribed  stone  in  the  old  school 
house. 

Sept.  20.     To  Dovercourt. 

Oct.  5.     We  returned  home. 

Oct.  26.  The  Bishop  was  here  at  the  placing  of  the  memorial 
stone  of  the  nave  of  St.  Barnabas'  Church. 

Dec.  9.     A  very  hard  frost  commenced. 

Dec.  25.     Continuance  of  the  hard  frost.     Thermometer  15°. 

Dec.  26.     A  thaw  to-day. 

Dec.  28.  Frost  commenced  again,  and  continued  with  much 
severity  until  Jan.  13,  and  commenced  again  in  two  days,  continuing 
until  Feb.  1. 

1879.     Feb.  23.     Sunday.     Frost  commenced  again. 

Feb.  25.  I  presided  at  a  meeting  in  the  Guildhall,  in  aid  of  the 
building  fund  of  the  "  Sailors'  Rest "  at  Devonport.  Miss  Weston 
was  some  days  at  Cambridge. 

March  8.  The  Rev.  H.  C.  Cory  and  the  Rev.  D.  A.  Maxwell 
came  to  us  for  the  meeting  of  the  Irish  Church  Missions. 

March  10.  We  had  a  good  meeting  in  the  evening ;  but  sad 
accounts  of  the  state  of  Connemara.  School  houses  wrecked,  and 
masters  and  the  Rev.  Mr.  and  Miss  Conerney  assaulted  by  mobs 
led  by  a  priest. 

March  11.  We  had  a  nice  party  of  Undergraduates  to  meet 
Cory  in  the  evening. 

March  20.  Major  Black  came  to  us,  to  lecture  on  his  "  Views 
of  Indian  Female  Life." 

15 


226  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1879 

March  26.  A  heavy  snow-storm,  after  a  succession  of  very  cold 
days.     Almost  continuous  winter  up  to  this  time. 

April  5.  We  went  to  Bognor.  .  ,  .  We  took  a  poor  girl  to 
London,  who  was  going  to  an  Institution  at  Brighton. 

April  8.  I  went  to  Felpham  to  look  at  the  church  which  has 
curious  dormer  windows  to  the  north  aisle.  It  seems  to  have  been 
a  late  Norman  building,  with  nave  and  very  low  side  aisles  ;  altered 
considerably  in  the  Early  English  period,  and  much  more  in  the 
Perpendicular.  There  are  what  seem  to  be  curious  supports  for  a 
rood-loft. 

April  13.  Snow  fell  on  the  Downs  in  the  night,  and  lay  there 
all  the  day. 

April  24.     Commenced  lectures. 

May  29.  Concluded  my  lectures,  after  the  latest  season  that  I 
can  remember.  I  had  much  difficulty  in  obtaining  specimens  for 
demonstration,  and  got  very  few  for  the  schedules. 

June  14.  We  went  to  "The  Old  Hall,"  near  Settle.  Here  we 
are  about  750  feet  above  Cambridge. 

Jtme  1 7.  Found  Myrrhis  odorata  by  the  road  side :  Campanula 
latifolia  appears  to  be  abundant,  although  of  course  not  in  flower 
...  in  Borris  Wood  found  Paris  quadrifolia. 

Jtme  18.  We  drove  by  way  of  Little  Stainforth  to  Swarth 
Moor,  then  crossed  the  river  at  Helwith  Bridge,  and  returned  by 
Great  Stainforth,  Langcliff'e,  and  Settle.  Between  Sherwood  House 
and  Stainforth  we  saw  abundance  of  Geranium  sylvaticum  in  the 
hayfields  on  both  sides  of  the  road.  It  was  a  most  interesting 
drive ;  the  mountains  clear  and  fine. 

June  20.  We  took  a  carriage  to  visit  Clapham.  Went  to  the 
Ingleborough  Cave,  going  by  a  very  pretty  path  through  the 
grounds  of  the  Hall,  above  the  lake.  We  passed  the  cave  without 
notice,  and  went  on  through  the  ravine  nearly  as  far  as  Hurnel 
Moss.  On  returning  we  found  the  cave,  which  is  interesting  from 
the  stalactites. 

June  30.  We  drove  to  Ingleton.  Then  up  the  dale  to  Weather- 
cote  and  Chapel-le-Dale. 

July  4.     Home. 

July  15.     Newbould  came  to  us. 

July  16.  Newbould  and  I  had  a  long  walk  to  Cherry  Hinton 
and  the  Gogs. 

July  31.  The  cold  season  continued  until  the  beginning  of  this 
week,  when  warm  days  commenced.  There  has  been  no  real  spring 
this  year,  but  continual  wet  and  cold  weather. 


1879]  JOURNAL— FLOOD  AT  CAMBRIDGE.  227 

Aug.  3.  Sunday.  There  was  an  exceedingly  severe  thunder- 
storm in  the  preceding  night,  from  1 — 4  o'clock.  Our  kitchen  was 
flooded,  also  very  many  houses  in  the  town.  The  way  to  Newnham 
was  stopped.  A  torrent  came  down  the  Madingley  Eoad,  and 
flooded  St.  John's  walks  almost  up  to  the  front  of  the  New  Court. 
3  and  1-1 0th  inches  of  rain  fell,  and  much  hail,  but  very  little  glass 
was  broken.  There  had  been  no  such  storm  since  Aug.  9,  1843 ;  but 
that  was  more  destructive  of  glass.  This  storm  flooded  the  lower 
part  of  the  Botanic  Garden. 

Aug.  19.     To  Rowsley  ("  Peacock  "  Inn). 

Aug.  20.  To  Haddon  Hall  in  the  morning,  where  we  saw, 
what  does  not  seem  to  be  noticed  in  the  guide  books,  that  both  the 
slabs  in  the  chapel  have  the  crosses  of  consecration  upon  them.  To 
Chatsworth,  saw  the  interior  well. 

Aug.  21.  We  drove  to  Youlgrave,  and  saw  the  church.  It  has 
a  stoup,  projecting  from  the  side  of  an  old,  perhaps  Norman,  font. 
Then  by  Cold-well-end  to  Arberlow,  which  is  a  fine  circle  of  about 
thirty  stones  within  a  high  bank  and  ditch.  All  the  stones  have 
fallen,  and  lie  in  their  places.  There  are  some,  perhaps  the  remains 
of  a  cromlech,  in  the  centre. 

Aug.  22.  We  drove  in  the  morning  to  Matlock  Bath,  visiting 
Darley  Church  by  the  way,  to  see  the  ancient  tombstones  in  the 
porch,  and  very  large  yew  tree  in  the  churchyard.  We  greatly 
admired  the  cliffs  and  woods  in  the  valley.  We  then  drove  to 
Dethick,  to  see  the  remains  of  the  old  house  of  the  Babingtons,  of 
which  there  is  very  little  left.  We  went  by  Cromford,  and  returned 
by  Dethick  Moor  and  Tansley  to  Matlock.  We  then  drove  to 
Ashover,  to  see  the  Babington  tomb  in  the  church.  It  is  in  very 
good  condition,  and  well  preserved. 

Aug.  23.  We  went  to  Buxton,  and  saw  a  little  of  the  place. 
Then  returned  to  Bakewell,  and  visited  the  church  with  its  fine 
monuments,  and  early  sculptured  stones.  We  greatly  admired  the 
upper  valley. 

Aug.  25.  To  Welshpool,  to  commence  Cambrian  Archaeological 
Meeting. 

Aug.  30.  I  went  to  Montgomery,  and  had  lunch  with  Lord 
Powis.  In  the  evening  went  with  the  Rev.  R.  Trevor  Owen  to  his 
vicarage  at  Llangedwyn,  near  Oswestry.  Just  after  leaving  the 
station  at  Llansaintffraid,  we  met  with  a  serious  accident,  by  the 
horse  taking  fright,  and  breaking  the  shafts,  and  throwing  us  all 
out.  No  one  was  much  hurt,  providentially.  Our  companions 
were  Mr.  R.  Hartland  and  Mr.  G.  Robinson. 

Aug.  31.  Sunday.  At  Llangedwyn  Church.  Quiet  dinner  at 
Lady  Wynn's  afterwards. 


228  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1879 

Sept.  1.  We  went  to  see  two  standing  stones,  one  about  14  feet 
high  ;  the  church  at  Llan  Rhaidr-yn-Mochnant,  where  we  found 
a  sculptured  stone  in  the  wall  ;  then  on  to  Llangynnog,  where  we 
ascended  Craig  Rhiwarth,  to  see  some  hut  circles  and  walls.  {See 
"  Archaeologia  Cambrensis,"  1880,  p.  25.) 

Sept.  2.  To  Llan  Rhaidr  again,  and  to  the  fine  fall  of  Pistil 
Rhaidr,  and  the  circle  and  avenue  of  stones  on  the  moor,  above 
the  fall,  called  Rhos-y-Beddhu. 

Sept.  4.  To  the  "  Old  Hall,"  Settle.  Stackhouse  is  about  550 
feet  above  the  sea,  and  the  hill  about  975  feet. 

Sept.  10.  We  went  by  train  to  Hawes  Junction,  and  then  down 
Wensleydale  to  Leyburn.  Then  drove  to  Jervaulx  Abbey.  This 
is  a  small  place,  but  cleaned  out,  and  kept  in  excellent  order,  with 
much  standing.  Then  to  Middleham  Castle  :  a  magnificent  square 
tower  of  great  size,  surrounded  by  a  high  wall  with  buildings  on  its 
inner  side ;  leaving  a  comparatively  narrow  space  between  them 
and  the  great  tower.  The  tower  is  divided  into  two  spaces  by  a 
very  thick  wall,  and  the  rooms  in  its  upper  part  were  very  fine.  It 
is  well  kept  now. 

Sept.  11.  Before  breakfast  I  went  to  the  "Shawl,"  a  walk  along 
the  edge  of  a  high  wooded  cliff  for  more  than  a  mile,  commanding 
a  very  beautiful  view.  We  drove  to  Wensley  to  see  the  church. 
In  addition  to  the  brass  to  the  memory  of  a  former  rector,  there  is 
a  slab  with  two  figures  of  members  of  the  Scrope  family,  in  slight 
relief,  well  worthy  of  notice.  Then  to  Bolton  Castle,  built  in  the 
reio-n  of  Richard  II.,  more  a  defensible  residence  than  a  true  castle, 
although  verj^  strong.  .  .  .  Visited  Hardraw  Force,  which  was  a  fall 
of  100  feet  quite  clear  of  the  rock.  By  train  to  Settle,  then  Stack- 
house. 

Sept.  18.  I  went  to  the  top  of  High  Scar;  also  examined  a 
large  "  tumidus"  by  the  Feizor  track.  It  seems  rather  to  have  been 
an  oblong  rather  square-ended  space  walled,  with  perhaps  a  cromlech 
in  the  middle.  But  this  is  doubtful,  as  all  is  very  much  ruined,  and 
pulled  about. 

Sept.  29.     To  Cambridge. 

Oct.  17.  Attended  the  laying  of  the  corner-stone  of  Ridley  Hall 
by  Bishop  Perry,  and  a  luncheon  afterwards. 

Nov.  10.  Professor  Clerk  Maxwell's  funeral,  in  part  at  Trinity 
College. 

Nov.  23.  On  my  birthday  I  am  thankful  to  record  how  merciful 
God  has  been  to  me  in  preserving  me  in  health  and  strength  to  this 
day.     Assist  me,  0  Lord,  to  do  my  duty  better  in  time  to  come. 

Nov.  29.     Hard  frost. 


1879—80]      JOURNAL— BRITISH  MEDICAL  ASSOCIATION.  229 

Dec.  2.  Temperature  this  morning  15°  Fahr.  Continued  hard 
frost.     Heavy  fall  of  snow  in  the  evening. 

Dec.  5.     Therm.  20°. 

Dec.  7.  Therm.  2°  on  the  morning  of  this  day.  It  was  only  4° 
at  10  a.m.  outside  our  house.  Below  zero  in  several  spots  near  the 
town. 

Dec.  13.     A  slow  thaw  commenced.     Bar.  as  high  as  30*7. 

1880.  April  12.  Commenced  lectures.  The  most  backward 
season  that  I  remember. 

June  12.     To  Rowsley. 

June  15.  We  took  a  carriage  for  the  day,  and  went  through 
Bakewell  and  Ashford  to  Monsal  Dale,  and  through  it  and  Millar's 
Dale :  both  exceedingly  beautiful,  as  is  also  Cressbrooke  Dale, 
branching  from  them.  Returned  by  way  of  Taddington  ...  to 
Bakewell. 

June  18.  Drove  through  Chatsworth  Park,  Baslow,  Calver,  to 
Stoney  Middleton,  through  the  fine  valley  of  cliffs  to  Eyam,  where 
we  saw  the  memorials  of  the  Plague  in  1666,  including  the  preach- 
ing place  in  the  rocks,  and  the  graves  in  the  fields.  .  .  A  magnificent 
country. 

June  21.  I  walked  to  Stanton  Moor,  going  by  way  of  Pilhough, 
where  I  saw  the  Nine  Ladies'  Circle,  the  King  Stone,  and  the  Gorse 
Stone. 

June  22.     To  London  to  attend  the  Mildmay  Conference. 

June  23 — 25.     The  Conference.     Very  interesting. 

Aug.  10.  The  British  Medical  Association  Meeting  here  com- 
menced. 

Aug.  12.  Breakfasted  by  invitation  with  a  large  party  of  the 
doctors  to  discuss  the  Temperance  question.  The  invitation  came 
from  Mr.  Samuel  Bowly,  President  of  the  National  Temperance 
League. 

Aug.  13.  Conclusion  of  the  Meeting.  A  large  garden  party  in 
King's  Gardens,  given  by  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Humphry. 

Aug.  23.  To  Pembroke,  for  the  Meeting  of  the  Cambrian 
Archaeological  Association. 

Aug.  24.     The  town  and  Tenby. 

Aug.  25.  Castlemartin  and  the  south  coast,  and  Stackpole  Court, 
and  British  settlement  on  the  Warren  there. 

Aug.  26.     To  Carew  and  Manorbier. 

Aug.  28.     Llandudno. 


230  CHARLES  CARDALE  BABINGTON.  [1880 

Avg.  31.  Went  by  rail  to  Holyhead,  being  joined  at  Bangor  by 
Mr.  J.  E.  Griffith  and  A.  G.  More.  We  then  took  a  car  to  near  the 
South  Stack.  We  descended  nearly  to  the  shore  at  Yr-hen-borth, 
and  found  Cineraria  campestris — triaritima  in  tolerable  plenty  on  the 
turf  on  the  south  side — amongst  the  rocks  on  the  descent.  We  then 
went  on  to  near  the  descent  to  the  lighthouse,  and  there  on  the  right 
hand  found  Helianthemum  Breweri  and  Scilla  verna.  These  and  the 
Cineraria  were  of  course  out  of  flower.  Back  by  rail  to  Gaerwen 
Junction  and  Llanerchymedd,  from  whence  we  drove  to  Penrhos- 
Lligwy,  and  found  in  the  brook,  both  above  and  below  the  bridge 
over  the  river  Lligvvy-Rhos,  Fotamogeton  lanceolahcs  (Sm.)  in  plenty, 
but  only  just  in  flower.  Then  returned  to  Bangor  and  Llandudno 
after  a  most  successful  expedition. 

Sept.  1 ,  A.  G.  More  and  his  sister  came  to  see  us ;  also  Mr.  GriflBth. 
Afterwards  More,  Griffith,  and  I  went  on  to  the  Head,  and  saw  Hypo- 
chaeris  maculata,  Chrysocoma,  Cotoneaster,  etc.  The  latter  much  further 
from  the  town  than  where  I  formerly  saw  it. 

Sept.  2.     To  Colwyn  Bay  Hotel. 

Sept.  3.  We  went  to  Abergele  ;  saw  the  church  and  tomb  in  the 
yard,  of  the  victims  of  the  well-known  burning  of  a  railway  train. 
Walked  to  the  upper  lodge  of  Castell  Gwrych.  I  then  went  to  the 
old  Castell  on  the  top  of  the  wooded  hill,  finding  my  way  there  with 
some  difficulty,  and  my  return  with  more.  It  is  encumbered  with 
trees  and  vegetation,  but  seems  of  much  interest,  having  apparently 
dry-stone  walls,  an  approach  on  the  north-west  by  flights  of  steps, 
at  least  fifty  in  number,  and  a  curious  wall  across  a  ravine.  There 
seems  to  have  been  also  a  fortified  entrance  on  the  west  side  which 
I  had  not  time  carefully  to  examine. 

Sept.  7.  I  went  to  Capel  St.  Trillo  by  the  shore ;  a  small  ruin 
covering  a  spring. 

Sept.  9.  To  Llandulas.  Walked  to  Gorddyn  Mawr,  ascending 
it  from  the  farm,  then  over  the  hill  to  Abergele. 

Sept.  10.     To  Bryn  Eurion.     Walked  to  the  top. 

Sept.  13.     To  Church  Stretton. 

Sept.  17.  We  drove  to  Stokesay  Castle,  and  examined  it 
thoroughly.  The  tower  appears  to  be  Early  English,  and  the  hall 
a  late  form  of  same  style,  both  very  beautiful.  The  additions,  of 
which  much  is  wood,  are  probably  Elizabethan.  The  upper  rooms 
at  the  end  of  the  hall  are  singularly  projected  over  the  early  walls, 
so  as  to  make  larger  rooms  than  could  have  been  there  originally. 
The  gate-house  is  a  beautiful  example  of  black  and  white  work. 

Sept.  20.  We  went  to  Ludlow,  and  went  all  over  the  house 
where  my  parents  lived,  and  I  was  born,  now  a  school,  kept  by 
Mrs.  Crawiord  Watson,  and  called  Castle  Lodge.  We  also  went  to 
the  castle  and  church. 


1880—81]      JOURNAL— SHROPSHIRE,   RIDLEY   HALL,  Etc.  231 

Sept.  21.  I  called  upon  Mr.  Witting,  the  surgeon,  about  the 
Cambrian  Archaeological  Meeting  of  next  year,  and  met  there  the 
Rev.  C.  Noel-Hill,  the  rector.  They  both  agreed  to  do  all  that  they 
could  to  promote  its  objects.  I  then  went  to  Brockhurst  Castle, 
where  there  are  the  foundations  alone  remaining,  as  shewn  in  the 
Ordnance  map. 

Sept.  23.  We  went  by  train  to  Craven  Arms  and  Much  Wenlock, 
where  we  were  kindly  admitted  to  see  the  house  formed  out  of  the 
domestic  building  of  the  abbey  (said  to  be  the  prior's  lodgings). 
They  have  been  very  little  altered,  and  even  the  old  doors  and 
shutters  remain  in  use.  There  is  a  beautiful  corridor  along  the 
front  giving  access  to  the  rooms.  The  remains  of  the  church  and 
chapter-house  are  very  fine.  We  also  saw  the  fine  carved  chairs, 
etc.,  in  the  town  hall.  We  then  went  by  train  to  Buildwas,  and 
saw  the  remains  of  the  abbey. 

Se